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"History is Philosophy Teaching by Examples" 



liEDRGE Richmond. Pres. C. R. Arnold. Sec'y and Treas. 






I UK aim of the publishers of this volume and of the author o£ the 
history has been to secure for the historical portion thereof 
full and accurate data respecting the history of the county from 
the earliest times, and to condense it into a clear and interesting 
narrative. All topics and occurrences have been included that 
were essential to this object. Although the original purpose was to 
limit the narrative to the close of 1906. it was found expedient to touch on many 
matters relating to the year 1907. 

It is impossible for the editor to enumerate all those to whom he feels that 
thanks are due for assistance rendered and kindly interest taken in this work. He 
would, however, mention Hon. J. A. Kohler, Dr. Samuel Findley, and Aaron Teeple, 
Esq., among others, as those to whom he feels under special obligations. 

In the preparation of the history reference has been made to, and in some cases 
extracts taken from, standard historical and other works on different subjects herein 
treated of. Much information has also been obtained from manuscript records not 
heretofore published. 

The reviews of resolute and strenuous lives which make up the biographical 
department of this volume, and whose authorship is for the most part independent 
of that of the history, are admirably calculated to foster local ties, to inculcate 
patriotism, and to emphasize the rewards of industry dominated by intelligent pur- 
pose. They constitute a most appropriate medium of perpetuating personal annals, 
and will be of incalculable value to the descendants of those commemorated. These 
sketches, replete with stirring incidents and intense experiences, are flavored with a 
strong human interest that will naturally prove to a large portion of the readers of 
this book its most attractive feature. 

In the aggregate of personal memoirs thus coUated will be found a vivid epitome 
of the growth of Summit County, which will fitly supplement the historical statement, 
for the development is identified with that of the men and women to whom it is attrib- 
utable. The publishers have endeavored to pass over no feature of the work slight- 
ingly, but to fittingly supplement the editor's labors by exercising care over the 
minutest details of publication, and thus give to the volume the three-fold value of a 
readable narrative, a useful work of reference, and a tasteful ornament to the library. 
We believe the result has justified the care thus exercised. 

Special prominence has been given to the portraits of representative citizens 
which appear throughout the volume, and we believe that they will prove not its least 
interesting feature. We have sought in this department to illustrate the different 
spheres of industrial and professional achievement as conspicuously as possible. To 
all those who have kindly interested themselves in the successful preparation of this 
work, and who have voluntarily contributed most useful information and data, or 
rendered other assistance, we hereby tender our grateful acknowledgments. 


Chicago, III., January, 1908. 


All the biographical sketches published in this volume were 
submitted to their respective subjects or to the subscribers, from 
whom the facts were primarily obtained, for their approval or cor- 
rection before going to press; and a reasonable time was allowed in 
each case for the return of the typewritten copies. Mo'^t of them 
were returned to us within the time allotted, or before the work was 
printed, after being corrected or revised; and these may therefore be 
regarded as reasonably accurate. 

A few, however, were not returned to us ; and as we have no 
means of knowing whether they contain errors or not, we cannot 
vouch for their accuracy. In justice to our readers, and to render 
this work more valuable for reference purposes, we have indicated 
these uncorrected sketches by a small asterisk (*), placed imme- 
diately after the name of the subject. They will all be found on 
the last pages of the book. 




Topography axd Geology oj 

Description of the Physical Features of the County — Its Economic Geology — The Soil; Its Drainage and 
Fertility — Coal — Gas — Oil. 


Settlement and Organization of Summit County 29 

Pioneer Conditions— Indian Trading— Wild Game— Home-Made Garments— Pioneer Hospitality— Social 
Amusements — First Published Description of Summit County — Making of Summit County — Western 
Reserve— Organization of the County— County Scat Selected — County Seat Contests— Adams' Reception- 
Territorial Changes. 


County and Other Owici als 47 

A Roster of Officials from the Organization of the County Down to 1907. 


Akron — The County Se.\t 56 

Introductory — Economic Causes and Growth of Akron — Its Settlement and History — Public Improvements — 
Akron an Incorporated Town — City Government — Mercantile Akron — Fire and Police Departments — Riot 
of 1900 — .\ftermath of the Riot. 


Townships and Towns 101 

Settlement and Organization of the Townships — Settlement and Founding of the Towns — Sketches of 
Barberton, Cuyahoga Fall,?, Hudson, Tallmadge, Peninsula, Etc. 

Public Institutions 1-3 

Agriculture '30 


Transportation Facilities HO 

Steam and Electric Railroads— The Ohio Canal— The Ohio and I'eniisv l\ ani.i Canal. 



Manufactures 147 

The County's Chief Manufacturing Establishments of the Past and of the Present — Clay Products — 
Cereal Mills — Agricultural Implements — The Rubber Industry — Printing and Publishing. Etc. 


Banks and Banking 168 

History of the Banks of Summit County — Banks Inadequate — Akron's Financial Reputation — Akron a 
Large Borrower — Panic of 1904 — Clearing House Statement — Future Prosperity Certain. 

The Public Schools 173 

History of Buchtel College 202 


Religious Development 219 

First Churches and Pioneer Clergy — General History of Religious Organizations — Churches and Clergy 
of To-day. 

The Press 224 


Greatness Achieved by Sum mit County Sons 231 

John Brown — Edward Rowland Sill. 


Military History 239 

Revolutionary War — War of 1S12 — Mexican War — War of the Rebellion — Militia Organizations — Spanish- 
American War. 

Fraternal Organizations 247 

The Medical Profession 253 


The Bench and Bar 261 

Early History —The Present Bar and Its High Standing. 


Statistics : 319 

Biographical 303 




Abele, John 970 

Adams, F. H 1112 

Adams, Francis X., M.D 916 

Adamson, A 393 

Adamson, C. F 964 

Adler, Jacob 394 

Akers, Alfred 495 

Akers, Charles E 3SU 

Alexander, Hon. J. Park.... 361 

Allen, I. F 598 

Allen, Albert 764 

Allen, Andrew H 805 

Allen, Arthur M 408 

Allen, George G 318 

Allen, Jesse 391 

Allen, Miner Jesse 391 

Allen, Levi 391 

Allen, Levi 678 

Allen, Robert II 408 

Allen. W. G 633 

Ailing. Williston 450 

Ammerman. Lharles 297 

Andress, H. E 285 

Andrews, J. H 518 

Armstrong, R. E 336 

Arnold, John D 543 

Atterholt, Frank M 267 

Auble, A., Jr 980 

Aultman Brothers 851 

Aultman, George W 851 

Aultman, William J 851 

Averill, Frank E 605 

Avcrill. William F 758 

Babb, George W 622 

Babcock, Austin 681 

Bachtel, A. C 505 

Baird, Charles 270 

Baldwin, Harvey 347 

Baldwin. Joseph A 386 

Bales, Frank S 953 

Barber, George 765 

Barber, Ohio C 765 

Barder, B. R .' 410 

Barker, Jared : 637 

Barker, Lanson 618 

Barker, William 618 

Barker, William P 534 


Barnett. William 335 

Bartges, Dr. Samuel W 255 

Bartlett, John S 1110 

Bates, George D 358 

Bauer, Daniel 1063 

Bauer, Frederick J., ALD.... 579 

Bauer, Howard A 550 

Bauer, Jonas 675 

Bauer, Joseph D 1062 

Bauer, William D 1061 

Baughman, John 701 

Baughman, Reuben B 701 

Baum Family 1067 

Baum. James M 1068 

Baum, O. W 501 

Baum, Thomas 1067 

Beardsley, Talman 594 

Beck, J. Martin 407 

Beese, John 961 

Bennage, A. W 833 

Bennage, Jacob 995 

Bennage, Jacob W 994 

Benner, Charles C 275 

Benner, Joseph S 406 

Berger, Capt. D. F 938 

Berger, John H 933 

Bernard, Charles B 266 

Betzler, J. F 577 

Bierce, Lucius V 831 

Bierce, Gen. Lucius V 263 

Bienz. Peter 400 

Bill, Albert H., M.D 1036 

Billow. Capt. George 339 

Billow, George V 1114 

Bisbee, George A 643 

Bishop, Charles E 888 

Bishop, George T 861 

Bishop, Zephaniah 88t> 

Blackburn, Harry F 76S 

Blackburn, John 976 

Blackburn, Thomas 863 

Blackburn, William 076 

Blackwell, Henry 1006 

Blessman. August 1047 

Bliler, Daniel 990 

Bliler, Joel 990 

Bliler, William H. 990 

Bliss. Ambrose W 717 


Bliss, George 263 

Bliss, Lorin 717 

Bloomfield. Col. John C 405 

Boesche, W. A 341 

Bolanz, H. Frederick 932 

Boltz, Charles 864 

Boltz, Peter W 864 

Borst, C. H 371 

Botzum, Capt. Adam 836 

Botzum, George A 734 

Bouton, Charles 768 

Bowen, Dr. William 255 

Bower. William H 474 

Boyd. James P., M.D 986 

Bradley, Charles 3S6 

Bradley, George H 945 

Bradley, James 944 

Brady, John W 673 

Brandau, H. G 335 

Braucher, Daniel R 753 

Breen, James P 756 

Breitenstine. John 949 

Brewster, Albert J 995 

Brewster Familv 419 

Brewster, Haye's W 348 

Brewster, Hiram 348 

Brewster, James G 349, 430 

Brewster, Stephen 349, 419 

Briggs, C. Lee 584 

Brittain, John 654 

Brittain, John G 663 

Brittain, John T 654 

Brooks, Andrew T 501 

Broun, James W 757 

Broun, Rev. John B 521 

Brouse, Cornelius A 406 

Brown, Josiah 737 

Bruner, C. 1 506 

Brunswick, William F 500 

Bryan, Constant 366 

Buchtel, John 996 

Buchtel, Hon. William 398 

Buetch. Ernest C 954 

Burkhardt, G. F 402 

Burroughs, Allen 64* 

Burroughs, Levi 644 

Butler, Frank 834 

Butler, F. W 1006 




Calu.w, Danic-l H 105+ 

Cahow, -Milo «S4 

Cahow, Robert 0S4 

Caldwell, Abncr L S47 

Call, Charles A 054 

Camp, Horace B -^lO 

Camp, H. H 518 

Camp, L. W b*^ 

Campbell, John B 8^4 

Campbell, J. R 909 

Campfield, William L 449 

Canfield, Horace G ''78 

Capron, Alfred 521 

Carkhuff, Stacy G 483 

Carmany, Isaac 5SG 

Carmanv, Webster F 586 

Carpenter, Abraham o3o 

Carpenter, A. Lincoln 633 

Carpenter, James S 263 

Carper, George 615 

Carper, Samuel S 61-> 

Carr, Charles B., M.D IIOS 

Carter, Charles A 96(' 

Carter, Edwin H 550 

Carter, Joseph B S95 

Carter. William 966 

Case, James H 1059 

Cassidy, Frank D 3iti 

Castle, H. F 298 

Castle, L. D ^01 

Chaffee, Comfort J 551 

Chalker, James, Jr 1091 

Chalker, Newton 300, 1090 

Chamberlain, William 1 937 

Chamberlin, Horace 798 

Chamberlin, Z. F '!'98 

Chapman, C. l' 1035 

Chapman, John 667 

Chapman, John L 666 

Chase, Dr. Byron S 255 

Christy, James 430 

Christy, Will 523 

Church, Rev. A. B 569 

Clapper, Jacob 616 

Clapper, John VV 616 

Clark, Benjamin F 796 

Cleaver, J. V., M.D 653 

Clerkin, William 965 

Click, Samuel A 943 

Coates, Edward SOS 

Cobbs, Charles S 293 

Coburn. Dr. Stephen H 254 

Cochrane, Harry A "i't 

Coffman, Matthias 935 

Cofifman, Samuel 935 

Cole, Dr. Arthur M .523 

Cole, Dr. Joseph 254 

Columbia Chemical Company 590 

Commins, Alexander H 28S 

Commins, Alexander H 516 

Comstock, Allen 1035 

Comstock, John L 1035 

Conaghan, C. Charles 556 

Conaghan, Charles C 556 

Conger, Col. Arthur L 495 

Conn, Hon. Eli 701 

Converse, Chauncey •. . 472 


Converse, I'rank J 472 

Conway, James 1001 

Conway, Michael 1001 

Cooke, F. M 1085 

Cooke. Joseph 430 

Cooper, Joseph 583 

Cooper, Samuel 527 

Cooper, WiUiam 469 

Cormany, Frank 914 

Courtney, Joseph 461 

Cpwen, Jsaac Sheldon 453 

Cowen. John 453 

Cowling, George H 586 

Cox, Edward D 1103 

Cranz, Eugene F 1016 

Crisp, George 741 

Crisp, John 712 

Crisp, John and Son 1068 

Crosby, Dr. Eliakim 253 

Cross, James B 643 

Crouse, Hon. George W 353 

Crumb, Clarence D 617 

Cunningham, Sylvester T 445 

Dallmga. Jacob 746 

Dallinga, Richard J 746 

Dangel. Joseph 609 

Davidson, Harry S., M.D 443 

Davidson, J. M 577 

Davis, Hon. Charles A 558 

Davis. George S 378 

Day, E. S 813 

Deacon, Horace L 865 

Decker, Seney A 273 

Deeds, Philip F 1060 

Deeds, Reed 1060 

Deibel, Ernest C 441 

Dellenberger. John H 379 

Dice. Jeremiah 782 

Dice. John F 1113 

Dice, William A 783 

Dick, Gen. Charles 1077 

Dickinson, Alexander 1003 

Dickinson. George W 1003 

Diehl. Clarence E 1084 

Dietrich. A. J . . . .' 638 

Dictz, G. Carl 445 

Dixon, Charles A.. M.D.... 797 

Dobson. Russell T 726 

Dodge, Burdettt L 984 

Dodge. William M 268 

Donaldson, G. C 803 

Doncaster, Burt 865 

Dox, Clinton A 415 

Dox, James Alonzo 414 

Doyle. Hon. Dayton A 318 

Doyle, Peter W 1074 

Doyle. Hon. William B 276 

Dreisbach. Charles 544 

]:)rcisbach. George 544 

Duncan, Adam 880 

Duncan, R. H 880 

Durstine, Albert G 7S5 

Ebright. Hon. Leonidas S... 369 
Edgerton, Hon. Sidney 365 


Ellsworth, Fred T 40U 

Emerman, H. J 834 

Emery, William J., M.D 333 

Emmett, J. Ira 715 

Enright, J. T 491 

Essig, John A 876 

Essig. John W 876 

Etling, William E 566 

Ewart. Charles C 693 

Ewart. John 093 

Ewart. John 524 

Ewart, Perry G 524 

Farnbauch. J. S 748 

Farris, William J 928 

Fenn, Florenzo F 1033 

Fenn, Nelson W 653 

Fenn, Treat 632 

Fenton, Almus 621 

Fenton, Curtis 621 

Fergusson, David R 733 

Fergusson, Dr. J. C 621 

Fette, Albert 956 

Feudner, J. J 516 

Fillius, Hon. Ernest L 1105 

Fillius, Philip 1105 

Firestone, Harvey S 333 

Firestone. T. L 816 

Fisher, Cornelius 429 

Fisher, James Albert 439 

Fisher, John T 831 

Fitch, Willard N 1113 

Flower, James T SSI 

Folger, Walter A 953 

Foltz, Abner E 1071 

Force, L. K 543 

Foster, Coulson M 868 

Foster Family 1031 

Foster, Edwin F 999 

Foster, L. R 1031 

Foster, Lyman 1031 

Foster, Pardon 999 

Foster. Tod C 999 

Fouse. Frederick 896 

Fouse. John M 895 

Foust, George W 1084 

Fowler, Clyde K 433 

Fowler, Seymour S 432 

Frain, C. P 406 

Frank, John C. 278 

Frank. John W 773 

Frank. Julius 1103 

Franklin, C. F 553 

Franklin, Walter A 333 

Frase, John 334 

Erase, John A 600 

Frase, Noah 600 

Frase, Orrin 6S6 

Frase, Peter M 334 

Frederick, Henry 335 

Frederick, Jacob 336 

Frederick, Jacob 10S9 

Frederick, Samuel 1089 

Frederick, U. G 357 

Fritch, Elue 441 

Fryman, Joel 903 

Fryman, Wiliam Jacob...... 903 




Fuclis. F. William 477 

Fulmer, Adam J 72.) 

Fiilmer, Jacob Sf)4 

Fulmer, Kent A 864 

Gammeter, Emil 993 

Gardner, G. E S74 

Garman, Benjamin 843 

Garman, Jerry J 878 

Garman, Jacob 87S 

Garman, Urias 842 

Gates, Henry 548 

Gates, Robert C 548 

Gault, Elmer A 691 

Gauthier, John W 754 

Gaylord, Charles X 801 

Gaylord, Jonathan 801 

Gaylord, Leonard E 934 

Gehree, J. A . . ^ 676 

Gibbs, Henry A 875 

Gibbs, H. H 875 

Gifford, B. J 545 

Goldsmith, Solomon M 514 

Gonder, Gregory J 702 

Good, J. Edward 946 

Goodhue, Hon. Nathaniel VV. 265 

Goodman, F. B 7S5 

Goodrich, Dr. Benjamin p.. 1009 

Goodrich, Charles C 1010 

Gougler, Ami C S77 

Gougler, Calvin 515 

Gougler, Daniel 515 

Gougler, Soweras 1111 

Grafton, George P 327 

Grant, Hon. C. R 314 

Greenbaum, A. b 673 

Green, E. P 267 

Greenberger, X. M 287 

Grether, George 1041 

Grill, John 787 

Grill, John 787 

Grose, Emsley 754 

Grubb, Earl James 793 

Hague, William R 706 

Hale, Andrew 463 

Hale, Hon. Charles 993 

Hale, John P 463 

Hale, Jonathan 847 

Hale, Thomas 655 

Hall, Philander D 747 

Hall, Philander D.. Jr 904 

Hall, Lorenzo 747 

Halter, Lawrence 763 

Hamlin. Ray F 284 

Hammond, Rolland 268 

Hanawalt, D. R 358 

Hankey, David 506 

Hankey, John F 735 

Hankey, Samuel 506 

Hankey, Samuel 735 

Hanson, Charles E 824 

Hanson, Richard 824 

Harbaugh, B. F 798 

Hardy, Charles D 8S6 

Hardy, Xathaniel 1108 

Hardy. Xorton R SS6 


Hardy, Perry D 1108 

Hagelbarger, Henry M 304 

Haring, Charles A 527 

Haring, Daniel 527 

Haring, Louis 876 

Haring, Samuel 876 

Harold, Harry W 814 

Harpham, Fred M 499 

Harpham, William 499 

Harrington, Albert C 973 

Harrington, Frederick L.... 974 
Harrington, Capt. Gurden P. 887 

Harrington, Job 973 

Hart, Benjamin 657 

Hart, George W 593 

Hart, Ira L 703 

Hart, Col. John C 593 

Harter, Daniel 415 

Harter, Jeremiah 647 

Harter, Jesse 620 

Harter, John 647 

Harter, Oliver ". . 647 

Harter, Otto N 851 

Hatch, Charles 53D 

Haupt, Howard W 605 

Haupt, William F 778 

Haver, William H 415 

Hawk Daniel 646 

Hawk, Philip 647 

Hawk, Michael 574 

Hawkins, A. Wesley 431 

Hawkins, Eber 1101 

Hawkins, Eugene A 903 

Hawkins, George W 963 

Hawkins, J. Horace 493 

Hawkins, Nelson C 431 

Hays, K. H 333 

Heer, George 1107 

Heintz, George 891 

Heintz, George P 540 

Heintz, Philip J 867 

Held, Charles E., M.D 757 

Heifer, George H 1106 

Heifer, William 1107 

Heller, Charles P 1065 

Helmstedter, George 393 

Heminger, M. C 975 

Hemington, J. F 1002 

Hemphill, James R 326 

Henry, Albert R 704 

Henry, Charles 513 

Henry, Hiram C 656 

Herberich, Charles 432 

Herbruck, John C 960 

Herbruck. Philip 960 

Herman, Jacob 618 

Hess, Rosseau 05S 

Hiddleson, C. S., -M.D 632 

High, U. G 631 

Hill, Brace P 706 

Hill, David E 1062 

Hill, George R 1068 

Hill, Joseph 931 

Hill, Joseph C 464 

Hiltabidle, Capt. W. iL...10,-.6 

Himelright, Alton 962 

Himelright. Jacob 902 


Hine, H. A 429 

Hitchcock, Dr. Elizur 355 

Hoertz, John M 651 

Hoffman, Allen F 1077 

Hoffman, Benjamin F 632 

Hoffman, George P 1006 

Hoffman, Philip 632 

Holibaugh, Daniel 848 

Hollinger, David D . . '. 990 

Hollinger, Jacob 991 

Hollinger, Walter C 674 

Holub, Max 399 

Holzhauer, Lewis 979 

Hopkins, Roswell 677 

Horn, James W 965 

Horn. Stephen h 963 

Horn, Stephen j 963 

Horner, La Fayette H 959 

Hough, Wayland S., M.D... 994 

Houriet. Floriant 1037 

Houriet, Ulysses' 1037 

Housel, Ernest C' 270 

Howard, Dr. Elias W 254 

Howe, Henry W 369 

Howe, Henrv Willett 1030 

Howe, Richard 1031 

Hower, Harvey Y 414 

Hower, John H 413 

Hower. Milton Otis 692 

Howland, Clarence 725 

Hoye, Michael W 491 

Huber, P. C 1102 

Huddilston, Adam 458 

Humphrey, Calvin P 267 

Humphrey, C. M., M.D 991 

Humphrey, Van R 262 

Hunsicker, Fred 763 

Hunsicker, Horace 765 

Hunsicker, John Jacob 763 

Hunt, W. H 651 

Hyde, J. Grant 388 

Ingersull, Henry W 26S 

Innian, Charles T 4S4 

Inwood, W. A 423 

Iredell, R. S. 753 

Irish, William P 939 

Jacobs, Hon. Thomas K.... 377 
Jacobs, William Cloyd, M.D. 377. 

Jacobs, Dr. William C 35S 

Jahant, A. P 881 

Jaite, Charles H 463 

Jaquith, Charles W 1048 

Jaquith, William Henry 1048 

Jewett, Dr. Mendal 254 

Jockers, William A 995 

Johnson, Charles S 530 

Johnston, Cornelius A 625 

Johnston, John Moore 969 

Johnston, Wiliam 625 

Jones, Gomar 976 

Tones. John D 975 

Joy, Harold E 754 

Kasch. G. F 343 

Kauffman, John 1083 




Kauffman, L. M 1083 

Kauffnian, William 108j 

Keenan, W. C 73S 

Keller Brick Company 807 

Keller, William F 807 

Keller, W. L., M.D 763 

Kemery, John 860 

Kempel, C. A 885 

Kempel, Hon. Charles W...1103 

Kempel, John A 756 

Kendall, Joseph 844 

Kendig, D. W 842 

Kent, Roswell 1033 

Kent, Russell H 1032 

Kepler, Adam 985 

Kepler, Houston 509 

Kepler, Jacob 509 

Kepler, Jacob A 784 

Kepler, S. A B06 

Kepler, Solomon 7S4 

Kile, Salem 1029 

King. John W 560 

Klein, Johii 745 

Kline, Clint W 897 • 

Knapp. Nicholas 837 

Koch, Jacob 383 

Kohler, Albert A.. Al.D 999 

Kohler, George C 269 

Kohler, Hon. Jacob A 304 

Koonse. Henry 687 

Koonse, William 686 

Koplin, Christian 340 

Koplin, L. C 684 

Koplin. Solomon .' 340 

Kreighbaugh, Hiram F 673 

Kreighbaum, Andrew J 290 

Kreighbaum. Johnston B.... 396 

Krisher. Jacob J 045 

Kuhlke. M. D 479 

Kuhlke. Frederick 804 

Kuhn, Luther A 712 

Ladd, Hon. Charles G 313 

Laffer. James M 453 

Lahmers. F.. M.D 594 

Lahr, Charles H 344 

Lahr, John 674 

Lahr, William H 674 

Lance, George 1026 

Lance, George E 1035 

Lance, Harvey 1036 

Lane, Chauncey B 1071 

Lapp. Jacob 833 

Laubach. Edward P 1104 

Laubach. William F 913 

Lauby, Jacob S84 

Lawton, E. A 773 

Leeser, Levi M 841 

Leeser, Peter ,s-Sl 

Leiby, Isaac 905 

Lepper, John A 5.11 

Lepper, Peter 531 

Leser, Edward W 735 

Levy, C. D 471 

Limbach, Martin. Jr 1(IS5 

Limbert, Hiram W 5u3 

Limric. John 517 

Livermore, F. B., M.D 854 

Lodge, George H 792 

Lodge, Ralph H 940 

Lodge, William R 950 

Lodwick, A. R 855 

Loeb, Louis 598 

Lombard, Nathaniel 384 

Long, David C 766 

Long, Homer G., M.D 483 

Long, Mahlon S 786 

Long, W. H 983 

Looker, J. B 328 

Loomis, Byron H 815 

Loomis, Frank Fowler 1096 

Loomis Hardware Co 814 

Loomis, Harry E 928 

Loomis, Irving L 815 

Loomis, L. W 814 

Ludwick, Simon P 783 

Lusk, Alfred G 444 

Lutz, Charles G 1041 

Lyder, Dr. John W 358 

Lyman, A. E 964 

Lyon. O. G 479 

Lvons. James 816 

McAllister Brothers 554 

McCaman, Elihu 900 

McCaman, Elmer 1 900 

McCausland Brothers 848 

McCausland, James C 848 

McCausland. John J 848 

McChesney, Edward A 1044 

McChesncy, Frederick VV...1090 

McChesney, John 545 

McChesney, William 545 

McChesney, William H 545 

McClellan, Robert A 546 

McClellan, William A 881 

McClure. Samuel W 264 

McColgan, David A 567 

McConnell, George A 463 

McConnell, Isaac S 614 

McCourt. P. T 944 

McCov, George W 541 

McCoy. Robert 541 

McDowell. John W 970 

McEbright, Dr. Thomas 355 

McFarland, William P 341 

McFarlin, William 388 

McGarrv. Daniel 837 

McGowan. S. C 1041 

Mcintosh. W. W 453 

McKinney, Hon. Henry 364 

McKisson. Alfred E. . ." 1004 

McKisson. Arthur 1004 

McNamara. Hon. James 510 

McNamara. Hon. John 431 

McNiece. Leonard 458 

McShaffrey, Edward 636 

McShaff rev. Thomas E 636 

Maag. George 1054 

Mackev, James 981 

Macke'v. John P 1073 

Mahaffv. J. A 3." 

Mahar. Rev. T. F 433 


Major, Col. Thomas E 607 

Major, Rev. Thomas 607 

Mallison, Albert G 334 

Mallison, Albert H 436 

Malony, Frank T 430 

Mansfield, William A., M. D.. 855 

Manton, H. B 875 

Manton, Irvin R 899 

Marks, A. H 773 

Marshall. Willis G 898 

Marsh, Harvev A 687 

Marsh, Frank 'G 277 

Marsh, Samuel C 688 

Martin, William E 1042 

Marvin, David L 268 

Marvin, Hon. Ulysses 269 

Mason, F. H 815 

May, Louis R 835 

May, R. A ". . . . 791 

Mell, Joseph R 1043 

Memmer, John 1104 

Mentzer. Alexander 724 

Mentzer, John F 724 

Merrill. Edwin H 989 

Merrill. H. E 989 

Merriman, Charles. M. D 843 

Merriman, Scott H 844 

Merriman. Wells 844 

Mertz. John T 416 

Metzler. David A 421 

Metzler. William M 767 

Middleton. Jesse 813 

Middleton. Ward B 813 

Middleton. William H 856 

Miles. Lucius C 826 

Miller, August C 972 

Miller, Charles C ■. 493 

Miller. Charles N 547 

Miller. Cvrus 733 

Miller. Edward B 379 

Miller. Frank F 973 

Miller, Frank H 708 

Miller. George 348 

Miller. John F 347 

Miller. Jonas F 4S4 

Miller. Lewis 331 

Miller. Lewis A 507 

Miller, Lute H 492 

Miller. Perrv R 733 

Miller. Stephen C 297 

Miller. Col. Stewart 363 

Miller. Uriah A 484 

Miller. Warren 478 

Miller. William 478 

Miller. William F 867 

Mills. Harry B 824 

Milliken. C. W 1096 

Mills, Ithel 824 

Moon. H. G 682 

Moore, Arthur A 600 

Moore. C. W 585 

Moore. Tohn A 401 

Moore, McConnell 1013 

Moore. Miller G 1062 

Moore. Orison M 728 

Moore. Ralph 1014 

Moore. Richard L 451 



Moore, Samuel L 7:u 

Moore, William 451 

Morgan, Charles R 473 

Morgan, Crannell 953 

Morris, Mordecai J 1079 

Morriss, Aaron 731 

Morse, Nathan 318 

Morton, C. H 566 

Morton, William A 543 

Mottinger, Arthur S 270 

Motz, John 483 

Munn Brothers 696 

Miinn, Abram C 696 

Munn. Amos R 696 

Munn, Hiram 696 

Myers, Alpheus 585 

Myers, Harvey A 585 

Myers, Henry 872 

Myers, I. S S73 

Myers, Joel 606 

Myers, Samuel 606 

Nash, Hophni 921 

Nash. Capt. Sumner 921 

Neale, A, S 707 

Neale. John 708 

Nerhood, Amos 560 

Nerhood, Isaac 559 

Nesbit, Alexander 502 

Neuman. M. M 505 

Noah. A. H 788 

Noland. James D 1020 

Noland. James P 1020 

Nolle. Frank 508 

Olin. Alonzo B 575 

Olin. John G 575 

Olin. Samuel 575 

O'Marr. Daniel 675 

O'Neil, M 410 

O'Neil, William J 392 

Oplinger, Augustus O 1009 

Orr, James W S82 

Otis, Edward P 389 

Otis, Ellsworth E 289 

Oviatt, Benjamin 863 

Oviatt, Edward 268 

Oviatt, L. H 863 

Oviatt, Loran L 507 

Palmer, C. H 898 

Palmer, Ebenezer 982 

Palmer, J. Dwight 1111 

Palmer, Josiah 795 

Palmer. Lewis S 795 

Palmer. Richard F 781 

Palmer, William N 578 

Parker, David L 1011 

Parker, T. M., Sr 1072 

Parks, Charles T 771 

Paul. A. J 614 

Paul. Edward W 604 

Paul. George 681 

Paul, Robert S 603 

Paul, T. Dwight 812 

Paulus. James B 822 


Payne, John W 900 

Peck. Edward R SIS 

Peebles. Robert R 441 

Perkins, Charles E ,1110 

Perkins, Col. George T !l0]9 

Perkins, Col. Simon 325 

Perkins, Gen. Simon 327 

Peterson, Dr. James H 258 

Petersen A 505 

Pettitt, Charles 845 

Petlitt. Nathaniel 845 

Pettitt, Willis E 454 

Pfeiffer, Frank 573 

Pfeiffer, Frederick 573 

Pflueger, Ernest A 486 

Pflueger, George .\ 735 

Pflueger, J. E 354 

Plumer, George W 841 

Polsky, A..; 465 

Post. Frederick R 983 

Post, William M 983 

Poulson, James M 271 

Powell, William J 1066 

Priest, Rev. Ira A 454 

Prickett, Samuel H 703 

Prior. Emory A 304 

Prior. Frank S 462 

Prior. Henry W 295 

Prior. Simeon 305 

Prior. William 295 

Putterill Brothers 405 

Putterill, Edward 405 

Putterill, Thomas 405 

Quinc. C. R 794 

Rabe, James W., M. D 755 

Rankin. George T.. Jr.^M. D...45n 

Rankin. Irving C, M. D 899 

Rannev. Jake L 694 

Ranney. Luther K 827 

Rannev. Moses 694 

Rattle.' William 446 

Rattle. William J 446 

Rawson. Levi 972 

Raymond. C. B 793 

Read. Matthew C 373 

Reagle. Daniel 986 

Reagle, Jacob A 986 

Ream. Capt. Frederick K 952 

Reed. Frank C, M. D 408 

Reed. Hiram 400 

Renner. George J 438 

Replogle. Mark A 480 

Rhodes. Thomas 1065 

Richey. Andrew F 713 

Richey, Andrew K 538 

Richey, Jacob F. J 528 

Richey. Thomas 528 

Ries. Frederick 721 

Ritchie. George G 817 

Ritchie. Thomas P 817 

Roach. Albert E 773 

Robinson. B. W 1012 

Robinson. Elmer 857 

Robinson. Henry 992 

Robinson. Leonard 787 

r. ■ r.\i;E 

Robmson. Robert S57 

Rockwell. F. J 270 

Rockwell. F. W 376 

Rodd, Robert J 641 

Rodd, William J 641 

Rodenbaugh, .Abraham 385 

Rodenbaugh, Bert, M. D 1113 

Rodenbaugh, Norman F., M. D. 384 

Roeger, Charles 736 

Roeger. George W 726 

Roepke, Edward S94 

Roethig, Ferdinand J 437 

Roethig, Harrison T 437 

Roethig, William W 604 

Rogers, Edward E 868 

Rogers, George W 390 

Rogers, Norman 868 

Rogers, Samuel G 317 

Rohrbacher, A. C 470 

Rook, William H 1002 

Root, Frank Lewis 853 

Root. George H 852 

Rose, George 915 

Rose, John 915 

Rothrock, xAmos A 821 

Rowley, Arthur J 287 

Rowley, Enoch 416 

Rowlev, William 416 

Ruckel, Albert H 663 

Ruckel, Clinton 1095 

Ruckel, George W 692 

Saalfield, Arthur James 428 

Sackett, Clark 595 

Sackett, Clark A 595 

Sackett, George 375 

Sackett, W. A., M. D 906 

Sackett. William C 906 

Sackmann, Walter L 916 

Sadler, O. L 294 

Sadler, RoIIin W 267 

Salisbury, Chancy 1047 

Sanford. Hon. Henry C 311 

Sanford. Ransome M 1025 

Saunders, Col. Wilbur F 263 

Sawver, William T 317 

Scheck, Christopher 624 

Schnabel, Charles W 431 

Schnabel, George Philip 393 

Schnabel. Philip R 430 

Schott. Louis 724 

Schneider. P. H 459 

Schumacher. Ferdinand 422 

Scott, Dr. Daniel A 255 

Scott. L. H 645 

Scudder. Arthur W 776 

Scudder. Walter 776 

Searl, William A., M. D 610 

Seedhouse. Edwin 671 

Seiberling, Charles W 487 

Seiberling. Francis 293 

Seiberling, Frank A 443 

Seiberling, Hon. Gustavus 1053 

Seiberling, John F 326 

Seiberling, Milton A 711 

Seiberling. Wilson F 643 


Sell. D. llciiry !isl 

Senn, Charles 7'.)5 

Senter, James B 4G.') 

Senter, Joliii 4()o 

Serfass, Peter 038 

Seward, Amos 034 

Seward. John VV 634 

Seward, Louis D 290 

Sevbold, Louis 350 

Shaffer, Frederick N 90G 

Shaw, Arthur R •. . . .1100 

Shaw, Bert L 685 

Shaw, E, C 904 

Shaw, Frank J 570 

Shaw, George A 555 

Shaw, Harvey F 705 

Shaw, Merwin 570 

Shaw, W. H 705 

Sheldon, C. E 745 

Sherbondy, Frederick G .52S 

Sherbondy, Harry Nelson 933 

Shirey, J. L., M. D S04 

Shoemaker, W. Lewis S26 

Shook, George A 946 

Shook, Solomon E 424 

Short, Wade G 283 

Shumaker, M. B 728 

Shumaker, William 72S 

Shriber, George W 698 

Sicherman. Armin. M. D 1019 

Sieber, Hon. George W 298 

Sippv, Asher F., M. D 471 

Skinner, Bradford W 549 

Slabaugh, Watson E 288 

Slater. J. D 8,83 

Smead, George A 1114 

Smith, Alonzo 1060 

Smith, David C 3,32 

Smith, Fred E 774 

Smith, George E 1066 

Smith. Tames Albert .538 

Smith. John 624 

Smith, L-ewis •. 342 

Smith, William H 341 

Snyder, Abraham 588 

Snvder, George M 457 

Snvder, Harvey A.. M. D 874 

Snvder, Hiram F 583 

Snvder, Jacob A 1049 

Snyder, John G 1015 

Snyder, Maurice G 370 

Snyder, Michael 583 

.Snyder, Mrs. Susannah 1015 

Snvder. Thomas T 457 

Snvder, William E 299 

Sorrick. John W., M. D 1082 

Souers, David 910 

Souers, William 910 

Sowers. John 356 

Spade. Calvin 554 

Spangler, Charles S 826 

Spangler, Trvin H 584 

Spangler, Joseph 584 

Spangler. Joseph 826 

Sparhawk. Arthur 677 

Sparhawk, FTarvev A 676 

Spaulding. Rufus 'P 262 


Spencer, W. A 278 

Sperry, Henry B 494 

Spielman, Andrew A 955 

Spriggle, Frank 587 

Stahl, Charles H 287 

Stall, A. H., M. D 846 

Stanford, George 854 

Stanford, George C 853 

Stanford, James 854 

Starr, George 469 

Starr, John J 788 

Starr, Simon 470 

Stauffer, Reuben 711 

Stebick, T. J 763 

Steele, Henderson 613 

Steele, Isaac 613 

Steele, St. Clair 934 

Steese, Abraham 1056 

Steese, Alexander 1056 

Steigner, William 932 

Stein, Daniel P 636 

Stein, Harvey E 538 

Stein, Henrv 626 

Stelzer, A. j ; 950 

Stettler, . James A 564 

Stettler, William 565 

Stipe, Frank G 427 

Stocker, Philip 487 

Stone, N. C 371 

Stone. Nelson B 401 

Stoner. William H 461 

Stotler, Sherman B 449 

Stratton, Preston D 782 

Strobel, George 537 

Strobel, Lorenzo 537 

Strobel, William 537 

Stroh, Freeman W 714 

Stroh, Henry 714 

Stroman, Charles Henry 1023 

Stroman, John 1023 

Stuart, Hon. E. W 299 

Stubbs, George J 751 

Stuhldreher, Augustus F 423 

Stump, Elmer E 751 

Stump, Eohraim 59() 

Stump, Hiram 559 

Stump. Jacob 590 

Stump. John 590 

Sturgeon. Samuel H.. M. D... 983 

Sullivan, James 831 

Swain, Forest 693 

Swartz, J. V 488 

Sweitzer, Louis S., M. D 981 

Swigart. Aaron .A 542 

Swigart. Cbarles H 59ft 

Swigart. George 516 

Swigart, George A 516 

Swigart. Homer A 517 

Swigart, Joseph 542 

Swinehart. J. A 383 

Switzer. Charles 912 

Tavlor. Daniel 496 

Taylor, H. H 736 

Taylor, Theodore 496 

Teeple, Aaron 397 


Teeple, J. Frank S2a 

Theiss, F. B 306 

Thomas, Charles E 871 

Thomas, David J 661 

Thomas, George C 871 

Thomas, John 061 

Thompson, Benjamin F 362 

Thompson, Dr. Moses 1099 

Thompson, Otis Reed 363 

Thompson, Sherman P 1099 

Thompson, Sylvester 1100 

Thompson, Virgil 409 

Thornton, Aaron 652 

Thornton, Harvey '. . 652 

Tibbals, Hon. Newell D 308 

Tifft, John D 858 

Tifft, Smith D 858 

Tobin, W. T 514 

Tod, Hon. David 741 

Todd, Harry D., M. D 604 

Tracv. Benjamin F 1113 

Treash, Philip B 386 

Treman, Milan 617 

Triplett, Austin J 355 

Triplett, John 356 

Triplett, William 356 

Tryon, Charles B 703 

Trvon, Jesse 703 

Tschantz. Charles 897 

Turner, Robert 380 

Tweed. Fred W : 508 

Underwood, E. S., M. D 474 

Underwood. Ira L 858 

Underwood, Warren J., M. D. 477 

Upson, Anson 628 

Upson, Edwin 628 

Upson, Philo B 365 

Upson, Rufus P 626 

Upson, Reuben 366 

Upson. Hon. William H 272 

Vallen, Abel 619 

Vallen, Durastus 619 

Vandersall, William L 911 

Van Horn, Milton A 460 

Van Horn, Robert 460 

Vaughan, John R 313 

Vaughan, William T 313 

Viali. Fred S 466 

Viall, George 338 

Viall, John F 563 

Viall, Otis K 563 

Viall. Sullivan 472 

Viall, Svlvester G 471 

Viele, Henry C 959 

Vogan, F. Daton 764 

Vogt. Christian 1086 

Vogt, Daniel 682 

Vogt. Henry 623 

Vongunton, Gottlieb 1110 

Voris. Hon. Alvin C 306 

Voris. Edwin F 305 




Wadsworth, George H 1054 

Waggoner, William aia 

Wagoner, George 372 

Wasjoner, Henrv L 722 

Wayriner, Philip" 372 

Was. .nor. William H 529 

Wainwriglit, Walter 74S 

Wakcman, T. W 29'.) 

W al<lUu-ch, John 936 

Walker. Richard B SOI 

Walhice, Hiram H 901 

Walhice, James VV 90:; 

Wal.'^li, John W 7C(J 

Walsh. William 700 

Walters. William 971 

Waltz, David 597 

Waltz, Frank 758 

Waltz, Madison 597 

Wannamaker. rion. R. M . . . 314 
Warbiirton, Joseph. M.D.... 630 

Ware. Israel 539 

\\'are. Norman 539 

Warner, Adam K 885 

Warner, C. C 342 

Warner. Frank S77 

Warner, Henry 927 

Warner, John 927 

Warner, John A .s,s4 

Warner. John J 71,! 

\Varner, Milton H 4.T5 

Warner, Samuel 1074 

Warner, Samuel 877 

Warner. Solomon 435 

Warner. William A ....926 

Warner, W. Wallace 486 

Waterman, Lawson 892 

Waters, Lorenzo Dow 269 

Walters, Charles H 1012 

\\ ay, Ezra 372 

W^ay, Joseph : 375 

^\'ay, Loren 372 

Weber, John C 442 

Weber, John ri.. AI.D 478 

Weeks. .Arthur I :;87 


Weeks, Frederick H lull) 

Weidcner, Charles A 773 

Weimer, Adam 718 

Weimcr, Henry H 718 

Welton, Allen S93 

Werner, Paul E 811 

Wesener, Joseph E 883 

West, H. A 794 

Wetmore, Charles B 564 

Wetinore, Edwin 564 

Wetmore, Silas 564 

Weygandt, John F 354 

Weygandt, Jonathan 354 

White, Abia OSS 

White, John W 595 

White, Milo OSS 

White, Walter A 705 

Whitman, John 580 

Whitman, John A 580 

Whitmore, George T 1043 

Whitney, Joseph A. P 500 

Whittemore, F. E 280 

Wickline, Charles W 551 

Wigley, Joseph 777 

Wilcox, Frank A 896 

Wilco.x, H. C 970 

Wilcox, Orlando •. . . 284 

Wildes, W. J 557 

Williams, Harrv 934 

Williams, John K 926 

Williamson, Julius 825 

Williamson, Palmer 825 

Wills, W. J 557 

Wills, J. M 552 

Wilson, R. M 916 

Wilson, W. E 1080 

Windsor, John T 680 

Windsor, William, Jr 685 

Winegerter. Dr. Joseph 752 

Winkler, A 385 

Winter, William H 717 

Winum, Joseph 985 

Wise, Bvron P 444 

Wise. Charles E 913 


Wise, Daniel 913 

Wise, Harvey .\ 573 

Wise, Henry 573 

Wise, Louis J., ai.D 763 

Wise, Norman 893 

Wise, W. G 438 

Witner, Urias C 1099 

Wolcott, Christopher 1' 20.! 

Wolf, Fred W 911 

Wolf, John 845 

Wolfsperger, Waller R 783 

Wood, Alfred 599 

Wood, Benjamin 599 

Wood. Frederick 807 

Wood. Frederick C 800 

Wood, Thomas 1005 

Wood, William N 1005 

Woo-ds. A. T., M. D 378 

Woolf. Clark E 568 

Worden, Lynn 609 

Work. Alanson 419 

Work, B. G SIS 

Work, Gerald S 764 

Worron, George H 437 

Wright, Dr. Amos 254 

Wright, Elizur 065 

Wright, Col. George M 279 

Wright, Francis H 004 

Wright, James F 697 

Wright, Hon. Thomas 736 

Wuchter. George W 1029 

Wuchter, William 1029 

Wunderlich. Freilerick 576 

Yeager, Joseph 493 

Young, William E 317 

Zeller, Fred G 774 

Zeller, George 623 

Zilio.x, Samuel F 803 

Zimmerlv Brothers 668 

Zindel, Fred 339 

Zwisler. Clarence M 006 

Index of Dkm 

Akron Brewing Company's Plant, Akron. The 112 

Akron City Hall SS 

Akron City Hospital and Nurses' Home 25S 

Akron Public Library 96 

Akron 'Views — 

Adolph Avenue, Looking South 96 

Entrance to Akron Rural Cemetery 106 

Entrance to Grace Park 106 

From West of the Canal — 1S53 42 

From West of the Canal — 1904 43 

Main Street Looking South From Market 150 

West Market Street 150 

American Cereal Mills 53 

Big Falls — The Gorge 1 00 

BucHTEL College "Views — 

Academ\' 208 

Buchtel Hall 208 

Campus 208 

Crouse Gymnasium 208 

Residence of the President 86 

Brown. John. Home 230 

Campus, The, Hudson 42 

Children's Home. Akron 126 

Churches — 

Baptist, Akron 323 

First Church of Christ 8fi 

First Congregational, Akron 232 

First Congregational, Hudson 116 

First M. E., Akron 222 

First Presbyterian, Akron 86 

First Universalist, Akron 232 

Grace Reformed, Akron 222 

High Street Synagogue, Akron . . . . : 233 

St. Bernard's Catholic, Akron 58 

St. Mary's Catholic, Akron 58 

St. Paul's Episcopal, Akron 58 

St. Vincent De Paul's Catholic. Akron 58 

County Infirmary 106 

County Jail, New .53 

Court House, New 456 

Court House, Old 52 

Cuyahoga Falls— Square Showing the Churches 116 

Cuyahoga River, A "View on the 116 

Diamond Match Company, Akron 150 

Diamond Rubber Works, Akron 150 

Dobson Building, Akron 250 

Fire Engine House, No. 5, Akron 52 

First National Bank, Akron 250 

Flatiron Building, Akron 250 

Fisher Bros.' Plant, The, Akron 112 

German-American Music Hall 52 

Glens, The, Cuyahoga Falls ' 116 

Goodrich, B. F. Company, Akron 150 

Hamilton Building, Akron 112 

L O. O. F. Building, Akron 250 

In Perkins Park 456 

Lake Anna, Barberton 106 

Lakeside, Summit Lake 96 

Market House, Akron 150 

Masonic Temple, Akron 126 

Moody & Thomas Mill, Peninsula 870 

Nursery, Mary Day, Akron 126 

Old Maid's Kitchen, The Gorge 106 

Post Office, Akron 96 

Residences — 

Andrews, James H 76 

Baldwin, Harvey 136 

Baughman, Reuben B 700 

Breitenstine, John 948 

Conger, Mrs. A. L 76 

Franklin, Walter a 136 

Gault, Elmer A 136 

Hoye, M. W 456 

Manton, H. B 258 

Marvin, Mrs. Richard P 76 

Mason, F. H 258 

Perkins Homestead 76 

Raymond, Charles B 258 

Seiberling, Hon. Gustavus 1057 

Seiberling, Milton A 708 

Warner, Milton H 434 

Work, Bertram G 76 

Work, Mrs. Etta W 76 

School Buildings — 

Crosby School, Akron 182 

Findley School, Akron 182 

First High School 456 

First School House 456 

Fraunfelter School. Akron 86 

High School, Akron 86 

High School, Cuyahoga Falls 116 

Kent School, Akron 183 

Miller School, Akron 86 

St. Bernard's School, Akron 58 

St. Mary's School, Akron 58 

St. "Vincent De Paul's School, Akron 136 

Spicer School, .\kron 182 

Silver Lake Park 52 

L'nion Depot, Akron 113 

Werner Company, Plant and Office of The 160 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Akron 88 

V. W. C. A. Building. .Vkron 456 

f)\ms of Sutntnlt County 



Description of the Physical Features of the County — Its Economic Geology — The Soil; 
Its Drainage and Fertility — Coal — Gas — Oil. 

The surface of Summit County presents a 
remarkable vai'iety. The AVesterner, stand- 
ing in the midst of "The Plains." as the terri- 
tory lying north of the city of Akron used to 
be called, sees much to remind him of Ne- 
braska and Kansas. Parts of other townships 
are also as level, or as gently rolling, as the 
prairies of the West. Stand on the summit 
of some of the Northampton Hills, and the 
view reminds you of the fine scenery of New 
England. Ponds abound in all parts of the 
count}'. Silver Lake and Wyoga Lake are 
the principal ones in the northern part; Tur- 
key-foot Lake and Long Lake lie ensconced 
among the green hills in the southern town- 
ships; Springfield Lake is a beauty spot in 
the eastern part, and Shocolog Pond and 
White and Black Ponds diver.-ify the west- 
ern portion, while Summit Lake occupies the 
central part of the county and gives to the 
citizen of Akron the advantages of a water- 
ing place within the very limits of his city. 

Brooks and rivers flow in nearly every di- 
rection. Their economic ui3es are many. The 
Cuyahoga River bisects the northern half of 
the county and furnishes extensive >.vater 
power for manufacturing purposes. In many 

places its watei-s are diverted for irrigating 
purposes, and the fortunate farmei-s who till 
the land along its course fear no season of 
drought. In the southern part of the county 
the same advantages are furnished by the Tus- 
carawas River. These are Summit County's 
principal streams. They have many 
branches or tributaries which ramify even to 
the remotest corners of the county. Among 
others should be named Wolf Creek, Pigeon 
Creek, Yellow Creek, Tinker's Creek, Brandy- 
wine Creek, Mud Brook and Sand Run. This 
enumeration will give the reader some idea of 
the wonderful way in which this favored 
county is watered bj- running streams. In 
earlier times the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas 
rivers were navigable by boats of consider- 
able size. New Portage, at the southern ter- 
minus of the Portage Path, was the head of 
na\agation on the Tuscarawas, while boats 
from Lake Erie ascended the Cuyahoga as far 
;is Old Portage, at the northern end of the 

Perhaps all will agree that the most strik- 
ingly beautiful section of Summit County is 
the Cuyahoga Valley, which begins at Akron 
and gradually grows in depth and increases 


in width as it approaches the northern limits 
of the county. In Cuyalioga County it parts 
with much of its beauty. Finally the hills 
and great bluffs cease altogether and the river, 
murky, nuiddy and ill-smelling from the con- 
tamination of several hundred thousand citi- 
zens of Cleveland, flows lazily into Lake Erie. 
There is an interesting geological story con- 
nected with this river which will be told later 
on in this chapter. Another striking feature 
of the topography of this county is the Gorge 
of the Cuyahoga, which extends from Cuya- 
hoga Falls, a distance of about three miles 
west, or almost to the meeting-place of the 
waters of the Big and Little Cuyahoga. It 
has many of the elements of beauty which 
characterize Watkins Glen and other famous 
resorts for travelers. The Gorge was caused 
by the erosion of the river, which now flows 
at the foot of precipitous cliffs, two hundred 
feet or more below the surface of the sur- 
rounding country. On both sides the land 
stretches away in level fashion, and the trav- 
eler approaches without any warning from 
Nature that a great chasm yawns in front of 
him. Suddenly he stands on the edge of 
the precipice, and through the interwoven 
branches of the hemlocks sees the foaming, 
tossing water far below him, in the cool depths 
of the Glens. About half way down the 
Gorge the river tumbles over a ledge of harder 
sandstone and makes a very pretty cascade 
known by the prosaic name of "Big Falls." 
It is a pity that so charming a spot sliould 
be called by so commonplace, if not ugly, 
name. At Cuyahoga Falls there are more 
cascades, but their beauty is largely destroyed 
by the factories and buildings, which line the 
banks of the river there. There is a remark- 
able variety in the flora of these glens. The 
procession of the flowers is uninterrupted from 
the first skunk-cabbage of early April to the 
last aster and witch-hazel blossom of lat€ 
October. The oaks, the maples, the elm, the 
ash, many of the nut trees and several of the 
evergreens flourish here most luxuriantly. 
Only the great, dripping walls that rise sheer 
to the top are bare of vegetation, and even 
these are covered in places with mosses and 

lichens, and here and there one can see a little 
green hemlock that has obtained a root-hold 
in a crevice in the cliff. 

A close second in the popular choice for 
beauty is the famous "Lake Region," stretch- 
ing from the southern limits of Akron to the 
extreme south part of the county. The hills 
rise here to a considerable elevation — the 
highest being more than eleven hundred feet 
above sea level. A chain of lakes fed by 
springs and subterranean streams stretches 
north and south between them. These lakes 
are a legacy from the great glacier, or glaciers, 
which in the ice age flowed down from the 
north and covered all this region. Th&se hills 
of sand, gravel and boulders had their birth 
at that period, too. In fact, the face of Sum- 
mit County, as we know it at the present time, 
is largely the result of the titanic forces of 
Nature, which operated during the so-called 
Ice Age, in North America. This is not the 
place to refer to the proofs that a great ice 
sheet did at one time cover all the northern 
and western portions of Ohio; it is perhaps 
sufficient to say that the investigations of 
geologists have demon.strated beyond reason- 
able doubt the glacial hypothesis first ad- 
vanced by Louis Agassiz. The terminal mo- 
raine which marks the .southern boundary of 
the ice has been traced across Ohio by Prof. 
George Frederick Wright, of Oberlin, with 
great accuracy. This terminal moraine is the 
deposit of boulders, gravel and drift which 
was left upon the original surface by the 
melting of the ice. Akron lies a few seconds 
north of the 41st parallel, north latitude. Be- 
ginning in Western New York at the 42nd 
parallel, the southern ice limit crosses into 
Pennsylvania and takes a course almost di- 
rectly south to Homewood, which is on the 
41st parallel. It then turns almost due west 
and passes through Massillon, and when it 
reaches Mansfield it turns at an angle of 
ninety degrees and proceeds due south to 
Logan. Its course is then southwest, through 
Chillicothe and across the 39th parallel into 
Kentucky. It passes a few miles south of 
Cincinnati, and near Louisville it turns 
abi'uptly north and proceeds into Indiana to 



near the 40th parallel. All the land lying 
north of this line was covered for centuries 
with a river of solid ice, which was not less 
than 200 feet in thickness or depth, and 
which may have been as great as 500 or 600 
feet. It is spoken of as a "river" of ice. That 
means it was flowing. It advanced very 
slowly — about a quarter of a mile each year. 
It required nearly a thousand years for it to 
cross the State of Ohio. The gi-eat Canadian 
boulders, which were brought by the ice from 
their original home in the Laurentian Hills 
and deposited about Cincinnati, were, per- 
haps, more than 2,000 years in making the 
journey. Is it any wonder that their sharp 
edges and angles were worn off and that we 
find them today smooth and rounded? 
Countless boulders of this kind are distributed 
over the whole surface of Summit County. 
No metamorphic or granite rocks occur here 
naturally. Our "hard-heads," as the farmers 
call them, were all transported, then. When 
detached from the parent, cliffs or ledges they 
were all of sharp edges and possessed of many 
sharp angles. The grinding and rolling and 
abrasion to which they were subjected as the 
great ice river rolled them on made them 
smooth and rounded as we find them today. 
The citizen who keeps house nowadays will 
understand that ice is hea\nt-. Perhaps it is 
possible to a.scertain mathematically the power 
exerted by a moving mass of ice several hun- 
dred miles wide and 500 or 600 feet in thick- 
ness. Whether that be true or not, we can 
see about us the results of such tremendous 
forces. On Keeley's Island in Lake Erie, for 
instance, there ai'e places where the pre-gla- 
cial limestone surface was planed off as smooth 
as a floor. In other places axe grooves six to 
twenty-four inches in depth, and as wide, 
where a granite boulder was pushed bodily 
through the hard limestone, with as much 
ease, apparently, as though the resisting sur- 
face had been so much butter. So, the great 
ice sheet ploughed and planed its way south, 
scooping out depressions, scraping off the 
hills, and widening the old canyons and val- 
leys. When it reached the Ohio River it 
made a dam 500 or 600 feet high acros.s the 

Ohio valley. The dammed up waters spread 
out on all sides and as far back as the head- 
watei"3 of the Allegheny and Monongaliela 
rivers. This made a deep lake more than 400 
miles long and 200 miles wide. The geolo- 
gists have named it Lake Ohio. The present 
.site of Pittsburgh was then 300 feet under 
water. The present site of Summit County 
was under as many feet of solid ice. The 
northern shore of this lake did not extend be- 
yond Massillon. The Cincinnati ice-dam may 
have held these waters impounded for cen- 
turies, but, like all other laies, there came a 
time when its existence miLst end. When the 
climate ameliorated, the cold of winter was 
no longer able to repair the ravages made on 
the ice by the increasing heat of the summer 
sun. The ice-barrier weakened and at length 
gave way. The imprisoned waters rushed in 
tremendous fury down the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi valleys to the sea. What a flood there 
must have been then ! 

When the recession of the ice sheet began 
these floods became an annual affair. Taking 
as a basis Professor Agassiz's figures as deter- 
mined by his observations in Switzerland, it 
is easy to estimate that from the natural melt- 
ing of the glacier during each summer enough 
water was formed to cover the ice-free portion 
of the State to a depth of 40 feet. These 
floods, occurring annuall\' for many years, 
washed gi-eat quantities of gravel and sand 
toward the south. Thus the gi"eat gravel hills 
in the southern part.s of Summit Count}' were 
formed. The glacier, as it ploughed its way 
south, uncovered subterranean water-courses 
and made many depressions in the surface of 
the land. Thus our lakes were formed. For 
many centuries thej' were supplied with water 
from the melting ice, slowly retreating north- 
ward. Since then the loss by evaporation has 
been replenished by rainfall and the water 
from bottom springs. 

Finally, in the retreat of the ice-sheet be- 
fore the victorious forces of the Sun, the great 
watershed of Ohio was reached. Summit 
County occupies a position on this watershed. 
Until Akron was reached all the water from 
the melting glacier had flowed toward the 



southeast, as the slope of the land in the State 
south of this locality was in that direction. 
But as you go north from Akron, the slope of 
the land is northerly. Hence, when the ice- 
sheet- had passed over the crest of the land 
here, the water from its melting was unable 
to find an outlet until it had risen high 
enough to flow over the height of land at 
Summit Lake and then pursue the usual and 
natural com-se toward the southeast. Al- 
though the slope of the land was toward the 
north, yet the water could not flow in that 
direction as a great barrier of ice 200 or 300 
feet high effectually blocked the way. This 
barrier filled not only the old valley of the 
Cuyahoga, but covered the whole northern 
portion of the State. Thus the floods from 
the great ice-mass filled the whole valley be- 
tween the high land at Akron and the face of 
the glacier slowly retreating northward. By 
the time Cleveland was reached the whole 
valley, as we know it now, was one great lake 
extending from Cleveland to Akron. This 
lake had its outlet through a short river which 
flowed from North Akron, in the bed of the 
present Ohio Canal, to a point south of Sum- 
mit Lake, where the Tuscarawas meets the 
canal. Professor Claypole gave to this river 
the name "Akron River." The great lake, 
which in its deepest part must have been al- 
most 300 feet deep, he called "Cuyahoga 
Lake." It is difficult to estimate the length 
of time this lake and the Akron River were in 
existence. It was probably many centuries. 
They existed until the ice-sheet was well be- 
yond Lake Erie, and the Niagara River and 
the St. Lawrence were open to the sea. AVIien 
this happened, then the Cuyahoga Lake was 
drained rapidly into Lake Erie and the Akron 
River started to flow north and finally ceased 
to flow at all, except as a very small outlet for 
the lake on the summit now called Summit 
Lake. While Cuyahoga Lake existed it was a 
very muddy lake. The grinding of the sur- 
face by the movement of the glacier produced 
an immense amount of fine mud which was 
carried by the water from the melting ice into 
the lake. Here, aftcT a. time, it was deposited 
a.s a fine sediment n]wn the bottom of the 

lake. The occasional deposits of boulders or 
gravel are accounted for by the fact that ice- 
bergs or floes, becoming detached from the 
face of the glacier, and beaiing on their sur- 
faces a burden of gravel or boulders, floated 
out into the lake, and there melting, made 
the deposits referred to. In the "Geology of 
Ohio," volume 1, page 552, occurs the first 
mention of the existence of this ide-dam, 
which stopped the northward flow of all the 
rivers emptying into Lake Erie. The credit 
for the discovery must be given to Dr. New- 

A former Akron citizen who was professor 
of geology, Dr. E. W. Claypole, has written 
very entertainingly of this episode in the geo- 
logical history of Summit, and we will do well 
to listen to his own words as he describes it. 

"As the conditions of existence of all these 
lakes were essentially identical, a description 
of all of them would be tedious and involve 
much useless repetition. My purpose here is 
not to present all the details of the retreat 
of the ice, but to show its general course and 
its inevitable results. I will therefore select 
one of these as an illustration, and merely 
name the rest. For this purpose I choose the 
Cuyahoga River, which I have carefully 
studied. This river rises in Geauga County, 
and, after flowing for almost 50 miles in a 
southwesterly direction, turns sharply to the 
north near Akron, and thence follows this 
course until it falls into the lake at Cleve- 

"The caiLse of this sudden change of direc- 
tion in the channel of the Cuyahoga River, 
is the following: Along the earlier part of 
its course, it is flowing in a post-glacial chan- 
nel on the top of the plateau of Northern 
Ohio. As it approaches Akron it passes 
through a deep gorge in the lower carbon- 
iferous rocks cut by itself since the ice re- 
treated. This gorge is, in it? lower part, not 
less than 300 feet below the level of the ad- 
joining country and its length is between two 
and three miles. At the lower end of the 
gorge the river escapes from its imprisoning 
walls of rock into a wide-open valley — -its 
own pre-glacial channel — which retains it for 



the rest of its course. This channel extendi 
backward in a southeasterly direction above 
the point where the Cuj-ahoga now enters it 
for several miles, passing between Akron and 
the present river. It is occupied by a small 
branch stream — the Little Cuyahoga. It 
gradually ri^es and becomes less distinct, be- 
ing heavily clogged with drift, which has 
most likely been the cause of diverting the 
water that pre-glacially flowed along it into 
the present channel. 

"Let us take our stand on one of the so- 
called hills overlooking the vale of the Cuya- 
hoga, between Akron and Cleveland, nea.r 
Peninsula, for example. The broad valley lies 
about 200 feet beneath our feet. Through 
it the lazy stream slowly meanders in a chan- 
nel cut in one place through deep, soft de- 
posits of drift, and in another through solid 
rocks of the Cuyalioga shale. But the valley 
is a pigmy besides that deeper and older one 
in which the Cuyahoga used to flow before 
the Great Ice Age came on. The hill on 
which we now stand did not then exi?t. The 
plateau, or terrace, out of which it has been 
carved, is a deposit of drift, left here during 
the retreat of the ice. Over on the western 
side of the vaJley is another terrace on the 
same level and of the same age, ©.Iso cut and 
scarred by water-courses. Deep' under both, 
and in places below the present level of 
the river, is the solid rock floor of the valley, 
not yet cleared of its cumbering load of gla- 
cial drift. The .stream is now crowding the 
left or western bank of its pre-glacial valley. 
The ground there rises abniptly, and less than 
a quarter of a mile from the river the solid 
sandstone (Berea Grit) is quarried above the 
water level. Turn now and look eastward, 
and there, at a distance of about two miles, 
we see the massive carboniferous conglomerate 
in almost vertical cliffs rising at least 100 feet 
above the plateau on which we are standing, 
and forming the well-known 'Boston Ledges.' 
These are the old banks of the Cuyahoga, and 
mark the pre-glacial channel of the river. 
Between these on the east and a similar out- 
crop on the west was a valley deeper than the 
present, and nearh^ three miles wide, scooped 

out by the river itself during post-carbonif- 
erous ages, and along this valley flowed the 
old Cuyahoga, not necessarily a lai'ger stream 
than its successor, but one of vastly greater 

"Go back now in imagination to that period 
of the Ice Age when the edge of the retreat- 
ing glacier had crossed the waterehed of Ohio 
on its backward march, and, extending across 
the country from east to west, was lying a 
little north of our present position ; that is to 
say, between Peninsula and Cleveland. Our 
former point of view is now untenable; it is 
under water. But we can stand on the top 
of Boston Ledges and look across the vallej' to 
the westward. The whole is one lake of ice- 
cold water. If it is summer, the shores are 
clad with a hardy vegetation suited to an arc- 
tic climate and the neighborhood of the 
glacier. If winter, the landscape is covered 
with snow, and the glittering ice-fr'ont is 
plainly in sight. Soundings show us that 
the water in the lake is more than 200 feet 
deep. If we trace its margin we find it cut 
by deep fiords reaching back into the coun- 
try, and, of course, full of water up to the 
lake level. Its main course is due south until 
a point is reached about a mile north of 
Akron, where the bank turns slightly to the 
eastward and curves sharplj^ around the head 
of an inlet which forms the real end of the 
lake. This point was neai' the 'Old Forge.' 
Returning to the west along its south shore 
we reach another deep bay stretching south- 
ward, in which the water rapidly shallows, 
and here we find the outlet of our lake 
through the valley in which now lies the city 
of Akron. A small stream is flowing south- 
ward along a channel where formerly was a 
tributary to the Cuyahoga, and pas.sing over 
the edge of the watershed, which forms in 
reality the southern border of the lake, it 
reaches the Tuscarawas, by which its water 
passes into the Muskingiim, and then to the 
Ohio, thus making the Lake Region tribu- 
tary to the Gulf of Mexico. 

"Oro.s.sing this small river and returning 
northward along its we.stern bank, we regain 
the main bodv of the lake, the shore of which 



runs westward for a short distance. It then 
•turns northwai'd and, tracing it, we reach, 
after making several circuits around deep in- 
lets, a point opposite to our previous station 
at Peninsula. 

"To this body of water, never seen by man, 
other than the early paleolithic savage, the 
distinct ancestor of our present Esquimaux, 
clinging to the margin of the retreating ice- 
sheet, I propose to give the name 'Lake Cuya- 
hoga' in order to associate it with the exist- 
ing river, and to connect the present with that 
which has passed away. 

''Lake Cuyahoga, then, was a body of 
water pounded back against the watershed by 
the retreating ice-front, and rising higher 
and higher, until it at last it found an outlet 
at the lowest point — the Akron Water Gap. 
Its dimensions varied from time to time. Now 
the glacier advanced under accumulating 
snow and ice in the cold winter, and pressed 
the water over the outlet. Now again it re- 
treated under warm skies and diminution of 
snow, and the water from its melting filled the 
space from which the ice had disappeared. 
Alternately receding and advancing, the ice- 
front determined the size of the lake. In sum- 
mer a furious torrent, white with glacier- 
milk, swept down the Akron Valley and 
through Summit Lake to the Tuscarawas 
River; the whole length of this stream was 
about four miles. In winter it flowed in si- 
lence, its sources frost-locked and its w'aters 

"To this temporary stream, a product of the 
retreating ice-sheet, whose very existence 
would now be unknown save for the researches 
of geologists, I propose to give the name 'The 
Akron River.' ***** 

"In all probability, a hardy vegetation of 
pines, firs, hemlock-spruce, and red-cedar fol- 
lowed close upon the retreating ice, and soon 
clothed the shores of the lake and the adjoin- 
ing country with a dark forest, under which 
various northern plants and animals found a 
congenial home. Man himself hugged the re- 
treating ice, withdrawing with it to the north. 

"It is po&gible even now to find in the damp, 
cool gorges along the Cuyahoga Valley strong 

organic confirmation of the probability sug- 
gested. Here linger many plants whose 
home is far north in Canada — survivors from 
a time when the climate conditions were such 
as suited a northern flora. The secular rise 
of temperature has exterminated them from 
the high lands, but in these shady moist glens 
they still find a congenial habitat, and main- 
tain a somewhat precarious existence. Among 
those plants may be mentioned the follow- 

Hemlock Spruce, Abies Canadeiijis, 
American Arbor-vitse, Thuja Occidentalis, 
Canadian Yew, Taxus Canadensis, 

Mountain Maple, Acer Spicatum, 
Paper Birch, Betula Papyracea, 

Red-berried Elder, Sambucus Pubens, 
Purple Raspberry, Rubus Odoratus, 
Pale Touch-me-not, Impatiens Pallida, 
Calla, Calla Palustri'^, 

(caltha paulustris). 
Swamp Saxifrage, Saxifraga Pennsylvania, 
Goldthread, ' Coptis Trifolia, 
Mountain Shield-fern, Lasterea Montana, 
Long Club-moss, Lycopodium Lucidulum. 

"All these, with other plants of northern 
affinity, may be found in or near the deep 
gorges of the Cuyahoga Valley, and give to 
them a character unlike that of other places 
in the vicinity. It is scarcely possible to 
explain their presence on any other theory 
than that above adopted — that they are relics 
of a similar flora that once covered the whole 
country, but which has been exterminated by 
change of conditions." 

AVhen the great cosmic forces which formed 
the continents had subsided and the last 
great upheaval had taken place, other natural 
forces began to operate toward the prepara- 
tion of the land lift by the receding oceans 
for the coming of man. We call it land in 
contradistinction to the water of the oceans; 
but the surface of the dry portions of the 
world disclosed no vegetation or soil and pre- 
sented no aspect save that of bare rock. Here 
it stretched away in the long billows of the 
plains; there it was heaved up in lofty, 
ragged mountain ranges. The atmosphere, 



the rains, the frost, and the sun then began 
the work of soil-making. Under their in- 
fluence the rocks began to disintegrate, and 
gradual]}' the soil M'as formed. When the 
natural conditions became such as to favor 
vegetation, the forests and the grass took their 
places in the mundane sj'stem. In the pre- 
glacial era it is probable that the general sur- 
face appearance was much as it is today. 
Great rivers had eroded deep valleys and can- 
yons; the hills were forest-clad; luxuriant 
grasses abounded in the intervales; swamps 
like ours were common, and lakes diversified 
the topography. 

Then the great ice-sheet pushed down from 
the frozen North. AVe may well believe that 
it was a destroyer. Of course, no vegetation 
could survive. The damage, if such it may 
be called, was more fundamental, however, 
than the destruction of the things growing in 
and upon the soil. The soil itself was de- 
stroyed. The great mass of ice, steadily mov- 
ing forward, pushed up the soil from the un- 
derlying rocks and washed it away in the 
great glacial floods which attended the melt- 
ing of the ice. Its melting also left the 
great moraines of gravel and stones upon the 
bare surface of the mother rocks. It did more 
than these things; it even planed and fur- 
rowed these constituent rocks themselves. 
Thus the hills were reduced in elevation and 
the valleys raised. The canyon eroded by the 
pre^glacial Cuyahoga was widened into the 
valley as we know it today. The river of 
that time flowed in a bed two hundred feet 
below its present bed. It is flowing now upon 
the top of two hundred feet of glacial drift. 
We must look to the glacier for the reason 
why the northern portion of our county is 
covered with heavy clay, difficult to till, but 
very rich in desirable soil qualities; while 
the southern portion is sandy and gravelly. 
It must not be inferred from the foregoing 
that Nature had her work of soil-making all 
to do over again after the final departure of 
the ice. The glacial deposits and the sedi- 
ment of glacial lakes, left upon the surface 
of the earth, were a long step forward in the 
work of restoring the soil. As pointed out 

by Prof. Claypole, our flora is considerably 
richer by reason of the Arctic conditions 
which attended the coming of the ice. 

Fortunately for us, the erosion of the Cuya- 
hoga and the various deep borings made in 
this vicinity in the search for water and oil 
and coal make the determination of the 
geological structure of Summit County an 
easy matter. There are various out-croppings 
of the different strata, also, which greatly as- 
sist the geologist in this work. 

The lowest formation in the county is the 
Erie Shale, which occurs in the upper part 
of the Devonian. It is almost homogeneous 
in its nature and is a soft shale of a bluish- 
gray color. It is sometimes varied with bands 
of calcareous sandstone and is occasionally 
found carrying fossils. It is exposed at 
Peninsula and -in some of the gorges opening 
into the Cuyahoga Valley. When the quar- 
rying for the improvement of the Arcturus 
Springs in the Sand Run Gorge was done, 
some beautiful specimens of the blue iron 
stone with bands of a rich brown color were 
broken off the Erie shale out-crop there. 

Above the Erie shale is the Cleveland 
shale, which is black and highly bituminous. 
It is probably a lower member of the Waver- 
ly or subcarboniferous . It is rich in carbon 
and, upon distillation, gas and oil may be 
obtained from it. This shale may also be seen 
to good advantage in the steep cliffs along the 
Cuyahoga. The next formation is the Bed- 
ford shale, which takes its name from Bed- 
fordjin Cuyahoga County. It is exposed in Bed- 
ford Glens. One peculiarity of this stratum is 
the thin bands of sandstone, from which flag- 
ging for side-walks, etc., can be easily made. 
Above the Bedford shale is found the Berea 
sandstone, which comes to the surface in the 
southern part, of Boston township. It also 
outcrops on the high land in Northfield town- 
ship. The large quarries at Peninsula are 
constituted of Berea sandstone. It 1= of a 
uniform white or .gray color and its close 
texture and resisting qualities make it a 
splendid stone for building. It is capable 
of being quarried in large blocks. In the 
lower parts of the Peninsula quarries the 



saiul,~tone is extremely Iiai'd and posst^sses a 
sharp grit which makes it especially valuable 
for the manufacture of niill-stoues. Much of 
it is used for this purpose and also for making 
grind-stones. It is topped by a thin layer of 
black, bituminous shale. Below Cuyahoga 
Falls this sandstone may be seen exposed and 
the cascade in Brandywine Creek is over this 
formation also. Next above the Berea sand- 
stone comes Cuyahoga shale, so called because 
of its fine exposure in the bluffs below Cuya- 
hoga Falls. In the main,: it is composed of 
a soft argillaceous shale, but also contains a 
bed of hard, fine-grained sandstone. The Big 
Falls at the Old Maid's Kitchen are due to 
this hard sandstone resisting the eroding pow- 
ers of the river. It is foTmed on the surface 
in parts of Northfield township. A bed of 
limestone occurs near the top of this shale 
just below Cuyahoga Falls, from which quick- 
lime was made at the time of the construc- 
tion of the Ohio canal, as alluded to else- 
where in this history. A very good cement 
could doubtless be made from it. In Rich- 
field township a bed of fossiliferous limestone 
occurs, in which some very remarkable fos- 
sil plants and animals have been found. 

Next above the Cuyalioga shale comes the 
most common rock formation to be found in 
the county. It is Carboniferous Conglomer- 
ate. It is well to remember the name, for it 
is the surface rock of the townships of North- 
ampton, Copley, Portage, Tallmadge, Spring- 
field, Coventry, Norton, Twinsbui'g, Hudson, 
Stow, Boston, Richfield and Bath. It is an 
extremely coaree sandstone and generally con- 
tains, thickly imbedded in it, small, round, 
white quartz pebbles. The stone is of a yel- 
lowish color, except where it has been stained 
red or brown by oxide of iron. This sand- 
stone is extensively quarried just above Old 
Portage at the plant of the Akron White Sand 
Company. After grinding and washing, the 

product is shipped to various centers to be 
used in the process of glass-making. At Bos- 
ton Ledges and on the top of the bluffs about 
Old Maid's Kitchen it may also be studied to 
good advantage. This stratum averages about 
100 feet in thickness. On account of its 
strength and durability it is much used for 
rougher construction purposes, such as foun- 
dations, bridges and culverts. 

It is not po.?sible to find coal north of the 
place of outcrop of the Carboniferous Con- 
glomerate, for the coal measures all lie above 
it. Sometimes it is missing and the coal beds 
lie directly above the Cuyalioga shale. The 
rocks containing the coal measures all lie in 
the southern part of the county. In them are 
found four different seams of coal. The top 
and bottom seams are about 200 feet apart. 
The lowest, of course, is the best coal. In the 
Ohio Geological Reports it is called Coal No. 
1. It is of the same grade as the best Ohio 
bituminous coal. It is found in basins or 
])ockets which were the swamps of the coal- 
forming period. It occurs about twenty-five 
feet above the Carboniferous Conglomerate, 
or, when the latter is wanting, the Cuyahoga 
Shale. The next seam gives us coal No. 2, 
which is of little value. Coal No. 3 comes 
to the surface near Mogadore. It is a thin 
stratum and is of value only because of the 
under-clay, which is used in making sewer- 
pipe and coarse pottery. In the southeastern 
part of the county coal No. 4 is found. It is 
of little value, except for local consumption. 
A bed of lime-stone is sometimes found above 
both No. 3 and No. 4. This lime-stone car- 
ries a low-grade iron ore, of which use was 
made in the early days of Summit County. 
The last blast-furnace has long since drawn its 
fires, and the only use which can be made of 
this lime-stone bed at the present time would 
be the manufacture of lime, cement, or mate- 
rial for road-making. 



Pioneer Conditions — Indian Trading — Wild Garae — Home-Made Garments — Pioneer Hos- 
pitality — Social Amusements — First Published Description of Summit County — Making 
of Summit County — Western Reserve — Organization of the County — County Seat Se- 
lected — County Seat Contests — Adams' Reception — Territorial Changes. 

Unfortunately for the purposes of the mod- 
ern historian, the early settlers of Summit 
County left no written record of their expe- 
riences in breaking the forest and founding 
homes in the wilderness. Only a few meager 
accounts contained in letters and recorded in 
journals, exasperatingly deficient in details, 
have been left to give succeeding generations 
an idea of how the pioneers in the land lived. 
Many oral traditions have survived, however, 
and many vivid stories are still being told 
which have never been seen in pi'int. 

In 1904 the total valuation of property in 
the State of Ohio was $2,113,808,168. The 
real wealth of Ohio in this year — 1907 — is 
probably not far from five billions of dollars. 
In respect to wealth, ours is the fourth State in 
the Union, only New York, Massachusetts and 
Pennsylvania exceeding it. It is difficult to 
realize that this has practically all been ac- 
cumulated within one century. Every nook 
and corner of the State has ' kept pace with 
the growth of American culture and refine- 
ment. Ohio is abreast of the times in every 
desirable respect. The humblest today enjoy 
advantages which would have been extreme 
luxuries for their predecessors of only two 
or three generations back. Contrast the life 
of today with the following picture of the 
everyday experiences in the early years of the 
past century found in Carpenter and Arthur's 

History of Ohio. It was written at an early 
time, when the first cornel's were still with us 
and were fond of relating their early hard- 


The present resident's of the now flourish- 
ing State of Ohio, living in the midst of 
plenty, can form but a faint conception of the 
hardships and privations endured by their 
predecessors. The first object of the pioneer, 
after selecting a suitable spot, was to build a 
log cabin of proper dimensions as a residence 
for his family. The walls of his cabin were 
constructed of logs piled one upon another, 
the space between being completely closed 
with tempered clay. The floor was made of 
puncheons or planks, formed by splitting logs 
to about two and a half or three inches in 
thickness, and hewing them on one or both 
sides with a broad-axe. The roof and ceiling 
-were composed of clap-boards, a species of 
pioneer lumber resembling barrel staves be- 
fore they are shaved, but split longer, wider 
and thinner. The walls of the log cabin 
having been erected, the dooi^ and windows 
were then sawn out; the steps of the door 
being made with the pieces cut from the 
walls, and the door itaelf formed of the same 
material a." the floor. The apertures in the 
walls intended for windows were pasted over 



with paper lubricated with bear's oil or lard, 
which was used as a substitute for glass. This 
paper resisted the rain tolerably well, and at 
the same time subdued the direct rays of the 
sun, and admitted into the mde apartment a 
light beautifully softened and mellowed. 

The furniture of the log cabin corresponded 
to the cabin itself in simplicity and i-udeness 
of construction. The bedstead was usually 
formed in the following manner. Two round 
poles were first fixed in the floor as uprights, 
at a distance from each other and from the 
walls of the cabin, equal to the intended 
length and breadth of the bedstead. A pole 
was then inserted into either post as a side 
rail, and two poles were also fixed in them, at 
right angles to the plane of the wall, their 
ends being wedged into the crevices between 
the logs. Some puncheons were then split 
and laid from the side-rail across the bed- 
stead, their ends being also inserted into the 
chinks of the log wall. This constituted the 
bottom of the bedstead. The skins of the 
bear, the buffalo and the deer formed the 
bedding. The shelves of the log cabin 
were made of clap-board, supported on 
wooden pegs driven in between the logs, and 
on these were displayed such wooden, pewter 
and earthenware plates and dishes as the 
pioneer was fortunate enough to possess. One 
pot, kettle and frying-pan were considered to 
be the only articles absolutely indispensable, 
though some included the tea-kettle. The 
few plates and dishes on the clap-board shelf 
were sufficient for the simple wants of their 
owners, who relished their food none the less 
that it was eaten from common trenchers and 
from a puncheon table. The great scarcity 
of domestic utensils among the settlers often 
taxed their ingenuity to supply the want when 
an influx of visitors unexpectedly trespassed 
upon their hospitality. 

"A year or two after we arrived," writes 
one of the earlier pioneers, "a visiting party 
was arranged by the ladies in order to call 
on a neighboring family who lived a little out 
of the common way. The hostess was much 
pleased to see us, and immediately commenced 
preparing the usual treat on such occasion.* — 

a cup of tea with its accompaniments. She 
had only one fire-proof vessel in the house — 
an old, broken bake-kettle — and it was some 
time before tea was ready. In the first place, 
some pork was fried in the kettle to obtain 
lard; secondly, some cakes were made and 
fried in it; thirdly, some short cakes were 
prepared in it; fourthly, it was used as a 
bucket to draw water; fifthly, the water was 
boiled in it; finally, the tea was put in, and 
a very excellent and sociable dish of tea we 

The seats in the log house were generally 
three-legged stools, for, owing to the uneven- 
ness of the puncheon floor a chair with four 
legs could not readily be made to stand even- 
ly upon its surface. Some of the wealthier 
families might have a few split-bottomed 
chairs, but more frequently stools and benches 
occupied the place of chairs and sofas. 

After the pioneer had completed his log 
house, the next thing to be done was to effect 
a "clearing" around it for a "corn-patch." 
When the trees were cut down the ground 
was usually ploughed with a shovel-plough, 
this 'being the best instrument with which to 
force a way among the roots. As the clear- 
ing expanded, many were the farinaceous 
delicacies M^hich covered the settler's puncheon 
table. The johnny-cake, made of corn-meal, 
hominy, or pounded maize, thoroughly boiled, 
and other savoury preparations of flour and 
milk. The forest furnished him with an 
abundance of venison and wild turkeys, while 
corn "pone" supplied the place of every va- 
riety of pastry. Hogs and sheep were, how- 
ever, seldom raised, on account of the wolves 
and bears which infested the woods. 

The corn of the first settlers was either 
pounded in a "hominy block," which was 
made by burning a hole into the end of a 
block of wood, or ground in a hand-mill. 
After the corn was sufficiently pounded it 
was passed through a sieve, and the finer por- 
tion of the meal having been made into bread 
and mush, the coarse remainder was boiled 
for hominy. The supper of the pioneer usu- 
ally consisted of and milk. A capacious 
pot containing this preparation was sometimes 



placed on the table, and all the guests invited 
to help themselves. More commonly, how- 
ever, each person was furnished with a pew- 
ter spoon, and a tin cup containing milk, into 
which he infused the pure mush in propor- 
tions most agreeable to his taste. 

The pioneers had frequently great diffi- 
culties to surmount before they could get 
their corn ground. Notwith.standing, the 
rich harvests of maize yielded by their clear- 
ings, meal was a very scarce article in their 
cabins. To procure it they had to choose 
between the hominy mortar or a toilsome 
journey of upward of thirty miles, over an 
Indian trail, to the nearest mill. In 1791 
flour was so scarce and dear, that the little 
which could be afforded in families was laid 
by to be used only in sickness or for the en- 
tertainment of friends, for, although corn 
was then abundant, there was but one float- 
ing mill on the Little Miami. It was built 
in a small fiat-boat tied to the bank, its wheel 
being slowly turned by the force of the cur- 
rent. It was barely sufficient to supply the 
inhabitants of Columbia (the second settle- 
ment in Ohio) with meal; and, sometimes, 
from low water and other unfavorable cir- 
cumstances, was of little or no sers'ice. At 
such times the deficiency in flour had to be 
supplied by hand mills, a most laborious mode 
of grinding. 

About this time each house in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County, had its own hand grist- 
mill in the chimney corner, which has been 
thus described: "The stones were of the com- 
mon grindstone gi'it, about four inches thick 
and twenty inches in diameter. The ninner 
was turned by hand, with a pole set in the 
top of it near the verge. The upper end of 
the pole went into another hole inserted into 
a board and nailed on the underside of the 
joist, immediately over the hole in the verge 
of the runner. One person turned the stone, 
and another fed the corn into the eye with his 
hands. It was very hard work to grind, and 
the operators alternately changed places." It 
took the hard labor of two hours to supply 
enough for one person for a single day. 

About the year 1800 one or two grist-mills. 

operating by water, were erected. One of 
these was built at Newbury, in Cuyahoga 
County. In Miami County the most popular 
millers were Patterson, below Dayton, and 
Owen Davis, on Beaver Creek. But the dis- 
tance of many of the settlements from these 
mills, and the want of proper roads, often 
made the expense of grinding a single bushel 
equal the value of two or three. 

It was not an uncommon thing for the 
pioneer to leave his family in the wilderness 
with a stinted supply of food, and with his 
team or pack-horse travel twenty or thirty 
miles for provisions. The necessary ap- 
pendages of his journey were an axe, a pocket- 
compass, a blanket and bells. He had to cut 
a TOad through the woods with the axe, wide 
enough for his team, ford .almost impassable 
streams, and, as the day drew to its close, look 
out for a suitable place for a night's encamp- 
ment. Having decided on the spot, he then, 
by means of flint, steel, and a charge of pow- 
der, kindled a fire to dissipate the gloom and 
damps of night, to drive off the mosquitoes, 
and to prevent the approach of wild animals. 
The harness being removed from the cattle, 
the bells were attached to their necks, and 
they were driven forth to find such pasturage 
as the forest afforded. After having par- 
taken of his solitary meal, the blanket was 
spread on the ground in the neighborhood of 
the camp-fire, and the wearied backwoodsman, 
wrapped in its warm folds, .slept soundly be- 
neath the trees. In the morning, or more 
frequently, long before the break of day, he 
listened to catch the sound of bells, to him 
sweet music, for not unfrequently hours were 
consumed in tedious wanderings before he 
could recover his stray cattle, harness them to 
his team, and resume his journey. On 
reaching his place of destination, if he could 
only get his grinding done by waiting no 
longer than a day and a night at the mill, he 
esteemed himself fortunate. The corn hav- 
ing been ground, the pioneer retraced his 
steps to his lonely and secluded family, and 
not unfrequently had scarcely time to rest 
and refresh himself, before the same journey 
had to be repeated. 



Jacob Foust, one of the Ohio backwoods- 
men, when his wife was sick, and he could 
obtain nothing to eat that she relished, pro- 
cured a bushel of wheat, and, throwing it on 
his shouldere, carried it to Zanesville to get 
it ground, a distance of more than seventy- 
five miles from his dwelling, bjf the tortuous 
path he had to traverse. His object accom- 
plished, he once more resumed his load, and 
returned homo, fording the streams and camp- 
ing ovit at nights. 

The animal food which covered the table of 
the settler was chiefly obtained from the 
woods. Hunters, the better to elude the ever- 
watchful eye of the deer and turkey, wore 
hunting-skirts of a color suited to the season 
of the year. In spring and summer their 
dress was green; in the fall of the year it 
resembled the fallen leaves, and in winter, as 
nearly as possible, the bark of trees. If there 
was any snow on the ground, the hunters 
put on a white hunting-shirt. As soon as 
the leaves had fallen, and the weather became 
rainy, the hunter began to feel uneasy at 
home. "Everything about him became dis- 
agreeable. The house was too warm, the bed 
too soft, and even the good wife for the time 
was not thought to be a good companion." A 
party was soon formed, and on the appointed 
day the little cavalcade, with horses carrying 
flour, meal, blankets, and other requisites, 
were on their way to the hunting-camp. This 
was always formed in some sheltered and se- 
questered spot, and consisted of a rude camp, 
with a log fire in the open air in front of it, 
the interior of the hut being well lined with 
skins and moss, the only bedding on which 
these hunters were accustomed to sleep. 

It was to the spoils of the chase that the 
pioneers and Indians trusted for the skins and 
furs to barter for the few necessaries they re- 
quired from tlie Eastern States. An Indian 
trail from Sandusky to the Tuscarawas, passed 
by the residence of Mr. Harris, who formed 
the first regular settlement at Harrisville, .in 
Medina County. It was a narrow, hard- 
trodden bridlepath. In the fall the Indians 
traversed it from the west to this region, re- 
mained through the winter to hunt, and re- 

turned in the spring; their horses laden with 
furs, jerked venison, and bear's oil, the last 
an extensive article of commerce. Their 
horses were loose, and followed each other 
in single hunter's file, and it was by no means 
remarkable to see a single hunter returning 
with as many as twenty horses laden with his 
winter's work, and usually accompanied by 
his squaw. 


The mode in which business was con- 
ducted with the Indians by the fur traders, 
was as follows: The Indians walked into 
the merchant's store, and deliberately seated 
themselves, upon which the latter presented 
each of his visitors with a small piece of 
tobacco. Having lighted their pipes, they 
smoked and talked together awhile. One of 
the Indians then went to the counter of the 
merchant, and, taking up the yard-stick, 
pointed to the first article he desired to pos- 
sess, and inquired its price. A muskrat skin 
^vas equal in value to a quarter of a dollar ; a 
raccoon skin, a third of a dollar; a doeskin, 
half a dollar, and a buckskin, a dollar. The 
questions were asked after this manner : "How 
many buckskins for a shirt pattern?" The 
Indian, learning the price of the fii-st article, 
paid for it by selecting the required number 
of skins, and handing them to the trader, be- 
fore proceeding to the second, when 
he repeated the same process, paying for 
everything as he went along. While the first 
Indian was trading the others looked on in 
silence, and when he was through, a.nother 
took his place, until all were satLsfied. No 
one desired to trade before his turn, but all 
observed a proper deconim, and never offered 
a lower price, but, if dissatisfied, passed on 
to the next article. They were careful not 
to trade when intoxicated; but usually re- 
served some of their skins with which to buy 
liquor, and close their business transactions 
with a frolic. 

To such of the pioneers, however, as did 
not hunt, the long winter evenings were 
rather tedious. They had no candles, and 
cared but little about them, except at such 








seasons. The deficiency in light was, how- 
ever, partially remedied by torches made of 
pine-knots, or the bark of the shelly hickory. 
To relieve the tedium, the pioneer would read 
aloud to hi>s family from such books as his 
cabin afforded, or engage in the usual opera- 
tions of the season, such as shelling corn, 
scraping turnips, stemming and twisting to- 
bacco, plaiting straw for hats, or ci'acking 
walnuts and hickory nuts, of which the in- 
mates of every cabin usually laid in a' good 
winter's supply. 


The wolf for a considerable time caused 
much trouble to the pioneers, and prevented 
the profitable raising of sheep and hogs in 
the neighborhood of the "clearing." In or- 
der to preserve the hogs from the attacks of 
these animals, it was necessary to build the 
walls of the hog-pen so high that the wolf 
could neither jump nor climb them. Their 
depredations were so great that the state of- 
fered a bounty of from four to six dollars 
apiece on their scalps. This made wolf hunt- 
ing rather a lucrative business, and called into 
action all the talent of the country. Some- 
times these ferocious animals were taken in 
traps. The wolf-trap resembled a box in ap- 
pearance, formed of log-s, and floored with 
puncheons. It was usually made about six 
feet in length, four feet in width, and three 
feet in depth. A very heavy puncheon lid 
was moved by an axle at one end, the trap 
being set by a figure four, and baited. On 
one occasion, a hunter went into a wolf-trap 
to adjust the spring, when the lid .suddenly 
fell and hurled him into the pit. Unable to 
raise the cover, and several miles from the 
nearest house, he was imprisoned for a day 
and night in his own trap, and would have 
perished but for a passing hunter, who heard 
his groans and instantlj' relieved him. 

Bears and panthers were at one time com- 
mon in the northwestern territory, but their 
depredations on the hog-pen were not so fre- 
quent as those of the wolf and the wild-cat, 
and they were tisually more shy in tlicir 


Most of the articles of dress worn by the 
first settlers were of domestic manufacture. 
Wool was not yet introduced into the country, 
and all their home-spun garments were made 
from flax or hemp, or from' the skins of the 
deer, which, when nicely dressed, afforded 
warm and comfortable clothing. Such was 
the settler's everyday and holiday garb. A 
common American check was considered a 
superb article for a bridal-dress, and such a 
thing as silk or satin was never dreamt of. 
A yard of cotton check, which can now be ob- 
tained for twelve and a half cents, then cost 
one dollar, and five yards was deemed an 
ample dress pattern. The coarser calicoes 
were one dollar per yard, while whiskey was 
from one to two dollai's per gallon, and as 
much of this article was sold as of anything 
else. The country merchants, however, found 
it advantageous to their business to place a 
bottle of liquor on each end of the counter 
for the gratuitous use of their customers. 

In the fall of 1800, Ebenezer Zane laid out 
a town in Fairfield County, and in compli- 
ment to a number of emigrants from Lan- 
caster County, Pennsylvania, who had pur- 
chased lots, called it New Lancaster. It re- 
tained that name until 1805, when, by an 
act of the legi.slature, the word "New" was 
dropped. Shortly after the settlement was 
made, and 'while the stumps were yet in the 
streets, the cheapness of whiskey occasionally 
led some of the settlers to indulge in drunken 
frolics, which not un frequently ended in a 

In the absence of law, the better disposed 
part of the population held a meeting, at 
which it was resolved tliat any person in the 
settlement foimd intoxicated .should for every 
such offense either dig a stump out of the 
street, of which there were many, or suffer 
personal chastisement. The result was. that, 
after several of the offenders had expiated 
their offenses, dram-drinking cea.sed. and so- 
briety and good conduct marked the char- 
acter of the people. 

For many years the pioneers lived together 



on the footing of social equality. The rich 
and the poor dressed nearly alike. What lit- 
tle aristocratic feeling any new settler might 
bring with hini', was soon dissipated, for all 
soon found themselves equally dependent. 
The pioneers knew who were sick for manj' 
miles ai-ound, and would very cheerfully 
tender their assistance to each other under 
such circumstances. All sympathized on 
these occa-sions, and the log cabin of the in- 
valid would be visited, not only by those in 
his own immediate neighborhood, but by set- 
tlers from a distance, who would keep him 
well supplied with the best of everything their 
primitive habits could afford. 


The stranger ever received at the log cabin 
of these pioneers a generous welcome. The 
rough fare on the puncheon table was most 
cheerfully shared, and any offer of remunera- 
tion would offend them. Even the Indian, 
in times of peace, was no exception, and would 
be received and kindly entertained with such 
fare as the cabin afforded. The pioneer hos- 
pitality, together with its happy effects on 
one occasion, is well exemplified in the fol- 
lowing confession of converted Wyandot chief, 
named Rohn-yen-ness. He had been chosen 
by his tribe to murder Andrew Poe, a woods- 
man, celebrated in border warfare, who had 
slain, among others, one of the bravest war- 
riors in the Wyandot nation. This Indian 
proceeded to Poe's house, where he was re- 
ceived with utmost and hospitality. 
Poe, having no suspicion whatever of his de- 
sign, furnished him with the very best which 
his cabin afforded. When bedtime came, a pal- 
let was carefully prepared for their Indian 
guest by the hospitable couple in their own 
chamber. The unsuspicious hunter and his 
famih'^ having fallen into a deep sleep, the 
Indian had now a fair opportunity to accom- 
plish their destruction. He thought of the 
duty he owed to his nation, of the death of its 
most valiant warrior, and of the anger of his . 
tribe : but Poe had received him with so much 

kindness, had treated him so much like a 
brother, that he could not summon a suffi- 
cient amount of resolution to kill him, and in 
this unsettled state of mind he lay till about 
midnight. Once more he arose from his pal- 
let, and approached his sleeping host. His 
sinewy arm was uplifted, and the murderous 
weapon glittered in his hand. Again the 
kindness of the sleeping pioneer overcame 
the resolution of the Indian, who, feeling it 
to be unworthy the character of a warrior to 
kill even an enemy who had reposed in him 
such generous confidence, returned to his pal- 
let and slept till morning. During the war, 
however, it was necessary to be more guarded 
in entertaining Indians, and, although the 
following incident is more romantic than 
tragic, it affords a good general illustration 
of the danger to which the settlers were ex- 

One night, just before retiring to rest, a 
backwoodsman of the name of Minor Spicer, 
residing near Akron, in Summit County, 
heardi some one call an front of his log 
cabin. He went out and saw a large Indian 
with two rifles in his hand and a deer quar- 
tered and hung across his horse. Spicer asked 
him what he wanted. The Indian replied in 
his own dialect, when the other told him he 
must speak English or he would unhorse him. 
He finally gave Spicer to understand that he 
wanted to stay all night, a request which was 
reluctantly gi-anted. The rifles of the Indian 
were laid in a corner, his venison hung up, 
his horse stabled in an out-house, and the 
Indian invited to enter the dwelling of the 

The savage now cut a piece of venison for 
Mrs. Spicer to cook for him, which she did 
in the usual way, with a liberal supply of 
pepper and salt. He drew near the table and 
ate only sparingly. The family being ready 
to retire, he placed his scalping-knife and 
tomahawk in the corner with his rifles, and, 
stretching himself upon the hearth before 
the fire, was soon apparently asleep. After 
a while he was observed to raise himself 
slowly from his recumbent position and sit 


upright on the hearth, looking stealthily over 
his shoulder, to see if all was still. Having 
satisfied himself that the family slept, the 
savage rose to his feet, and stepped lightly 
across the floor to the corner where lay his 
implements 'of death. At this juncture the 
feelings of Spicer and his wife may be imag- 
ined, for they were only feigning sleep, and 
were intently watching. The Indian stood 
half a minute to see if he had awakened any- 
one, and then slowly drew forth from its 
scabbard the glittering scalping-knife. At 
the moment when Spicer was about to lay 
his hand upon his rifle, which stood near his 
bed the Indiim crossed quietly to the venison, 
cut several steaks from it. and was soon after 
busily engaged in broiling a supply for him- 
self, freed from the pepper, which had pre- 
viously offended his unsophisticated taste. 


The social amusements of the pioneers 
originated in the peculiarities of their habits, 
and were especially characteristic. On the ar- 
rival of a new settler, every one was expected 
to perform a certain amount of gratuitous 
labor at the "log-rolling," or the raising of 
the new cabin. Some felled the trees and cut 
them the proper length: others prepared 
puncheons for the floor, and clap-boards for 
the roof, while another neighbor with his t-eam 
hauled these materials to the site on which 
the cabin was to be erected. A large num- 
ber of persons usually assembled at this place 
on the day appointed for the raising, by whom 
the walls of the house w-ere speedily con- 
structed. The labors of the day having 
ended, the evening was spent in dancing and 
other innocent amusements. If the company 
had no fiddler, which was not unfrequently 
the case, some of the party would supply the 
deficiency by singing. 

Marriages among the pioneers wpi'p gen- 
erally contracted in early life, and on these 
truly festive occasions the youth of both sexes 
in the immediate neighborhoods, and for fif- 
teen or tw^enty miles around, would be gath- 

ered together. On the morning of the wed- 
ding day the bridegi'ooni and his friends, with 
their numerous visitors, assembled at the 
house of the bride, and, after the ceremony 
was performed, the company were enter- 
tained with a most substantial backwoods 
feast of beef, pork, fowls, with plenty of po- 
tatoes, cabbages and other vegetables. After 
dinner the young people engaged in various 
rural sports until dancing commenced, which 
was kept up for the remainder of the day, 
and not unfrequently through the whole of 
the night. The dances most in vogue being 
ordinarily three and four-hand reel-, or 
square sets and jigs. 

The next day the whole party were accus- 
tomed to return to the house of the "''groom" 
to partake of the "infair." On arriving 
within a mile of the dwelling, two young nif n 
would volunteer to race for the bottle. 
Mounted on ponies (the rougher the road the 
better) both started with an Indian yell, and 
away they went over logs, brush, muddy hol- 
lows, hills and glens, the obstacles on the road 
only serving for a better display of rival in- 
trepidity and horsemanship. The bottle was 
always filled and ready to be presented to the 
first who reached the door. The successful 
competitor having drank the health of the 
bride and groom, then returned in triumph 
to distribute potations among the company. 

Although among the pioneers disputes 
would occasionally arise, biit few ever thought 
of settling them by legal proceedings. There 
were other modes of adjudication. Some- 
times a duel would decide all difficulties. At 
others the pugilistic ring was formed, and, 
after a fight, which often afforded an oppor- 
tunity of displaying great courage and im- 
mense powers of endurance, the conqueror 
w-ould shake hands with the vanquished, and 
a perfect good feeling would usually be re- 
stored betw-een the contending parties. It is 
true there were some justices of the peace, 
men generally chosen by the pioneers on ac- 
coimt of their strong, natural sense, who ad- 
mirably answered all the purposes of their 




In the spring of 1755, James Smith, a 
youth of 18 years, was taken captive by 
three Indians, about five miles above Bedford, 
Pennsylvania. He was taken by them to 
the banks of the Allegheny River, opposite 
Fort Duquesne, where he was compelled to 
run the gauntlet, consisting of two long I'anks 
of Indians, two or three rods apart. He es- 
caped with a slight tomahawk injury, and his 
fleetness and skill awakened such an admira- 
tion among the Indians that they spared his 
life and adopted him into the tribe, the name 
of which wa^ Caughnewaga. Several years 
later, upon the conclusion of a treaty with 
the whites, he was released and returned to 
civilization. In 1799 there was published 
in Lexington, Kentucky, by John Bradford, a 
book entitled "Narrative of the Captivity of 
Colonel James Smith Among the Ohio In- 
dians, Between May, 1755, and April, 1759." 
It is a most thrilling .story of Jame.s Smith's 
experience during his Indian life, and its 
authenticity is unimpeached. In his Indian 
hunting trips he traversed our portage path 
and has left us the first description of the 
adjacent country which has been published. 
It is given in Colonel Smith's own words and 
is as follows: 

"Sometime in October another adopted 
brother, older than Tontileango, came to pay 
us a visit at Sunyendeand and asked me to 
take a hunt with 'hiin on Guyahaga. A.s they 
always used me as a freeman, and gave me the 
liberty of choosing, I told him that I was at- 
tached to Tontileango, had never seen him 
before, and, therefore, asked some time to 
consider this. He told me that the party he 
was going with would not be along, or at the 
mouth of this little lake, in less than six 
days, and I could in this time be acquainted 
with him, and judge for myself. I consulted 
with Tontileango on this occasion, and he 
told me that our old brother, Tecaughretanego 
(which was his name) was a chief and a bet- 
ter man than he was, and if I went with him 
I might expect to be well used, but he said I 

might do as I pleased, and if I stayed lie 
would use me as he had done. I told him 
that he had acted in every respect as a brother 
to me, yet 1 was much pleased with my old 
brother's conduct and conversation, and as 
he was going to a part of the country I had 
never been in, I wished to go with him. He 
said that he was perfectly willing. 

"I then went with Tecaughretanego to the 
mouth of the little lake, where he met with 
the company he intended going with, which 
was composed of Caughnewagas and Ottawas. 
Here I was introduced to a Caughnewaga sis- 
ter, and others I had never seen before. My 
sister's name was Mary, which they pro- 
nounced Maully. I asked Tecaughretanego 
how it came that she had an English name. 
He said that he did not know that it was an 
English name, but it was the name the priest 
gave her when she was baptized, and which 
he said was the name of the mother of Jesus. 
He said there were a great many of the 
Caughnewagas and Ottawas that were a kind 
of half Roman Catholics, but as for himself 
he said that the priest and he could not agree, 
as they held notions that contradicted both 
sense and reason and had the assurance to 
tell him that the book of God taught them 
these foolish absurdities, but he could not be- 
lieve that the great and good spirit ever taught 
them any such nonsense, and, therefore, he 
concluded that the Indians' old religion was 
better than this new way of worshi)iing (Sod. 

"The Otta\A'as have a very useful kind of 
tents, which they carry with them, mad-^ of 
flags, plaited and stitched together in a very 
artful manner, so as to turn the rain and wind 
well. Each mat is made fifteen feet long and 
about five feet broad. In order to erect this 
kind of tent they cut a number of long, 
straight poles, which they drive into the 
ground in the form of a circle, leaning in- 
wards; then they spread the mats on 
these poles, beginning at the bottom and 
extending up. leaving only a hole in the top 
uncovered, and this hole answers the place of 
a chimney. They make fire of dry split wood 
in the middle, and spread down bark mats 
and .skins for bedding, on which they sleep 



in a crooked posture, all around the fire, as 
the length of their beds will not admit of 
their stretching themselves. In place of a 
door they lift up one end of a mat and creep 
in, and let the mat fall down behind them. 
These tents are wai'm and dry, and tolerab- 
ly clear of smoke. Their lumber they keep 
under birch bark canoes, which they carry 
out and turn up for a shelter, where they 
keep everything from the rain. Nothing is 
in the tents but themselves and their bedding. 
"This company had four birch canoes and 
four tents. We were kindly received and 
they gave us plenty of hominy and wild fowl 
boiled and roasted. As geese, ducks, swans, 
etc., here are well grain-fed, they were re- 
markably fat, especiallj^ the green-necked 
ducks. The wild fowl fed upon a kind of 
wild rice that grows spontaneously in the 
shallow water, or wet places along the sides 
or in the corners of the lakes. As the wind 
was high and we could not proceed on uur 
voyage we remained here several days and 
killed abundance of wild fowl and a number 
of raccoons. 

"When a company of Indians are moving 
together on the lake, as it is at this time of 
the year, often dangerous sailing, the old men 
hold a council, and when they agree to em- 
bark, every one is engaged immediately in 
making ready, without offering one word 
against the mea.sure, though the lake may be 
boisterous and horrid. One morning, though 

..e wind appeared to me to be as high as in 
days past, the billows raging, yet the call was 
given yohohyohoh, which was quickly an- 

vvered by all -ooh-ooh, which signifies agreed. 
'.7e were all instantly engaged in preparing 

' start, and had considerable difficulties in 
•juibarking. As soon as we got into our ca- 
r )es we fell to paddling with all our might, 
working out from the shore. Though this 
sort of canoe rides waves beyond what could 
be expected, yet the water several times dashed 
into them. When we got out about half a 
mile from shore we hoisted sail, and as it was 
nearly a west wind, we then seemed to ride 
•the waves with ease, and went on at a rapid 
rr.^e. We then all laid down our paddles, ex- 

cepting one that steered, and no water 
dashed into our canoe until we came near 
shore again. We sailed about sixty miles that 
day and encamped some time before night. 
The next day we again embarked and went 
on very well for sometime, but the lake being 
boisterous and the wind not fair, we were 
obliged to make the shore, which we accom- 
plished with hard work and some difficulty in 

The next morning a council was held by 
the old men. As we had this day to pass by 
a long precipice of rocks on the shore about 
nine miles, which rendered it impossible for 
us to land, though the wind was high and 
the lake rough, yet as it was fair, we were 
all ordered to embark. We wrought ourselves 
from the shore and hoisted sail (what we 
used in place of sail cloth were our tent mats, 
which answered the purpose very well), and 
went on for some time with a fair wind, until 
we were opposite to the precipice, and then it 
turned toward the shore, and we began to 
fear that we should be cast upon the rocks. 
Two of the canoes were considerably farther 
out from the rocks than the canoe I was in. 
Those who were farthest out in the lake did 
not let down their sails until they had passed 
the precipice, but as we were nearer the rock, 
we were obliged to' lower our sails and paddle 
with all our might. With much difficulty we 
cleared ourselves of the rock and landed. 

This night the wind fell and the next 
morning the lake was tolerably calm and we 
embarked without difficulty, and paddled 
along near the shore, until we came to the 
mouth of the Cuyahaga, which empties into 
Lake Erie on the south side betwixt Cane- 
sadooharie and Presque Isle. We turned up 
Cuyahaga and encamped, where we stayed 
and hunted several 'days, and so we kept 
moving and hunting until we came to the 
forks of Cuyahoga. 

"This is a vers'- gentle river and but few 
ripples or swift running place? from the 
mouth to the forks. Deer here were tolerably 
plentv, large and fat, but bear and other game 
scarce. The upland is hilly and principally 
second and third-rate land: the timber chiefly 



black oak, white oak, hickory and dog-wood. 
The bottoms are rich and large, and the tim- 
ber is walnut, locust, mulberry, sugar-tree, 
redhaw, blackhaw, wild apple trees, etc. The 
west branch of this river interlocks with the 
east branch of Muskingum, and the east 
branch with the Big Beaver Creek that emp- 
ties into the Ohio about thirty miles below 
Pittsburg. From the forks of Cuyahaga to 
the east branch of Muskingum, there is a 
carrying place, where the Indians carry their 
canoes, etc., from the waters of Lake Erie 
into the waters of the Ohio. 

"From the forks I went over with some 
hunters to the east branch of .Muskingum, 
where they killed several deer, and a number 
of beavers, and returned heavy laden with 
skins and meat, which we carried on our 
backs, as we had no horses. Tlie land here 
is chiefly second and third-rate, and the tim- 
ber chiefly oak and hickory. A little above 
the forks, on the east branch of Cuyahaga, 
are considerable rapids, very rocky for some 
distance, but no perpendicular falls. 

"The party then built for themselves a 
'chestnut canoe' of large dimension? and en- 
joyed a fine paddling trip down the river. 
They then skirted the south shore of Lake 
Erie until they passed the mouth of San- 
dusky, where they put in on account of the 
wind having arisen. The narrative contains 
the following paragraph on profanity, which 
may not be -without a useful lesson even in 
these regenerate days. 

"I remember that Tecaughretanego, when 
something displeased him, said 'God damn it.' 
I asked him if he knew what he then said. 
He said he did and mentioned one of their 
degrading expressions, which he supposed to 
be the meaning, or something like the mean- 
ing of what he had said. I told him that it 
did not bear the least resemblance to it, that 
what he had said was calling upon the Great 
Spirit to punish the object he was displeased 
with. He stood for some time amazed, and 
then said: 'If this be the meaning of these 
words, what sort of people are the whites?' 
"When the traders were among us these 
words semed to be intermixed with all their 

discourse. He told me to reconsider what 
I had said, for he thought I must be mis- 
taken in my definition. If I was not mis- 
taken, he said, the traders applied these words, 
not only wickedly, but oftentimes very fool- 
ishly, and contrary to sense or reason. He 
said he remembered once of a trader's acci- 
dentally breaking his gun lock, and on that 
occasion calling out aloud, 'God damn it.' 
"Surely,' said he, 'the gun lock was not an 
object worthy of punishment for Owananeeyo, 
or the Great Spirit.' He also observed the 
traders often used this expression when they 
were in good humor and not displeased with 
anything. I acknowledged that the traders 
used this expression very often in a most irra- 
tional, inconsistent and impious manner, yet 
I still asserted that I had given the true mean- 
ing of these words. He replied, if so, the 
traders are as bad as Oonasharoona, or the 
underground inhabitants, which is the name 
they give to devils, as they entertain a no- 
tion that their place of residence is under the 



The two northernmost townships of Sum- 
mit County are situated in the very center of 
the Western Reserve. The full designation of 
this district is "The Western Reserve of Con- 
necticut." The connection of the name Con- 
necticut with land in Ohio, situated six hun- 
dred miles distant from the state of that name, 
came about in this way. In the year 1662, 
King Charles II of England granted a charter 
to Connecticut, which, after recognizing the 
claims of that colony resting upon former 
grants, conveyed to it all the land now occu- 
pied by it and, in addition thereto, all the ter- 
ritory lying west of it between the 41st and 
42nd North Paxallels, or the extent of its 
breadth, from sea to sea. Thus, the colony 
of Connecticut had a legal title to all the land 
lying west of the Delaware River between 41° 
and 42° 2' N. Latitude, to the Pacific Oceaii. 
Certain terms in the charter excepted from its 


provisions the Hudson valley, which was part 
of the territory of New York. Had this claim 
not been abandoned and had Connecticut's 
title been held valid, she would have possessed 
nearly two-fifths of the state of Pennsylvania, 
about one-third of Ohio, a portion of Michi- 
gan and all the western states whose extent 
is intersected by those parallels. This claim 
of Connecticut gave rise, later, to serious dis- 
putes and much bloodshed and suffering. 

The royal ignorance of American geog- 
raphy, in England, was astounding. Con- 
flicting grants had been made on a large scale 
and nearly all the colonies were making claim 
to parts of Pennsylvania and the western 
lands. Virginia, Maryland and New Jersey 
were each trying to obtain possession of the 
southern part of Pennsylvania. Several of 
their charters contained conveyances which 
overlapped. Each colony thought that it was 
in the right and relied upon the validity of 
its own royal grant. Nineteen years after 
making his grant to Connecticut, Charles II 
made another grant, by a royal charter, con- 
veying to Pennsylvania the territory she con- 
tinues to occupy and extending as far North 
as the 43° N. Latitude. Thus Connecticut's 
territory was overlapped by one degree and 
the way prepared for a tremendous contro- 
versy. Perhaps in justice to the memory of 
Charles II, it should be said that the bestowal 
of these lands upon the Penns was made after 
a report by the Attorney for the Crown, that 
"The tract of land desired by William Penn 
seens to be undisposed of by his Majesty, ex- 
cept the imaginary lines of New England pat- 
ents, which are bounded westwardly by the 
main ocean, should give them a real, though 
impracticable, right to all those vast terri- 
tories." (The italics are our.s.) 

Connecticut's cl.vims: western reserve. 

In 1653, Connectic;it be2;an to assert her 
rights in a physical way. She took possession 
of several towns on Long Island which were 
located within the limits of her claims. She 
made trouble for the Dutch on Manhattan 
Island, a readable account of which is con- 

tained in Washington Ii-ving's "Knicker- 
bocker History of New York." Just one hun- 
dred years later she formed the Susquehanna 
Company, which soon numbered over 1200 
persons. It was organized for the sole pur- 
pose of taking possession of and colonizing 
the beautiful Wyoming valley in Pennsyl- 
vania, which Connecticut exploring parties 
had discovered three years before. This com- 
pany purchased for about $10,000.00, from 
the Six Nations, the Indian title to all the 
land lying within the Wyoming valley. The 
attempt at colonization, which followed, gave 
rise to the "Pennanite War." 

In 1762, the first settlement was made and 
the first massacre of Wyoming came in Oc- 
tober of that year. Although driven out time 
and time again, imprisoned, subjected to every 
kind of maltreatment, and many of them 
killed, the Connecticut colonists persisted in 
their purpose. Upon the commencement of 
the Revolutionary War, nearly six thousand 
people from Connecticut had taken possession 
of land in Pennsylvania. On July 3. 1778, 
occurred the awful massacre of the peaceful 
inhabitants of Wyoming at the hands of the 
combined forces of Indians and British. This 
was one of the bloodiest, most atrocious and 
fiendish deeds of which history ha.s made any 
record. The entire settlement of Wyoming 
was obliterated. The earnestness of the peo- 
ple of Connecticut may be seen from the fact 
that in November of the same year, they 
returned, in numbers, to possess themselves 
of this valley of blood. 

When the Revolutionary War was over and 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, which 
in the meantime had acquired the title of the 
heirs of William Penn to all the land in dis- 
pute, could give her attention to the contro- 
versy ; she appealed to the Congress organized 
under the Articles of Confederation. She 
presented a petition on the 3rd day of No- 
vember, 1781, praying that Congress would 
adjudicate the claims of the different states 
to the disputed territories. Congress granted 
the petition and appointed a Board of Com- 
mi.ssioners, selected by the delegates of Con- 
necticut and Pennsylvania, to pass upon the 



respective claims. The verdict of the Com- 
mission was as follows: "We axe unani- 
mously of opinion that the jurisdiction and 
preemption of all territory lying within the 
charter of Pennsylvania, and now claimed by 
the State of Connecticut, do of right belong 
to the State of Pennsylvania. We are unani- 
mously of the opinion that Connecticut has 
no right to the lands in controversy." 

It is probable that this award was made on 
grounds of policy only. Connecticut's claims 
in law were well founded and her rights, 
therefore, were .superior to Pennsylvania's, 
but the conflicting claims of the other col- 
onies, particularly Virginia, New York and 
Massachusetts, were bringing the young na- 
tion to the verge of civil war. It is not alto- 
gether improbable that a compact was made 
with Connecticut to reimburse her in some 
other way, by land located elsewhere, in 
return for her surrender of Pennsylvania 
settlements she had made. There are many 
who believe that she was allowed to retain her 
title to the Wfestern Reserve on this account. 
This tract contains more land than the parent 
state itself, and now has a larger population. 
Thi^m^as what Connecticut received as a balm 
forTRr feelings, .so nidely wounded by the 
decree of the Trenton Court, as the Board 
of Commi&sioners was called. 

One of the greatest problems befove the 
new American nation was the settlement of 
the land claims made by the different states 
composing it. Congress made an appeal direct 
to the states that all claims to western lands, 
or any territory lying outside the boundaries 
of the respective states, should be ceded to the 
general government, for the benefit of all. 
This appeal succeeded. In 1780, the state of 
New-York granted to the United States all 
her right, title and interest in and to all 
western lands. In 1784, Virginia did the 
same. Massachusetts followed in 1785. On 
the 11th day of May, 1786, the state of Con- 
necticut relinquished all her right, title, in- 
terest, juri-sdiction and claim to all lands and 
territories lying west of a line 120 miles west 
of and parallel with the western boundary 
line of the state of Pennsvlvania, biit she ex- 

pressly reserved from her conveyance all the 
land lying between 41° and 42° 2' North 
Latitude, and bounded on the East by the 
west line of Pennsylvania, and on the West 
by a line parallel with the west line of Penn- 
sylvania and 120 miles west of it. This re- 
served land contained 3,366,921 acres, as a 
subsequent sui-vey showed. This was nearly 
200,000 acres more than the parent state con- 
tained. It embraced what is now the coun- 
ties of Ashtabula, Lake, Geauga, Trumbull, 
Cuyahoga, Portage, Medina, Lorain, Erie, 
Huron and parts of the counties of Maho- 
ning, Summit and Ashland. The popular 
designation of this tract was soon established 
as "The Connecticut Western Reserve." On 
September 14, 1786, Connecticut made a 
deed to Congress of the po.s3essions and in- 
terests enumerated in her offer and duly re- 
served the lands which Congress agreed should 
remain in her name. 

In 1792, Connecticut set a.side half a mil- 
lion acres of land, being the extreme western 
end of her reser\'ed territory, for division 
among those who had suffered by incursions 
of British soldiers and their Indian allies 
during the Revolution. of those who 
had suffered in this way had met their losses 
owing to the British having burned several 
Connecticut towns. For this reason, the tract 
of half a million acres which was at first called 
the Sufferers' Lands was afterwards given tlie 
name of "The Fire Lands." which is retained 
to this day. 

Connecticut determined to sell the balance 
of her land in the Western Reserve. In May, 
1795, the Connecticut legislature, in session 
at Hartford, passed a resolution providing for 
the sale of all land in the Western Reserve, 
except the Fire Lands. The legislature ap- 
pointed a committee, who eventually sold the 
lands offered, for the total sum of $1,200,- 
000.00. Forty-eight different deeds were 
made to as many different grantee.s. In the 
same year these forty-eight buyers formed the 
Connecticut Land Company. The Company 
was composed of some of the best and most 
prominent men in Connecticut. 

In ilav, 1796, General Moses Cleaveland 







led an expedition of fifty-two persons, for the 
purpose of making a survey of the lands just 
purchased. He was a veteran of the Revo- 
lutionary ^^'ar, a lawyer by profession, and 
a graduate of Yale. It wa^ on this surveying 
expedition, in July, 1796, that Cleveland was 
founded and the site surveyed into city lots. 
On July 10, 1800, Congress made the whole 
Western Reserve one county and gave it a 
government. It was named Trumbull County, 
of the Northwest Territory, being so named 
in honor of Jonathan Trumbull, who was 
then governor of Connecticut. "Warren was 
made the county seat. 


Summit County is one of the counties form- 
ing the southern half of the Reserve. All 
but its two southernmost townships, Green 
and Franklin, lie within the boundaries of 
the "Western Reserve. These townships are 
six miles square, while the others of the 
county are each five miles square. In 1833, 
a few citizens in Akron, which at that time 
was situated in Portage County, began to agi- 
tate the question of forming a new county, 
with Akron as its nucleus. Ravenna was 
the county seat of Portage Coimty, and it 
was a long and difficult trip there. Akron 
had grown very fast and began to covet 
the advantages of being the seat of govern- 
ment of the county. The new county project 
of course had the support of all the villages 
adjacent to Akron and of all the farmers liv- 
ing in that vicinity. 

Doctor Eliakim' Crosby was the prime 
mover in this matter, as he was in every laud- 
able enterprise. The energy and versatility 
of the man are worthy of remark in any his- 
tory of Summit County. He was the most 
indefatigable of all the founders of Akron, 
or of all who have wrought for her welfare 
and advancement. He made an ofiFer to give 
$2,000.00 toward the erection of the new 
county buildings, if Akron should be made 
the county seat of the new county. The 
proposition encountered much vicorous op- 
position, especially on the part of Ravenna 

citizens. For six years the projectors kept at 
work, trying to arouse sentiment in favor 
of the project and especially trying to get the 
representatives from the counties interested to 
present a bill in the legislature for the creation 
of the new one. 

At last it was accomplished by means of a 
political deal. The Whigs of Akron and vi- 
cinity voted with the Democrats of Portage 
County and succeeded in electing two repre- 
sentatives from Portage County who were 
pledged to the creation of the new county. 
The new State Senator for the district was 
Colonel Simon Perkins, who was in favor of 
the project. The legislature convened on the 
first Monday in December. 1889, and a bill 
was introduced by Hon. Rufus P. Spalding, 
the new representative, providing that the 
townships of Twinsburg, Northfield, Boston, 
Hudson, Stow, Northampton, Portage,- Tall- 
madge, Springfield and Coventry in Portage 
County; Richfield, Bath, Copley and Norton 
in Medina County, and Franklin and Green 
in Stark County, be erected into a separate 
county, to be known by the name of "Sum- 
mit." In order to restore the constitutional 
area to Medina County, the bill transferred 
Homer and Spencer townships from Lorain 
to Medina County. It provided for the col- 
lection of taxes, the maintenance of suits at 
law, the continuance of officials in office until 
the election of their successors and that 
Franklin and Green townships should not be 
taxed for the erection of county buildings 
during a term of fifty years after the passage 
of the Act. It stipulated the first election for 
officers of the new county should be held on 
the first Monday in April, 1840, and that 
courts should be held in Akron until the 
county seat was located. This was to be done 
by commissioners to be appointed by the 

The name "Summit" expressly given as the 
name of the new county, was obtained from 
the summit level of the Ohio canal, which 
level begins in the south part of Akron. It ex- 
tends from Lock one to New Portage. This 
long stretch of canal without a lock, being lo- 
cated upon the very highest land along the 



whole length of the canal, was called Summit 
Level. It is probable that the name was se- 
lected 'by Dr. Eliakim Cro.sby, Colonel Simon 
Perkins, or Judge Rufus P. Spalding. The 
last named probably drew up the bill. 

With the introduction of this bill, began 
one of the hottest legislative battles of the ses- 
sion. A powerful opposition arose at once. 
If the bill passed, Medina, Lorain, Portage 
and Stark counties would lose some of their 
best townships. The constituents of the legis- 
lators representing these counties were op- 
posed to it to a man. These legislators were, 
therefore, fighting for personal prestige as well 
as principle. They enlisted the support of the 
legislators of all other counties which had 
been threatened with a like fate. A strong 
lobby went to Columbus to work against the 
bill. Not a stone was left unturned in a search 
to find weapons to bring about its defeat. The 
opposition brought all possible filibustering 
tactics into play. They moved postpone- 
ments, laying on the table, referring to com- 
mittees, amendments, adjournments and every 
parliamentary device allowed by the rules of 
procedure. The ground was fought inch by 

The result was a .splendid victory for the 
new representatives. It reflects much credit 
upon their skill and sagacity. On Feb. 6, 
1840, the bill passed the House of Represent- 
atives, thirty- four votes being cast in its favor 
and thirty-one against. The margin by which 
success had been won was very small. On 
the 28th it emerged triumphant from a battle 
in the Senate, equally as fiercely contested. 
Here the vote stood 19 in its favor and 15 
against it. On March 3, 1840, it was signed 
by the Speaker of the House and the Presi- 
dent of the Senate and became a law. 

The legislature then appointed James Mc- 
Connell, of Holmes; Warren Sabin, of Clin- 
ton, and Jacob Williard, of Columbiana, as 
a Board of Commissioners to establish a 
county seat for the new-created county. Sum- 
mit was put in the Third Judicial District, 
with A.shtabula, Portage and Trumbull and 
into the Fifteenth Congressional District of 

Ohio, with Cuyahoga, Lorain, Medina and 
Portage. The people of the neighboring 
counties were much discomfited by their de- 
feat, and for a long time, looked upon the 
inhabitants of Akron as robbers and despoil- 
ers. The news of the passage of the bill 
through both houses reached Akron on the 
evening of March 2, 1840, and an impromptu 
celebration was held, lasting nearly all the 
night. On the 4th a formal celebration was 
had, consisting of a parade of all the military 
companies and bands in the county; a ban- 
quet in the open air in the grove on the 
"Gore," about where the present Court House 
stands; speeches by prominent citizens of the 
county ; and, in the evening, a big dinner and 
ball in the "Ohio Exchange," an hotel which 
stood on the southwest corner of Main and 
Market streets. According to the newspapers 
of the time, the affair was a great success and 
the new county w-as started on its successful 
career under the happiest auspices. 

The first officers elected for the new county 
offices were temporary ones. They were to 
hold office only from the time of the spring 
election in April until the regular state and 
county election, which, at that period of the 
State's history, was held in October. Thus, 
on the first Monday in April, there wcve 
chosen: For county treasurer, William 
O'Brien, of Hudson ; auditor, Birdsey Booth, 
of Cuyahoga Falls; recorder, Alexander .John- 
ston, of Green; sheriff, Thomas Wikon. of 
Northfield; county attorney, Geo. Kirknm, of 
Akron ; coroner, Elisha Hinsdale, of Norton ; 
county eommi-ssioners, Augastus Foot, of 
Twinsburg; John Hoy, of Franklin, and 
Jonathan Starr, of Coplev; appraisers, Fred 
A. Sprague, of Richfield; Milo Stone, of Tall- 
madge, and Thomas Jones, of Franklin. No 
probate judge was elected, as the laws of the 
State did not provide for such courts at that 
time. Temporary quarters for the county 
officers were secured in the Stone Block on 
the side of Howard Street, near Market, 
the third floor being used as a court-room 
with the jail in one corner. 




In May the Board of Commissioners for lo- 
cating the county seat appeared upon the 
scene and called a public meeting to hear 
arguments in favor of the different sites pro- 
posed. Only three were seriously considered 
— Akron, Cuyahoga Falls and Summit City, 
the new town just laid out by Dr. Eliakin 
Crosby as the w^estern terminus of his "Chuck- 
ery Race." The advocates of each of these 
sites had promised that the new court-house 
would be erected free of cost to the tax- 
paj'ers of the county if their particular site 
should be selected. The commissioners de- 
cided unanimously in favor of Akron and set 
off land on the "Gore," which had been do- 
nated to the county through the generosity 
of General Simon Perkins, of Warren, as the 
place at which to build the new court-house. 

As this site was just midway between North 
Akron, or Cascade, as it was sometimes called, 
and South Akron, the older village, both 
places joined in another celebration. A com- 
mittee of sixteen citizens was appointed for the 
purpose of raising money by subscription; 
$17,500.00 was raised. The county commis- 
sioners then appointed Dr. J. D. Commins, 
Richard Home and Col. Simon Perkins, Jr., 
as a building commission to collect the .sub- 
scriptions, make all contracts and have full 
charge of the work of erecting the new 
building. They were the first "Court-House 
Commission." The second was appointed in 
1905. They let the contract to Ithiel Mills, 
of Akron, and by January, 1841, he had com- 
pleted the foundations. 


In the meantime trouble was brewing and 
Akron was in a fair way of losing her ad- 
vantage as the county seat of Summit. It 
happened in this way: The orator who pre- 
sented the claims of Cuyahoga Falls, at the 
meeting called by the commissioners, was 
Elisha N. Sill, of that village. His defeat 
rankled and he was waiting and watching for 
a chance to retrieve it. He was a man of 
much force of character and occupied an in- 

fluential place among the Whig party of the 
county. Upon the expiration of the term 
of Senator Perkins, Mr. Sill secured the Whig 
nomination, as his successor, and was elected. 
Among his first acts as a legislator, was the 
introduction of a bill to re-locate the county 
seat of Summit County. Mr. Sill's influence 
with his party was sufficient to overcome the 
opposition in both houses and it became a 
law. When this news reached Akron there 
no celebration. Her citizens were almost in 

The new legislative commission consisted 
of Jacob Hoagland, of Highland; William 
Kendall, of Scioto, and Valentine Winters, of 
Montgomery. In May, 1841, they came to 
Akron, looked over the competing sites and 
conducted an exciting meeting in the old 
stone church on North High Street, which 
lasted all day. Senator Sill spoke for Cuya- 
hoga Falls and Hon. Rufus P. Spalding for 
Akron. Interested citizens of these two places 
filled the church to the doors. The excite- 
ment was intense. The next morning the 
commissioners astounded the whole commu- 
nity by announcing that a majority of them 
were in favor of Summit City, the paper- 
town on what is now North Hill. It was evi- 
dently a compromise decision. Mr. Kendall 
made a minority report in favor of Akron. 
The particular site staked out by the com- 
missioners was about half way up North Hill, 
nearly where the Bryan School now stands. 
The crowd which accompanied them expressed 
such disapproval that the majority commis- 
■sioners became much nettled, pulled up the 
stakes and drove on to Cuyahoga Falls, where 
they located the new court-house on the south 
?ide of Broad Street, between Front and Sec- 
ond Streets. 

The county officials divided on this ques- 
tion. Some moved their offices to Cuyahoga 
Falls; others retained theirs at Akron. The 
building commissioners stopped work on the 
new at Akron. Cuyahoga Falls 
made no move to build one there. All felt 
it would be necessary to await the next session 
of the legislature for decisive action by that 



The Whig party held its convention at 
Cuyahoga Falls that year and nominated for 
representatives Amos Seward, of Tallmadge, 
and Hai-vey Whedon, of Hudson, both favor- 
able to Cuyahoga Falls as the proper site for 
the county seat. A Peoples Convention was 
called to meet at Akron and a bi-partisan 
ticket was nominated. Hon. Rufus P. Spald- 
ing, a Democrat, and Colonel Simon Perkins, 
a Whig, were the nominees for representa- 
tives. In the election which ensued, this 
ticket was triumphantly elected. The Whig 
ticket was simply snowed under. The vote 
for the Akron ticket was nearly three to one. 

When the legislature assembled, the new 
Representatives began the work for which 
they had been sent there. Feeling confident 
because of the result of the last election, which 
had, in reality, been an issue simply between 
Akron and Cuyahoga Falls, they agreed to the matter of locating the county seat 
to a vote of the citizens of Summit County, 
and prepared and introduced a bill for the 
purpose. Senator Sill fought it vigorously in 
the Senate, but it passed both houses and was 
signed March 2, 1842. 

On the first Monday in April the election 
to choose the county seat was held. A poll of 
the votes showed that Akron had received 
2,978; Cuyahoga Falls, 1,384; Summit City. 
101, and other places, 24. Thus Akron's 
plurality and majority were each more than 
the total vote cast for Cuyahoga Falls. It was 
felt all over the county that this decisive 
victory settled the question for all time to 
come, and so it proved. 

The court-house was finished and accepted 
by the coimty commis.sioners December 6, 
1843. The minutes of this meeting show that 
"having examined the court-house, the board 
proposed as an offset to the gpnernl had char- 
acter of the work, which the building trustees 

fully admitted, to accept it, if the windows 
were made to work, * * * the doors better 
hung, * * * and the windows screened, 
etc." In spite of this sweeping condemna- 
tion, the building stood sixty-four years, or 
until this year of grace, 1907, in which it is 
proposed to demolish it, because of the erec- 
tion of the fine new court-house just west of 
it. In 1867 wings were added on the north 
and south sides. 


On the morning of Nov. 2, 1843, it was 
learned that ex-President John Quincy 
Adams, who w-as on his way to lay a corner 
stone for a public building at Cincinnati, was 
coming up the canal from Ckveland and 
would stop over in Akron while his packet 
was being "locked" through the local 21 
locks. Bells were rung, whistles blown, and 
almost the entire population were notified in 
a short time that the distinguished visitor 
would make an address in the court-room. 
Although it was not yet nine o'clock in the- 
morning, the court-house was crowded and 
Mr. Adams received a most enthusiastic wel- 
come. This was the first meeting held in the 
old (then new) court-house. 


The only changes which have been made 
in the territory of Summit County, were to 
establish townships co-extensive with the mu- 
nicipalities of Akron, Cuyahoga Falls and 
Middlebury, for purposes of government. 
Thus in 1851 Cuyahoga Falls Township was 
created; in 1857, the township of Middlebury, 
and, in 1888, the township of Akron. 



A Roster of Officials from the Organization of the County down to 1907. 

The following is a complete roster of all 
the officials of Summit County for the year 
1907. A list of all county officials occupy- 
ing the more important positions since the 
beginning of the county will be found at 
the end of the chapter. 

Judges of the Circuit Court for the Eighth 
Judicial Circuit: Ulysses L. Marvin, of 
Akron ; Louis H. Winch, of Cleveland ; F. A. 
Henry, of Cleveland. 

Judges of the Court of Common Pleas for 
the Second Subdivision of the Fourth Judi- 
cial Circuit: George C. Hayden, of Medina; 
Clarence G. Washburn, Elyria; Reuben M. 
Wanamaker, Akron; Dayton A. Doyle, 

Probate Judge, William E. Pardee; treas- 
urer, Isaac S. Myers; auditor, Marcus D. 
Buckman ; clerk of courts, Clint W. Kline ; 
sheriff, Dan P. Stein; recorder, .John Sowers; 
county commissionere, L. H. Oviatt, Hudson ; 
Gus Seiberling, Barberton, and John Frank, 
Fairlawn; prosecuting attorney, Henry M. 
Hagelbarger; coroner, H. S. Davidson, Bar- 
berton : referee in bankruptcy, Harry L. Sny- 
der. Infirmary directors, W. H. Wagoner, 
Coventry township; Z. F. Chamberlain, Ma- 
cedonia, and J. M. Johnston, Akron. 

Superintendent of infirmary, S. B. Stotler. 
Jury Commissioners: W. H. Stoner, P. G. 
Ewart, of Springfield; George Edwards, of 
Twinsburg, and W. H. McBarnes. Surveyor, 
Joseph A. Gehres. County detective, H. M. 
Watters. Stenographer of courts, W. H. Col- 

lins. Trustees of the Children's Home: A. 
M. Armstrong, J. B. Senter, of Northfield 
township; F. M. Green and Charles Hart. 
Superintendent of the Children's Home, D. 
R. Braucher. Members of the Court House 
Building Commission: L. H. Oviatt, chair- 
man; John C. Frank, secretary; Gus Seiber- 
ling; J. Park Alexander, R. F. Palmer, W. A. 
Morton and John Frank, of Fairlawn. Mem- 
bers of the Board of Countv School Examin- 
ers: M. S. Kirk, of Akron'; H. 0. Bolich, of 
Copley township, and C. A. Flickinger, of 
Peninsula. Deputy State supervisors of elec- 
tions: F. C. Wilson, chief deputy; R. E. 
Lewis, clerk. Members of the Summit County 
Soldiers and Sailors' Relief Commission : John 
C. Weber, of Akron ; John C. Reid, of Cuya- 
hoga Falls, and J. R. Campbell, of Akron, 
secretary. Deputy probate judge, Ora Lytle. 
Deputy clerks of courts: Ed. Mitchell, Har- 
riett M. Baad and Maud Gostlin. Deputy 
recorder, B. F. Clark. Deputy auditor, John 
Moore. Deputy sheriff, B. C. Garman. Su- 
perintendent of Court, Earl Shepherd. 


Mayor, Charles W. Kempel ; solicitor, Clyde 
F. Beery ; auditor, William A. Durand ; treas- 
urer, Fred E. Smith; engineer, John W. 
Payne; poor director, Joseph Kendall; city 
physician. Dr. A. W. Jones; superintendent 
of streets, Edward Dunn, Jr. ; .superintendent 
of markets, John Wolf. Board of Public 



Service: William J. Wildes, president; J. H. 
Burt, vice-president; James J. Mahonej'; 
Charles H. Watters, clerk. Board of Public 
Safety: C. C. Warner, president; E. C. Hou- 
sel; W. H. Kroeger, clerk. Police Depart- 
ment: John Durkin, chief of police; Robert 
Guillet, captain; Alva G. Greenlese, lieuten- 
ant; Bert Eckerman, detective; Harry Welch 
and Charles Doerler, special duty officers. 
Fire Department: John Mertz, chief; Frank 
Rice, assistant chief; Frank F. Loomis, me- 
chanical engineer; Julius D. Olsen, lineman; 
H. M. Fritz, captain Station No. 1; C. M. 
Smith, captain Station No. 2; C. S. Jost, cap- 
tain Station No. 3; C. E. Tryon, captain 
Station No. 4; John Cummins, captain Sta- 
tion No. 5 ; J. D. Dorner, captain Station No. 
6; N. P. Smith, captain Station No. 7. 

City Council: Ira A. Priest, president; 
Ray F. Hamlin, clerk ; Joseph Dangel, Adam 
G. Ranck, Harry A. Palmer, councilmen- 
at-large. Members from wards — Ward 1, H. 

F. Treap; 2, F. J. Gostlin; 3, Milo S. Wil- 
liams; 4, J. W. Gauthier; 5, John Beynon; 
6, Louis D. Seward; 7, C. H. Gardner.' 

Board of Health: Charles W. Kempel, 
president ex officio; Dr. A. A. Kohler, health 
officer; Michael W. Hoye, sanitary policeman 
and milk inspector; James D. Chandler, 
George W., John C. Weber, A. P. 
Woodring and William E. Young. 

Library Board: John C. Frank, George P. 
Atwater, William T. Vaughn. Henry Kraft, 

G. D. Seward and M. V. Halter. 

Board of Education: F. G. Stipe, presi- 
dent; J. F. Barnhart, clerk; F. E. Smith, 
treasurer; H. V. Hotchkiss, superintendent 
of instruction; Charles Watson, truant officer; 
J. T. Flower, I. C. Gibbons, F. G. Marsh, 

E. W. Stuart, A. E. Kling, F. G. Stipe and 

F. W. Rockwell, members. 

Teachers' Examination Committee: H. V. 
Hotchkiss, Lee R. Knight and L. D. Slusser. 
Special teachers : N. L. Glover, music ; Grace 
C. Sylla, drawing; D. E. Watkins, elocution. 
Principals of Schools: High School, D. C. 
Rybolt; Allen School, J. L. McFarland; 
Bowen, Margaret L. McCready; Bryan, M. E. 
Campbell ; Crosby, Harriet M. Jones ; Findley, 

Mame E. Knapp; Fraunfelter, Jessie V. 
Waltz; Grace, Agnes W. WatkinS; Henry, J. 
H. App; Howe, E. P. Lillie; Kent, W. H. 
Kopf; Lane, Sue E. Vincent; Legget, Eliza- 
beth Camp; Miller, W. C. Bowers; Perkins 
Normal, Lee R. Knight; Spicer, J. R. Smith. 
Parochial Schools: St. Bernard's, Sisters 
of St. Dominic; St. Mary's Sisters of St. Jo- 
seph; St. Vincent's, Sisters of St. Joseph. Sa- 
cred Heart Academy. German Lutheran 
Parish School. 


Mayor, James McNamara; clerk, George 
Davis; solicitor, C. M. Karch; treasurer, E. 

A. Miller; engineer, H. W. Alcorn; Marshal, 
D. R. Ferguson; chief of Fire Department, 
J. M. Royston; health officer, B. Roden- 
baugh; sanitary policeman, J. P. David. 
members of council: W. A. Bryan, B. C. 
Chandler, H. Y. Herman, A. W. Sample, 

B. C. Ross, Charles Worthen. Trustees of 
public affairs, F. A. Hale, M. C. Hastings, 
W. S. Mitchell. Board of Education: C. A. 
Carlson, president; 0. N. Craig, clerk; T. J. 
Davies, H. S. Davidson, W. P. Welker, U. G. 
High. Superintendent of Schools, J. M. Carr. 
The schools of Barberton are the High School, 
Baird Avenue, Rose Street, Hopocan Avenue, 
Portage, Riverside, Central and St. Augus- 
tine's Catholic (parochial) School. 


Perhaps all will agree that the one Summit 
County citizen whose fame has spread the 
farthest was John Brown, the hero of Har- 
per's Ferry and the Kansas struggle. He was 
not a native of the county, having been born 
in Connecticut, but, at the age of four years, 
his father brought him, with the rest of his 
family, to Hudson. There his early days 
were spent; there he was educated, and there 
it was he married the wife of his youth. He 
spent twenty-one years in Hudson, two in 
Richfield and two in Akron. Thereafter, 



Massachusetts, New York and the Nation 
claimed him. Hudson can justly claim that 
it was his rearing in the atmosphere of free- 
dom and sentiment of anti-bondage, which 
has always prevailed there, that was the in- 
spiration of his later life, and furnished the 
animus of the acts that brought his fame. 

The Summit County man, w'ho has risen 
highest in the official public life of the nation 
and who has brought to his county its great- 
est distinction in this respect, is our own hon- 
ored and beloved United States Senator, 
Charles Dick. He was born in Akron and 
has never lived anywhere else. He is proud 
to say that all he is, he owes to Summit 
County. When Senator Marcus A. Hanna 
died in 1904, the legislature of Ohio obeyed 
the wishes of the Republican party of the 
State when it made Charles Dick his successor. 
He served the unexpired part of Senator 
Hanna's term, and, in 1905, began the serv- 
ice of a full term. Summit County will, 
therefore, claim a United States Senator until 
1911, at least. If he desires a re-election al 
that time, his splendid record in the public 
service should bring him the title to another 

A high place in the Summit County Tem- 
ple of Fame belongs to Sidney Edgerton, a 
name that all the older residents, and many 
of the younger, will never hear mentioned, 
save with the deepest feelings of love and 
respect. Sidney Edgerton came to .Vkron in 
1844 from New York State, where he was 
born. He was then about twenty-five years 
of age. He taught school and .studied law 
until 1852, when he was elected prosecuting 
attorney of the county. In 1858, and again 
in 1860, he was elected to Congress. In 1863, 
President Lincoln appointed him Chief Jus- 
tice of Idaho, from which he resigned (o 
accept the appointment of Governor of the 
Territory of Montana. He resigned in 1866 
and returned to Akron, where he practiced 
law until his death. 

Russell A. Alger can hardly be credited to 
Summit County, a? he was born in the ad- 
joining county of Medina, and spent the 
active vears of his career as a citizen of 

Michigan. Most of his education, however, 
was secured in Richfield, where he attended 
the old Richfield Academy. He also taught 
school there two winters while pursuing his 
course. He spent the years 1857 and 1858 
in Akron, studying law in the office of Wol- 
cott and Upson. In 1860 he left Cleveland, 
where he had been practicing law and took 
up his residence in Michigan. He rose to 
the rank of major-general in the Civil War; 
was made Governor of Michigan in 1884; 
became secretary of war in President McKin- 
ley's Cabinet in 1897; and in 1901 was 
elected United States Senator, which position 
he held at the time of his death in 1907. 

Other temporary residents of Akron for 
short periods who afterwards reached high 
places in the national life were: 

David K. Cartter, who practiced law in 
Akron from 1836 to 1845, coming here from 
New York State; in 1848, and again in 1850, 
he was elected to Congress ; in 1861 appointed 
minister to Bolivia; and in 1863 appointed 
chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
District of Columbia. 

Wilbur F. Sanders, came to Akron in 1854, 
from New York State; taught school and 
studied law here until 1861, when he entered 
the Union Army ; in 1863 he became a citizen 
of Montana, and when that territory was ad- 
mitted to the Union in 1890, he was elected 
United States Senator. 

Samuel B. Axtell, who for some years had 
his residence in Richfield, was elected to 
Congress from a California district; in 1875 
appointed governor of Utah; in the same 
year, governor of New Mexico; in 1882 chief 
justice of New Mexico. 

William T. Coggeshall, lived in Akron 
from 1842 to 1847, was appointed minister 
to Ecuador in 1865, where he died in 1867. 

Christopher P. Wolcott was born in Con- 
necticut December 17, 1820; graduated at 
Jefferson College in 1840 ; was admitted to the 
bar and come to Akron in 1846. He was the 
senior member of the distinguished firm of 
Wolcott and Upson. In 1856, he was ap- 
pointed attorney-general of the State of Ohio 
to fill a vacancv. and was afterward elected 



twice to that office. In 1862, President Lin- 
coln appointed him assistant secretary of war. 
He served under his brother-in-law, Edwin 
M. Stanton, until within two months of his 
death. He died at his home in Akron, April 
4, 1863. 

Eufus P. Spalding, a native of Martha's 
Vineyard, Massachusetts, came to Akron in 
1840, and in 1841 was elected Speaker of the 
Ohio House of Representatives; in 1848 ap- 
pointed justice of the Supreme Court of Ohio. 
At the expiration of his term he moved to 
Cleveland, and was afterward elected to Con- 
gress for three terms. 

One of the most distinguished names in 
Summit County history is that of William 
H. Upson. He was born in Franklin County, 
Ohio, in 1823, but came to Tallmadge with 
his parents in 1832. He has been a resi- 
dent of the county, continuously, since that 
time. He came to Akron in 1846, a few 
months after his admission to the bar. He 
was prosecuting attorney 1848-1850; Ohio 
State Senator, 1853-1855; elected to Congress 
in 1869, and again in 1871 ; delegate to Na- 
tional Republican Convention in 1864, and 
voted to renominate Abraham Lincoln ; dele- 
gate-at-large from Ohio to the National Re- 
publican Convention in 1876; in 1883 was 
appointed justice of the Supreme Court of 
Ohio; in 1884, elected judge of the Circuit 
Court, and re-elected in 1886 and 1890. In 
1896 he retired from active practice and re- 
sumed his domestic quiet in Akron, where he 
still lives. 

In addition to those already mentioned, 
Summit County has had the following Rep- 
resentatives in Congress : George Bliss, 1852- 
1854; David R. Paige, 1882-1884; George 
W. Crouse, 1886-1888, and Charles Dick, 
1898-1904. She has had Presidential electors 
as follows: 'Stephen H. Pitkin, 1868; John 
R. Buchtel, 1872; Nathaniel W. Goodhue, 
1880, and Ulysses L. Marvin, 1884. 

This senatorial district has often called 
upon Summit County to represent the dis- 
trict in the Ohio Senate, as witness these 
names of Senators: Simon Perkins, 1838- 
1840; EHsha N. Sill, 1840-1842; William 

Wetmore, Jr., 1844-1846 ; Lucian Swift, 1848- 
1850; William H. Upson, 1853-1855; George 
P. Ashmun, 1857-1859; Lucuis V. Bierce, 
1861-1863; Newell D. Tibbals, 1865-1867; 
Henry McKinney, 1869-1871; N. W. Good- 
hue, 1873-1875; D. D. Beebe, 1877-1881; 
George W. Crouse, 1885-1887 ; J. Park Alex- 
ander, 1887-1891; George W. Sieber, 1897- 
1899; Nation 0. Mather, 1905-1907. 

Common Pleas Judges — Van R. Hum- 
phrey, 1840-1848; George Bliss, 1851-1852; 
Robert K. Du Bois, 1840-1845 ; Charles Sum- 
ner, 1840-1845; Hugh R. Caldwell, 1840- 
1847; John B. Clark, 1845-1846; James R. 
Ford, 1845-1849; Sylvester H. Thompson, 
1846-1852; John Hoy, 1847-1852; Samuel 
A. Wheeler, 1849-1850; Peter Voris, 1850- 
1852; James S. Carpenter, 1856-1861; Sam- 
uel W. McClure, 1870-1875; Newell D. Tib- 
bals, 1875-1883; Ulysses L. Marvin, 1883; 
Edwin P. Green, 1883-1891 ; Alvin C. VorL^, 
1891-1895; Jacob A. Kohler, 1895-1905; 
Reuben M. Wanamaker, 1905 to date, and 
Dayton A. Doyle, 1906 to date. 

Probate Judges: Charles G. Ladd, 1851- 
1852; Roland 0. Hammond, 1852; Constant 
Bryan, 1852-1853; Noah M. Humphrey, 
1854-1860; William M. Dodge, 1860-1861; 
A. H. Lewis, 1861; Stephen H. Pitkin, 1861- 
1868; Ulysses L. Mamn, 1869-1875: Samuel 
C. Williamson, 1875-1881; Nathaniel W. 
Goodhue, 1881-1883; Charles R. Grant. 1883- 
1891 ; Edward W. Stuart, 1891-1897 : George 
M. Anderson, 1897-1903 ; William E. Pairdee, 
1908 to date. 

Countv Clerks: Rufus P. Spalding, 1840; 
Lucian Swift, 1840-1847; Lucius S. Peck, 
1847-1851 ; Nelson B. Stone, 1851-1853 ; Ed- 
win P. Green, 1854-1861; John A. Means, 
1861-1864; Charles Rinehart, 1864-1870; 
John A. Means, 1870-1873; George W. 
Weeks, 1873-1879; Sumner Na.«h, 1879-1885; 
Othello W Hale, 1885-1891; Nathaniel P. 
Goodhue, 1891-1897; Edward A. Hershey, 
1897-1903 ; Clint W. Kline, 1903 to date. 

County Treasurers: William O'Brien, 1840- 
1842; George Y. Wallace, 1842; Milton Ar- 
thur, 1842-1848; William H. Dewev, 1848- 
1850; Frederick Wadsworth, 1850-1852; 

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Chester W. Rice, 1852-1854; Houston Sisler, 
1854-1858; Sullivan S. Wilson, 1858-1863; 
George W. Grouse, 1863; Israel E. Carter, 
1863-1867; Arthur L. Conger, 1867-1871; 
Schuyler R. Oviatt, 1871-1875; David R. 
Paige, 1875-1879; Henry C. Viele, 1879- 
1883 ; Arthur M. Cole, 1883-1887 ; James H. 
Seymour, 1887-1891 ; Emmon S. Oviatt, 1891- 
1895; R. L. Andrew, 1895-1897; Lucius C. 
Miles, 1897-1901 ; Homer Berger, 1901-1905 ; 
Fred E. Smith, 1905-1906; Ulysses Grant 
High, 1906 ; Isaac S. Myers, 1907 to date. 

County Auditors: Birdsey Booth, 1840- 
1842; Theron A. Noble, 1842-1848; Na- 
thaniel W. Goodhue, 1847-1852 ; Henry New- 
berry, Jr., 1852-1854; Charles B. Bernard, 
1854-1858; George W. Crouse, 1858-1863: 
Sanford M. Burnham, 1863-1871; Hosea 
Paul, Jr., 1871 ; Edward Buckingham, 1872- 
1881; Aaron Wagoner, 1881-1887; Charles 
Dick, 1887-1893; Charles Grether, 1893- 
1896; Louis E. Sisler, 1896-1904; Marcus D. 
Buckman, 1904 to date. 

County Recorders: Alexander Johnston, 
1840-1843; Nahum Fay, 1843-1849; Jared 
Jennings, 1849-1852; Henry Purdy. 1852- 
1858; Phillip P. Bock, 1858-1864; J. Alex- 
ander Lantz, 1864-1870; Grenville Thorpe, 
1870-1872 ; Henry C. Viele, 1872 ; George H. 
Payne, 1872-1878: Albert, A. Bartlett, 1878- 
1884; Henry C. Searles, 1884-1890: Benja- 
min F. Clark, 1890-1896; Willi=ton Ailing. 
1896-1902 : John Sowers, 1902 to date. 

County Sheriffs: Thoma.s Wilson, 1840- 
1844; Lewis M. James, 1844-1848; William 
L. Clarke, 1848-1852 ; Dudley Seward, 1852- 
1856; Samuel A. Lane, 1856-1861; Jacob 
Chisnell. 1861-1865; James Burlison. 1865- 
1869; Augustus Curtiss, 1869-1873; Levi J. 
McMurrav, 1873-1877; Sam'l. A. Lane, 1877- 
1881; William McKinnev, 1881-1885; Wil- 
ham B. Gamble, 1885-1889; David R. Bunn, 
1889-1893; William Williams. 1893-1897; 
Horace G. Griffith, 1897-1901 : Jarcd Barker, 
1901-1907 ; Dan P. Stine, 1907 to date. 

Prosecuting Attorneys: William M. Dodfje, 
1840-1842; George Kirkum, 1842-1844: Wil- 
liam S. C. Otis, 1844-1846; Samuel W. Mc- 
Clure. 1846-1848; William H. Upson, 1848- 

1850; Harvey Whedon, 1850-1852; Sidney 
Edgerton, 1852-1856; Henry McKinney, 
1856-1860; Newell D. Tibbals, 1860-1864; 
Edwin P. Green, 1864; Edward Oviatt, 1864- 
1868; Jacob A. Kohler, 1868-1872; Henry 
C. Sanford, 1872-1874; James M. PouLson, 
1874-1876; Edward W. Stuart, 1876-1880; 
Charles Baird, 1880-1884; John C. Means, 
1884-1886; Edwin F. Voris, 1886; George W. 
Sieber, 1886-1893; Samuel G. Rogers, 1893- 
1896; Reuben M. Wanamaker, 1893-1902; 
Henry M. Hagelbarger, 1902-1908. 

County Surveyors: Ru-ssell H. Ashmun, 
1840-1843 ; Peter Voris, 1843-1846 ; Frederick 
Seward, 1846-1849; Dwight Newton, 1849- 
1852; Schuyler R. Oviatt, 1852-1855; Hosea 
Paul, 1855-1870; Robert S. Paul, 1870-1874 
and 1877-1883 ; John W. Seward, 1874-1877 ; 
Charles E. Perkins, 1883-1893: Sherman 
Swigart, 1893-1896; Joseph A. Gehres,' 1896- 

Infirmary Superintendents : Abraham 
Sichley, 1849-1855 ; William Chandler, 1855- 
1861 ; Francis T. Husong, 1861-1868 ; George 
W. Glines, 1868-1878; G^eorge Feichter, 1878- 
1879 ; Julia F. Glines, 1879-1882 ; Willard F. 
Hamlin, 1882-1887; Sherman B. Stotler, 
] 887 to the present time. 


Judges of Circuit Court, Eighth Judicial 
Circuit of Ohio — Hon. Ulysses L. Marvin, 
Akron; Hon. Louis H. Winch, Cleveland; 
Hon. F. A. Henry, Cleveland. 

Judge.? of Common Pleas Court, Second- 
Sub-division, Fouth Judicial District of 
Ohio — Hon. Geo. C. Havden, Medina; Hon. 
C. G. Washburn, Elyria;'^ Hon. R. M. Wana- 
maker, Akron. 

Probate Judge — W. E. Pardee. 

Commissioners — Philip Wagoner, Akron ; 
Eber Hawkins, West Richfield'; L. H. Oviatt, 
Hudson; Gus. Seibcrling, Barbcrton (elect). 

Auditor — M. D. Buckman. 

Treasurer — Fred E. Smith. 

Clerk of Courts— Clint W. Kline. 

Sheriff— Daniel P. Stein. 

Recorder — John Sowers. 



Prosecuting Attorney — H. M. Hagelbar- 

Coroner — L. B. Humphrey. 

Infirmary Directors — W. EAVaters, Akron ; 
Z. F. Chamberlain, Macedonia; J. M. Johns- 
ton, Fairlawn. 

Superintendent of Infirmary — S. B. Stot- 

Jury Commissioners — W. H. Stoner, F. A. 
Green, P. G. Ewart, W. H. McBarnes. 

Surveyor — J. A. Gehre*. 

County Detective — H. M. Watters. 

Stenographer — W. H. Collins. 

Trustees Children's Home — A. M. Arm- 
strong, Akron; J. B. Senter, Northfield; F. 
M. Green, Akron; J. H. Brewster, Coventry; 
Mrs. R. E. Grubb, superintendent. 

Court House Commission — L. H. Oviatt, 
chairman ; J. C. Frank, secretary ; Philip 
AVagoner, Eber Hawkins, J. Park Alexander, 
R. F. Palmer, W. A. Morton. 

County School Examiners — M. S. Kirk, 
Akron ; F. L. Lytle, Hudson ; W. M. Glasgow, 

County and City Board of Elections — E. H. 
Bishop, Akron, chief deputy; F. E. Whitte- 
more, Akron, clerk; R. C. Ellsworth, Rich- 
field; F. C. Wilson, Akron; L. C. Koplin, 
Akron; office, 520 and 522 Hamilton build- 

Summit County Soldiers' and Sailors' Re- 
lief Commission — J. C. Weber, John C. Reid, 
Cuyahoga Falls; A. P. Baldwin, secretary. 


Municipal Offices and Council Chamber, 
East Mill, corner Broadway; City Prison, 86 
East Mill ; Treasurer's Office, Court House ; 
Infirmary Director's Office, 90 South Howard. 

Mayor — Charles W. Kempel. 

Solicitor — C. F. Beery. 

Auditor — W. A. Durand. 

Treasurer — Fred E. Smith. 

Engineer — J. W. Payne. 

Infirmary Director — Jo.seph Kendall. 

Superintendent of Streets — Edward Dunn, 

Superintendent of Market^ — John Wolf. 

Board of Public Service— W. J. Wildes, J. 
H. Burt, J. J. Mahoney; C. H. Watters, clerk. 

City Council — Meets first and third Mon- 
day evenings of each month: Ira A. Priest, 
president; Ray F. Hamlin, clerk; Joseph 
Dangel, A. G. Ranck and J. R. Mell, coun- 
cilmen at large. First Ward — J. M. Amund- 
son; Second Ward— F. J. Go.stlin; Third 
Ward- M. S. Williams ; Fourth Ward— J. W. 
Gauthier ; Fifth Ward— John Beynon ; Sixth 
Ward— L. D. Seward; Seventh Ward- S. R. 
Thomas; Board of Public Safety— C. C. 
Warner, E. C. Housel. 

Police Department — J. F. Durkin, chief; 
Robert Guillet, captain ; A. G. Greenlese, lieu- 

Fire Department— J. T. Mertz, chief; F. F. 
Loomis, mechanical engineer. 

Fire Station No. 1 (Central) — Corner High 
and Church streets; H. M; Fritz, captain. 

Fire Station No. 2 — Corner East Market 
and Exchange, East Akron; C. M. Smith, 

Fire Station No. 3 — South Maple, corner 
Crosby ; Frank Rice, captain. 

Fire Station No. 4 — South Main, corner 
Fair; C. E. Tryon, captain. 

Fire Station No. 5 — East Buchtel avenue; 
John Cummins, captain. 

Fire Station No. 6 — Wooster avenue; C. S. 
Jost, captain. 

Fire Station No. 7 — North Howard; N. P. 
Smith, captain. 

Board of Health— Meets first Friday of 
each month : Mayor C. W. Kempel, presi- 
dent; Dr. A. A. Kohler, health officer; M. W. 
Hoye, sanitary police and milk inspector; G. 
B. 'Courson, clerk; J. D. Chandler, G. W. 
Crouse, J. C. Weber, A. P. Woodring, Wm. E. 

Library Board — Meets first Friday of each 
month at library, corner Market and High 
streets; J. C. Frank, T. J. Mumford, J. W. 
Kelley, W. T. Vaughan, G. D. Seward, Henry 

Parks — Fountain Park (Summit County 
Agricultural Society's Fair Grounds), East 
North, near city limits. Grace Park, corner 
Prospect and Perkins; Hill Park, corner East 


Market and Broad ; Neptune Park, West Mar- 
ket, corner Valley; Perkins Park, south of 
Maple at west city limits ; Perkins Square, cor- 
ner Exchange and Bowery; Pleasant Park, 
corner Thornton and Washington. 

Cemeteries — Akron Rural Cemetery, west 
end Glendale avenue; German Catholic Cem- 
etery, South Maple, adjoining Rural Ceme- 
tery; East Akron Cemetery, East Market, 
Sixth Ward; St. Vincent de Paul Cemetery, 
West Market, west of Balch; Mount Peace 
Cemetery, North Valley, north of Doyle; C. 

P. Hass, superintendent; Old Cemetery, New- 
ton, near east city line. 

Board of Education — James T. Flower, 
Isaac C. Gibbons, Frank G. Marsh, Frank W. 
Rockwell, Frank G. Stipe, Edward W. 
Stewart, A. E. Kling. 

Board of Review — A. J. Weeks, 0. L. Sad- 
ler, John Cook. 

Trustees of Sinking Fund and Board of 
Tax Commissioners — C. I. Bruner, Harry 
Hamlen, Joseph Thomas, H. E. Andress. 



Introductory — Economic Cau-ies and Growth of Akron — Its Settlement and History- 
Public Improvements — Akron an incorporated Town — -City Government — Mercantile 
Akron — Fire and Police Departments — Riot of 1900 — Aftermath of the Riot. 

Akron, the City of Busy Hands! The 
place of rubber-making, of sewer-pipe and 
clay goods, of the printing of books, of the 
grinding of grains and the making of cereal 
foods! All these are done here on the largest 
scale seen in any one place on the Ameri- 
can continents. You may add to them, large 
factories making linoleum, steam-engines and 
mining equipment, steam boilers, traction-en- 
gines, electric dynamos and motors, steam 
drilling machinery, twist drills and agricul- 
tural implements, belting, twine and cordage, 
varnishes and a host of small enterprises, mak- 
ing nearly everything needed by man or re- 
quired for the gratifying of his luxurious 

Industrialism then is the one striking fea- 
ture of Akron and Akron life. Her triumphs 
have been triumphs of her industries. Her 
dark days have been the results of stagnation 
of business. The influence of the shop per- 
meates her whole sphere of activity. By far 
the larger part of her population is connected 
directly with the shop and it would be sur- 
prising if this interest in them were not 
deemed the paramount one generally, and the 
city's social, spiritual, educational and even 
mercantile interests, modified in no small de- 
gree by this all-pervading sentiment. 

Herein we may find ample excuse for the 
"talking shop," which the vistor notices at 
once. For the same reason we may sym- 

pathize with the citizen who is willing to sub- 
ordinate even his personal comfort to the pre- 
vailing spirit. Any agitation to abolish the 
smoke evil is sure to meet with the objection 
that smoke imeans turning wheels, and busy 
men and women, and streams of wages and 
prosperity. If a big factory wants a street 
vacated or opened, a bridge built or removed, 
a street paved, a sewer built, or an extension 
of the fire department, the Akron citizen has 
not, for a moment, a thought of objection. 
Nay, rather he digs into his pocket and brings 
forth the ready cash. Mind you, he meets 
every request of this kind with great per- 
sonal gladness and joy. He is perfectly 
happy in doing something to benefit the 
"shops." If you want to kill any projected 
movement in Akron just hint that it will be 
deleterious to the factories, or that the manu- 
facturers will find it necessary to oppose it. 
On the other hand the popular policy is one 
that will aid to develop manufacturing and 

With such a favorable atmosphere is it any 
wonder that Akron has grown to be one of 
the great manufacturing cities of the United 
States? Is not this the very best inducement 
outside capital can have to locate here ? Akron 
has never paid a cent, or donated a foot of 
ground, or exempted any enterprise from tax- 
ation for a day, to secure the location of any 
kind of business. When they do come she 

J - --"^ :^"V^> ; ^ 



makes it easy for them to stay and to prosper. 
She welcomes them with open arms and shows 
a most benignant manner ever after. This 
has been the accepted policy for half a cen- 
tury. How well it has succeeded read in the 
history of Akron, marvel in the figures of the 
statistician, and beliold in the multiplica- 
tion of factories and enterprises. The history 
of Akron then is a record of business activ- 
ity primarily. And it proves good reading — 
this record, beginning with the conception 
of an idea in the mind of a business man, 
covering struggles, ambitions and disappoint- 
ments of early days and ending in triumph 
for sagacity, courage and honesty. Such is 
an oftrrepeated storj^ in Akron life. ■ The 
triumph has many times brought with it a 
princely fortune. 


These business successes have made the 
name of Akron well known in every corner 
of the earth. All her products are finished 
goods, ready for immediate use or consump- 
tion. She makes no raw materials. Many' 
of her manufacturing rivals produce raw 
materials largely and they are sent away to 
other cities, where they are worked over and 
their identity lost. When they reach the con- 
sumer they bear the name of the last city 
which had a hand in the making of them. 
Akron-made goods never lose their identity. 
Their exportation is very large, and hence 
Akron labels, boxes and bales may be found 
all over the earth. Akron travelers abroad 
are often surprised at the fame of their lit- 
tle city in the far-away corners of the world. 
Akron cereal goods are shipped to every coun- 
try in Europe, mining machinery and agri- 
cultural machines to Africa and South Amer- 
ica and rubber products to Japan and China. 
Smaller exportation? of other products are as 

The storv- of Akron, then, is a story of 
manufacturing, and, if a very large part of 
this history is devoted to the city's industrial 
progress, it is accounted for by this fact. The 
great name? in Akron historv are the names 

of manufacturers — Perkins, Miller, Conger, 
Werner, Schumacher, Goodrich, Barber, 
Grouse,, Crosby, Commins, Seiberling, Buch- 
tel, Robinson. Their activities were the mak- 
ing of Akron. They furnished the true basis 
for the city's development. 


Reader, do not get the impression that 
Akron people live and have lived for the 
making of things alone. Such is far from 
being the case. Manufacturing is not deified. 
The shops are not set up as idols. The manu- 
facturers are not worshipped, and the all-es- 
sentials that are needed to make character 
and perfection of manhood are not slighted. 

No city in Ohio makes so large a per capita 
expenditure for the maintenance of public 
schools. Ohio is famous for the excellence of 
its schools, but no city in the state can boast of 
better schools than Akron, or a healthier pub- 
lic sentiment back of them, or a greater pride 
in educational achievement. The "Akron 
idea" of graded schools originated here and 
took its name from this city. Ohio's whole 
school system has for its basis the idea of the 
Akron Congregational clergyman, who started 
Akron's schools on the march forward six 
decades ago. 

This is the seat of Buchtel College, founded 
by, and taking its name from one of Akron's 
most prominent citizens, and one foremost in 
every good work. If a large part of this his- 
tory is devoted to the story of the rise of 
Buchtel College it is because of the important 
place Buchtel College occupies in the heart 
of the Akron citizen. He is proud of the 
position it has earned, he glories in the op- 
portunity it offers for the higher education 
of his children, right at his very door, and 
he sympathizes with "The College" in her 
calamities and struggles and ambitions.' 

The Catholic Church has provided many 
excellent parochial schools for the training 
of youth of that communion. 

The law making attendance at school com- 
pulsory is rigorously enforced in Akron. 



There has been a public library, open to all 
citizens, from the earliest days of the com- 
munity. Lyceum entertainments, lecture 
courses and the very bCvSt concerts have had 
their part in the popular education of the 

Successes in education have made the 
names of Jennings, Bryan, Leggett, Find- 
ley, Fraunfelter, Rood and McAllister hon- 
ored ones in the city's history. 


The churches occupy a relatively more 
important place in Akron life than is true 
of most municipal communities. In view of 
the overwhelming importance of the manu- 
facturing interests it is hard to believe that 
this is so. Close study of conditions, how- 
ever, demonstrates its truth. Every import- 
ant Christian denomination is represented 
by a live and thriving church organization. 
Akron is one of the important church cen- 
ters for at least two of the denominations — • 
the Methodists and the Universalists. The 
"Akron Plan," in church ai-chitecture has 
been an important factor in the former, 
and the church life, of which Buchtel Col- 
lege is the center, in the latter. The history 
of the Methodist Church in America will be 
incomjilete without a record of Chautauqua 
and Lewis Miller. Many ministers and 
priests have won large successes in their la- 
bors in Akron, and her citizens will always 
remember with earnest reverence such men 
as Carlos Smith, Monroe, Burton, Day, 
Young, Ganter, Scanlon and Mahar. There 
is a roll of honor among laymen, also. The 
leaders of the past in the manufacturing 
world have also been leaders in church and 
charitable work. Take the names of the 
captains of industry first above given ; there 
is only one of them who ha.s not had a very 
prominent part in the work of some Akron 
church. That list might be extended almost 


Akron's reputation as a manufacturing 
and business center has attracted a host of 
professional men. Most of them have been 
capable practitioners and have made useful 
and respected citizens. Of the doctors who 
have gone, many like Crosby, Bowen, Co- 
burn, Bartges, McEbright and Jacobs, not 
only held high positions in their profes-sion, 
but did much for the material advancement 
of Akron's various interests. At the present 
time all schools of medicine are represented 
here by exceedingly accomplished phy- 

From its ranks of lawyers Akron has sent 
forth men who have taken high places in 
public life, both in the service of the state 
and the nation. Memory recalls readily the 
names of Bierce, Bliss, King, McClure, 
Edgerton, Spalding, Sanders, Cartter, Alger, 
Wolcott, McKinney and Upson. The pre.s- 
ent junior senator from Ohio is a member 
of the Summit County Bar. Very few coun- 
ties in Ohio are able to bring forward better 
lawyers than who make vip the local 
bar. Business; both manufacturing and 
mercantile, brought the lawyers. Large in- 
terests, great producing and distributing, big 
deals and intricate enterprises demanded 
competent hands for their legal protection 
and direction. In the early days there were 
great enterprises exploited here, such as the 
canals, the Crosby projects, etc. They were 
directed by strong men, who demanded 
strong men as legal advisers. The associa- 
tion of such men attracted the ablest of the 
young lawyers then commencing practice. 
The high .standard then established ha.s been 
maintained until the present day. The great 
Akron companies entrust their legal matters 
entirely to members of the local bar. It is 
a rare thing for outside counsel to be called 
into a local On the other hand, Akron 
lawyers are frequently called into other 
counties of the state for legal advice and 

In the last decade Akron has begun to at- 
tract attention in a new respect. The city 



lies in the midst of nearly twenty small 
lakes, most of them possessing great natural 
beauty. The city itself is most attractively 
located on more hills than ancient Rome 
possessed, and with magnificent views down 
and across the Cuyahoga Valley. These 
things have been gradually becoming known 
and it began to be whispered about that there 
was good fishing in the Akron lakes and good 
camping sites on their shores. Thus the 
summer invasion began. Great improve- 
ments have been made, those at Silver Lake 
alone costing $100,000. Summit Lake has 
a beautiful new casino which will seat 3,000 
people. Many beautiful cottages have been 
built at Turkey-Foot Lake and Springfield 
Lake. During the season the attractions of 
Akron as a summer resort bring thousands of 
people to the city. Merchants find their trade 
correspondingly larger and there is no dull 
season known to our mercantile circles. The 
local summers are never exc&ssively hot. 
There will be. perhaps, two or three periods of 
hot weather when the thermometer will reach 
87, or. in extreme cases, 90 degrees. These 
periods are of very short duration, seldom last- 
ing more than four or five days, and the rest 
of the summer consists of delightful days, 
with the air clear, and the sky blue, and the 
thermometer ranging from 70 to 80 de.grees. 
The high altitude of the city, the higher por- 
tions being nearly 1.100 feet above the sea 
level, and the proximity to Lake Erie combine 
to lower the temperature in .summer and to 
make the city a healthy and delightful place 
in which to live. 

Many beautiful residences and private parks 
attest the prosperity of Akron's citizens. All 
the important streets are paved with brick, 
stone or a.sphalt. Beautiful and well kept 
public parks are situated in all parts of the 
city. Here is one of the finest Music Halls 
in the state and one well adapted for large 
conventions, music festivals and other im- 
portant public occasions. Here, also, are 
three fine theaters, one of them — -the beautiful 
Colonial Theater — presenting the best at- 
tractions to be seen on the American stage. 

The Y. M. C. A. has been reorganized and 

is enjoying a new home, costing about $100,- 
000. The Akron City Hospital is now com- 
pletely established in a new six-story build- 
ing and making use of an equipment that 
cost $150,000. It will compare favorably 
with any hospital in America. 

The Y. W. C. A. has moved into a fine 
new home on High street, where it possesses 
every possible requisite for the successful 
prosecution of its admirable work. No 
more praiseworthv work is being done in 
Akron than that of the Y. W. C. A. 

Two beautiful new ward school buildings 
have just been erected and the High School 
nearly doubled in capacity by a splendid new 
building adjoining the old building on the 

The old court house built in 1840 has been 
supplanted by a superb structure of stone 
crowning the old court-house hill, and costing 
about $300,000. Many fine new business 
blocks were erected in 1906. The additions 
made to the store of The M. O'Neil Company 
in 1907 make it the largest store in Ohio and 
one of the great department stores of the 
United States. 

Akron always takes time to rejoice in its fire 
department. It is housed in seven modern 
buildings in different parts of the city, and 
furnished with the latest appliances and equip- 
ment for extinguishing fires. The pei-sonnel 
of the department is very high and the citi- 
zens have ab-solute confidence in its efficiency. 

The city has equal faith in its custodians 
of the law. The police force is a capable one 
and is guided by trustworthy hands. Life and 
property, therefore,, enjoy here as large a 
measure of protection as the best American 
municipalities afford. 

The city supports three enterprising and 
successful newspapers. They are clean, able, 
and fearlessly edited, and reflect great credit 
upon the community which reads and sup- 
ports them. 

Akron's retail stores are a satisfaction to 
her people. The stocks of goods are as com- 
plete and timely as those of the best city 
stores and the prices are considerablv lower 
than in most cities of Akron's size. The old 



tendency to run to Cleveland to do purchas- 
ing is a thing of the past. If there ever was 
any necessity for such a course it no longer 
exists. When the public learned that the 
same quality of goods could be purchased in 
Akron at prices equal to the lowest anywhere, 
shopping in Cleveland became a mere affecta- 
tion and accordingly has not been fashionable 
for a considerable time. 

Akron's growth in population has been at 
the rate of 5 per cent per annum in late 
years. Accordingly the year 1908 will find 
nearly 60,000 people dwelling within her 

Such is a rapid pen-picture of Akron as it 
exists in 1907. In the following pages will 
be found an accurate account of the rounding 
of the city, the purposes its founders had in 
mind, its early struggles, its pioneer citizens, 
its growth in many diverse ways, its disasters 
and misfortunes and its complete triumph in 
the year of its greatest prosperity, 1907. The 
reader will also find reliable historical state- 
ments concerning Summit County, its town- 
ships, its villages and all the various activities 
of Summit County citizens since the begin- 


It is inaccurate to say that the Ohio Canal 
made Akron. The city as it stands today is 
the resultant of many causes. Many and 
different influences, and various men and 
measures, have co-operated toward the end 
now attained. The start was made long be- 
fore the Ohio Canal was built. • Within the 
present limits of the city, settlements at two 
different points had been made, which ante- 
date the canal by nearly two decades. In 1807 
the first settlement had been made in Middle- 
bury. In 1811 Miner Spicer had started 
"Spicertown." In the same year Paul Wil- 
liams settled upon the lands immediately 
west of the Spicer settlement and adjoining 
the land of General Simon Perkins on the 
east. When the canal was opened in 1827 
Middlebury was an important village. It had 

attracted many settlers from the East, prin- 
cipally from Connecticut, and boasted of half 
a dozen mills and factories, a dozen stores, 
three inns and about five hundred inhabitants. 
It certainly deserved a place on the maps of 
the time. 

Let us search that we may find, if we can, 
the economic reasons for the existence of 
Akron. The sentence that begins this chap- 
ter contains the idea that is ordinarily ad- 
vanced as the sole reason for the Akron of 
today. The unthinking man repeats: "The 
canal made Akron." The wTiter on Akron 
history records: "Dr. Eliakim G. Crosby 
made Akron." 

The truth is, no one thing and no one man 
made Akron, but that all the men who have 
ever worked for Akron, from the earliest be- 
ginning until this centennial year of 1907, 
aided by certain natural advantages, "made" 
Akron. The term "men" is here used in the 
generic sense, and includes the army of noble 
women who planned, worked, and sacrificed, 
and made man's work worth the while. All 
the minds and all the hands; all the labor 
and all the capital; all the faith and all the 
hope — these have been working for one hun- 
dred years to produce the results we now be- 

If the canal did not make Akron, it was 
the largest single factor in the making. Where 
so many causes have been working together 
it is impossible to say that the result would 
not have been possible without any one of 
them. There is reason to believe, however, 
that without the early advantages of the first 
canal the great industries and the teeming 
population of the present would not have been 

Allusion ha." been made above to certain ad- 
vantages which Nature provided for the future 
citJ^ A study of the economic reasons under- 
lying the location of any city vnW assist us 
in determining what they are in the present 

What induced the five hundred inhabitants 
of Middlebury in 1827 to locate there in the 
twenty years succeeding its founding? Leav- 
ing the Alleghenies behind, the boundless 



West was before them and they were free to 
settle here or there, as their judgment dic- 
tated? Then why Middlebury? To one who 
knows New England and Middlebury the an- 
swer is not hard to find. What turns the 
mills at Lowell, Lawrence, Holyoke and all 
the towns on the Merrimac and Connecticut 
and other rivers of New England? New 
England's manufacturing prestige is due to 
the overwhelming advantages its unsurpassed 
water-power gives it. It is a power, cheap 
and easily transmitted. New England even 
in the early part of the last century was full 
of dams and sluices and waterwheels. The 
man from Massachusetts and Connecticut was 
brought up with a knowledge of these things. 
They were a familiar part of his environ- 
ment. He knew water-power when he saw it. 

The early Middlebury men were from 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. It was the 
power in the fall of "the river there that at- 
tracted them. The early Middlebury fac- 
tories, including the Cuyahoga furnace, a 
saw-mill and a large grist-mill, were all oper- 
ated by the power derived from a dam thrown 
across the river at the point where the plant 
of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company 
now stands. Later other dams were built and 
the use of the power extended. All this 
was done prior to the building of the Ohio 
canal, or even before the preliminary steps 
were taken. 

The Portage, or carry, between the Cuya- 
hoga and the Tuscarawas rivers was not of suf- 
ficient importance to cause any extensive set- 
tlement along its length or to influence any 
that might be made in its vicinity. We, of 
today, are inclined to overestimate its im- 
portance. There is no reason to believe that 
it was ever extensively used. It was in no 
sense of the word a great pioneer highway, 
such as some of those that brought about the 
establishment of the large trading-posts of 
the early days. The latter were powerful fac- 
tors in founding settlements that grew into 
cities later when the sway of the white man 
began. Travel over the Portage Path was 
little enough. The long carry of nine or 
ten miles, part of it up and down steep hills. 

was enough to deter all travelers, but those 
pressed by the greatest necessity. War par- 
ties passed in numbers at tdmes, but trappers 
and traders went by other ways. There was 
far greater travel over the east and west high- 
way, part of which is now called the Smith 
Road, and extensive settlements were made 
at various points along its course. 

At the southern end of the Portage Path, 
however, there was built up in the years 1806 
and 1825 one of the most promising of all 
the settlements in northern Ohio. This 
was not because of any advantage derived 
from travel over the Path, but because of the 
fact that here was the head of navigation on 
the Tuscarawas. The Indians and pioneers 
used the waterway as far as they could and 
then took various trails leading in other di- 
rections. The river was then of much greater 
volume than today and was capable of sup- 
porting an extensive traffic. Navigation was 
open from New Portage to the Muskingum 
and the Ohio, and extensive trading sprang 
into existence along these waterways. 

The Path, then, was of little or no bene- 
fit to the region we know as Akron. Neither 
did this immediate locality have any water- 
power. It was covered with thick forests of 
oak, ash, hickory, chestnut and maple. 
Splendid springs issued from the hillsides. 
Game was abundant. But the lake country 
only a few miles to the south offered much 
better hunting-grounds and richer fields in 
the fertile bottom lands along the creeks. 

Early in the year 1825 a great and sudden 
activity was manifested all along the base of 
the high hill, which stretches north and 
south from the Cuyahoga River at old Portage 
to Summit Lake, and along the top of which 
runs the Portage Path. This narrow zone of 
activity met the Path at both these points, 
and about halfway between them it bent 
away to the east about a mile and a half. 
It followed the base of the hill closely and 
lay in the lowest part of the territory con- 
tiguous to these points. 

This activity was the work of excavation 
for the Ohio Canal. The ditching alone 
would be a work of some magnitude even for 



these days of steam-shovels and earth-convey- 
ors. The earth was excavated to a depth, in 
the center, of five or six feet and of a width 
averaging, perhaps, twenty-five feet. In the 
distance between the Summit Level and Old 
Portage the greatest engineering works of the 
whole project were made necessary. Be- 
tween these two points there is a rise of nearly 
two hundred feet. This necessitated a series 
of locks and twenty-one of them were built, 
in massive style, of great sand-stone blocks 
and ponderous oak gates. By the side of each 
was built a sluice, or overflow, for the pas- 
sage of the. water when the gates were closed. 
This work brought into this neighborhood a 
small army of engineers, contractors, dig- 
gers, drivers, stone-masons, carpenters, black- 
smiths, and a subsidiary army to do the com- 
missary work for these. Like all camps of 
the kind, this was followed by the slab-saloon 
and the grocery, and almost in a day a town 
arose. It required two years' time to com- 
plete these works and by the time they were 
finished the new town numbered half as 
many inhabitants as Middlebury, two miles 
to the east and now in the twentieth year of 
its existence. 

Then commenced the great traffic over the 
Ohio Canal. If the Portage Path was not a 
highway, the canal certainly was. It is hard 
to realize now how important an avenue of 
commerce this great waterway was in the 
early days of Ohio. It is difficult to estimate 
accurately the great part it played in the 
development of the state. The danger to the 
student of these results will be to overstate 
them. The village at the mouth of the Cuy- 
ahoga had grown rapidly. Cleveland enjoyed 
an extensive commerce and the products of 
Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and the East were 
being distributed thence throughout the 
West by lake carriage. Ship-building in the 
vicinity of Cleveland became an established 
industry. The Cuyahoga at this time was a 
much larger stream than it is at present and 
many lake vessels were built as far inland as 
Old Portage. 

South of Akron were many village com- 
luunitv of older settlement. The canal 

opened an easy way of communication with 
these. It removed the obstacles in the 
journey to Cleveland. When completed it 
formed the bast method of inland transpoi-ta- 
tion then known, between Lake Erie and the 
Gulf of Mexico. Under favorable conditions 
loaded boats could navigate nearly as fast 
as a train behind George Stephenson's 
"Rocket." Travel by packet on the canal was 
not looked upon as a hardship, but welcomed 
as a great improvement over a journey by 
pioneer roads. Previous to the opening of 
the canail, the products of the community, 
which consisted mainly of flour, wool, hides, 
charcoal, potash, and dairy and farm prod- 
ucts were taken to Cleveland and Pittsburgh 
by wagon. These were of the prairie-schooner 
type and oftentimes immense loads would be 
hauled by eight-horse teams hitched to them. 
On the return trip merchandise of various 
kinds was brought in. The owners of these 
wagon routes were important men in the com- 
munity, and they were often intrusted with 
the execution of extensive commissions. No 
inconsiderable part of the buying and .-ellmg 
between Akron and the outside points was 
done through them. The most prominent 
among these early carriers were Patrick 
Christy, the grandfather of Will Christy, the 
electric railway magnate, and George Crouse, 
grandfather of the present Akron bu.siness- 
man, George W. Crouse, Jr. 

In one respect Akron was the most impor- 
tant point on the Ohio Canal. Students of 
economic causes have learned that great nat- 
ural obstacles to travel on important high- 
ways are the points most likely to attract set- 
tlement and become a nucleus for future devel- 
opment into village and cit^^ Thus a ford in 
a stream, a rapid or fall in a navigable river 
necessitating a portage, interrupts the jour- 
ney, causes delay and becomes the natural 
stopping place for travelers. At Akron, the 
traveler by canal met the greatest obstacle in 
all his journey. Here was a series of twenty- 
one locks through which his boat must pass 
before he could resume his journey. Four 
hours at the best would be consumed in the 
operation of locking, and delays were very 



frequent. The traveler could walk the entire 
distance between the extreme locks in one- 
fourth the time hi^ boat took in going 
through. Here, then, was a splendid site for 
the merchant. Here was a steady stream of 
travel and commerce passing, for more than 
eight months of the year. Here that travel 
must halt for a large part of the day. Thus 
the way-faring man was forced into an ac- 
quaintance with Akron ; thus the fame of 
Akron was carried throughout Ohio and be- 

In the boyhood days of the writer of this 
chapter, that part of the town lying north of 
Federal street and west of Summit was known 
as "Dublin." This name was given to the 
locality when the locks were being built. As 
remarked above, it took two years to build 
them and a host of laboring men were busy 
in the work. Now, in the twenties the great 
tide of immigration from Italy and Germany 
and the other countries of the European con- 
tinent had not started to flow toward our 
shores. The Chinese coolies did not arrive 
until the building of the Union Pacific rail- 
way. The oppression of the peasantry in 
Ireland, however, had driven a horde of her 
population to seek easier conditions. The 
first great immigration was from Ireland. The 
"Dago" and the "Hunkie" of the twenties 
and thirties was the Irishman. "Paddy" 
built the railroads and made the highways 
and dug canals. Thait is, he handled the 
pick and shovel and carried the hod. He was 
the carrier of water and the hewer of wood. 
Well, the men from the Shamrock Isle who 
came to Akron to work on the canal, built 
their cabins in the locality referred to and 
lived there during the time they were work- 
ing on the locks. Whether they named the 
place themselves as a tender tribute to the 
"auld sod," which was still the focus of their 
fondest longings, or whether the place was 
facetiously dubbed by the bluer-blooded in-, 
habitants of Cascade or Middlebury, is un- 
known and immaterial. The present genera- 
tion neither knows the name nor has any 
dealings with the ancient district of "Dub- 
lin." Today it might be more appropriately 

called "Naples," for the Irish have pros- 
pered and moved into better city quarters, 
while the Italian, a late comer, has taken the 
old houses and become the predominating 
influence in the locality. The territory has 
been conquered in succession by Ireland, 
Africa and Italy. 

How much the canal did for the new town 
or rather towns, — for there were two of them, 
one, called Akron, centering at the corner of 
Main and Exchange streets and the other 
named Cascade and located near the corner 
of Market and Howard streets, — is seen from 
the growth of population that took place on 
this narrow strip of land along the canal and 
extending from Chestnut to Beech streets. At 
the end of the first decade this territory num- 
bered more than one thousand people. In 
1840, or fifteen years after the beginning of 
construction, the United States census showed 
a population of 1,381. It had left Middle- 
bury far behind. Practically the whole of 
this number had moved in from other places. 
Akron was already known as one of the most 
promising towns in the northwest territory, 
and this report was attracting new settlers by 
the hundred, annually. Most of the men em- 
ployed in building the locks remained here 
when the work was completed. So did the 
keepers of boarding-houses and taverns and 
the merchants who had been supplying the 
demand for groceries, clothing and such goods 
as the presence of so large a body of labor- 
ing men made necessary. These constituted 
a fine nucleus for the coming city. Thus, 
it was the canal, undoubtedly, that gave 
Akron its start. 

For twenty-five years the canal, too, was the 
only means of communication Akron had 
with the outside world. When her citizens 
traveled they went by packet, between the 
verdant banks of the canal. Their products 
found the outside market and their merchan- 
dise was brought in to them by boats plying 
on that same canal. The canal was as of 
much relative importance in Akron life of 
the period as it was in Holland. Venice, it- 
self, was not more dependent on, or prouder 
of, her waterways than Akron before 1852. 



The masters of canal boats were duly re- 
spected and, in the public estimation, occu- 
pied desirable places. 

On the 4th day of July, 1852, the first 
railway train rolled into Akron. It came in 
from Hudson over the Akron branch of the 
Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad. It 
marked the end of the old order of things. 
It closed an epoch. The steam-propelled train, 
running on level iron tracks, had worked a 
revolution in the world outside. All business 
had to be adjusted to meet the changed con- 
ditions. The world had moved on apace. 
Akron was practically where the thirties had 
left her. Communication by canal was now 
isolation. The railway came and growth be- 
gan anew. Akron was nearing the time 
when she was to strike her real pace. The 
real making of the city, as we know it today, 
was still a thing of the future. The city 
grew as a few men prospered. When the 
sun of prosperity shone upon Ferdinand 
Schumacher, Arthur L. Conger, John F. Sei- 
berling, Lewis Miller, David E. Hill, Henry 
Robinson, James B. Taplin, J. D. Cummins, 
the Aliens, the Howers, 0. C. Barber, and 
one or two others, then began the era of real 
progress. From that time on, Akron has had 
a steady and even growth. 

The gi'owth has never been phenomenal. 
Its citizens have never experienced the excite- 
ment of a "boom." Real estate values have 
never taken a decided step upward. The con- 
trary is true, that the price of real property 
has lagged behind. Of course, the increase 
in population and wealth has brought with it 
higher prices for land and buildings, but the 
increase in the latter has not been commen- 
surate with the former. This fact will serve 
to indicate how gradual, normal, and 
healthy has been the growth of Akron. It 
was fortunate for the city that, when some 
of the industries founded by the above 
named men fell upon hard times and gave 
way under the stress of untoward circum- 
stances, others, started subsequently, grew 
amazingly and more than filled the gap. It 
was like the springing of second-growth trees 
to replace the falling of century-old monarch? 

of the forest. Of the above names, four of 
the men who bore them, and who had 
amassed great fortunes from their enterprises, 
went to their graves, broken in fortune. 
Three of the great businesses were closed up 
forever, and their names forgotten in the busi- 
ness world. In the joy of possessing the 
greater industries that have taken their places, 
few make room for the emotion of regret that 
ordinarily would have attended the departure 
of the older. Thus it has happened that 
Akron has been known successively as "The 
Oatmeal Town," "The Match Town," "The 
Place Where They Make Mowers and Reapei-s" 
"The Sewer-pipe Town," and lastly, "The 
Rubber City." When the magnitude of The 
Werner Company is considered, we can say 
with rea.son that it might well be called "The 
City of Graphic Arts." The renown of the lat- 
ter publishing house on the American Conti- 
nents would easily make it the one over- 
shadowing feature of many of Akron's rival 
cities, were they fortunate enough to possess 

Among the economic reasons for the re- 
markable growth of Akron, an important 
place inust be given to the extraordinary ad- 
vantages derived from certain mineral de- 
posits discovered in Summit County, early in 
its history. Even the most unreflective reader 
must be aware of the desirability of cheap 
fuel in a district devoted to manufacturing. 
Water-power was a good thing so far as it 
went; but that was limited, not only in the 
amount of the horse-power it could develop, 
but in the kinds of manufacturing which it 
could subserve. Thus, it was unavailable for 
the largest part of the operations of the pot- 
teries and for such work as operating the 
"driers" of the cereal mills. 

Fortunately, Nature was prodigal of her 
gifts to the territory of which Summit County 
is a part. To the south and east of Akron lie 
gread beds of bituminous coal, some of it 
of superior quality. The "Turkey-foot Coal" 
is the same as that of the Massillon field, and 
on combu.stion is capable of producing as 
many heat imits. Steady mining for more 
than half a centurv has not exhausted these 


resources; it has not even determined their 
full extent. New mines are opened from 
time to time, and the out-put continues to 
furnish the major part of the Akron supply. 
A short haul of five, ten, or fifteen miles 
brings this splendid fuel iv the doors of 
Akron's big factories. Thus, this city has an 
advantage over her manufacturing rivals, who 
must add to the cost of production the ex- 
pense of transporting fuel, sometimes for long 

The "burning" of sewer pipe, brick and 
earthenware requires large quantities of fuel. 
These were among the very earliest of the 
city's industries. Contemporaneous were the 
furnaces for reducing iron ore to metal. 
They, too, needed heat rather than power. 

Coal was not the only fuel, for magnificent 
forests covered the entire country, and rich 
peat beds filled the swamps in many localities. 
Long after the coal is exhausted it will be 
possible to obtain excellent fuel by resorting 
to the peat deposits in Coventry, Copley and 
Springfield townships. Oil can also be ob- 
tained by refining the carboniferous shales 
which abound in various sections of the 

Akron sewer-pipe is the standard for the 
world. Specifications often read: "Sewer- 
pipe used must be equal to the best Akron." 
It cannot be doubted that the superior quali- 
ties of the finished product are due in large 
measure to the superexcellence of the raw 
material. Great beds of fine clay extend over 
the to^mships of Tallmadge, Springfield, 
Coventry and Green, while other townships 
posse,?s smaller deposits. 

Reference has been made in previous pages 
of this history to the existence of iron-fur- 
naces in Middlebury and Akron. None exist 
now, and have not for many years. Only 
the oldest inhabitants -uall remember them. 
The present generation in surprise, "Well, 
where in the world did they get the iron ore?" 
The answer, too, is surprising. It was ob- 
tained right at home. The furnaces were 
built here because the ferrous ores were here. 
They are still here, but are the so-called "boo;- 
iron." and the process of reduction is so ex- 

pensive that they cannot compete with the 
richer ores mined in other parts of the coun- 
try. Hence, when use was made of the great 
deposits in the Lake Superior district, the 
Akron furnaces went out of business, and 
now nothing remains of them but the .slag 
and cinder heaps which they left behind. 

In Springfield and Green townships there 
exists a four-foot stratum of limestone, of fair 
quality. Limestone, very impure, also occurs 
scattered in other portions of the county. Be- 
low Cuyahoga Falls, it was quarried in the 
early days of the county, and burned for 
water-lime. It is said that quantities of this 
local lime were u.sed in the masonry of the 
Ohio Canal, at the time of its' construction. 

Akron and Summit County have had the 
oil and gas fever from time to time. Many 
attempts have been made in the last forty 
years to find these minerals, with varying 
successs. Mr. Ferdinand Schumacher drilled 
a deep well, about twenty-five years ago on 
the site of the former Cascade Mill. His de- 
sire was to obtain gas sufficient to provide 
fuel for the operation of his mills. He was 
not successful, though gas in moderate quan- 
tities was obtained. Somewhat later J. F. Sei- 
berling drilled several holes in Springfield 
Township near Brittain, but after drilling 
to a great depth the wells were abandoned on 
account of the poor showing. In Bath and 
Northampton, surface oil has been known to 
collect in wells, and farmers have often been 
excited over the indications of petroleum. In 
Peninsula, the largest flow of gas ever found 
in the country comes from a well drilled 
there, and in the year 1907 the flow was con- 
tinuing unabated. 

In 1905-1906, the most ambitious attempt 
to search for oil that has been made in this 
district was undertaken. James and Mathew 
Lang organized the Interstate Oil Company, 
and secured much capital in Youngstown, 
Akron, and other cities, for the purpose of 
making a thorough test of this locality. 
Their theory was an ingenious one, and ap- 
peared plausible enough to any but e.xpert 
geologists. In explaining the theory it was 
said that oil was all about us. To the east 



and south wese the Pittsburg, Pai'lcersburg 
and Marietta fields ; on the west were the Lima 
and Findlay fields, while north of us, some 
oil had been found in Canada and the Islands 
of Lake Erie. The oil in all these places 
had been found in the stratum of rock known 
as the Trenton formation, and this dipped 
from all these points toward Akron. In other 
words, Akron is built over the center of a 
great basin, the bottom 'of which is formed 
of Trenton rock. Therefore, all that was nec- 
essary in order to reach the greatest supply 
of petroleum ever tapped, was to drill in the 
neighborhood of Akron until the Trenton 
formation was encountered. Geologists are of 
the opinion that this rock lies more than 
4,000 feet below the surface of Summit 
County. These parties overlooked one 
thing, which is the weak point in their the- 
ory: The pressure of so tremendous a mass 
of the earth's crust would certainly force all 
oil and other liquids to ascend through the 
geological faults or porous strata, like the 
shales, to regions where that pressure was not 
so great. Is it not worthy of belief that this 
pressure has forced the oil from the central 
and lower parts of the basin to the rim of it, 
and that the surrounding fields have oil be- 
cause it has been forced out of the territory 
of which Akron is the center? In the years 
last mentioned, several wells were drilled near 
Thomastown, and oil in paying quantities 
was found far above the Trenton rock. Drill- 
ing was then stopped, and the oil has been 
steadily pumped from these wells since, in 
moderate quantities. A well is now being 
drilled near the State Mill, in Coventry Town- 
ship, and is said to be down 3,000 feet, with 
no indications of oil. It is extremely im- 
probable that Akron will ever enjoy an oil 
"boom." Most geologists are of the opinion 
that oil and gas do not exist in Summit 
County in sufficient quantities to make a 
search for either very profitable. Nature has 
so plenteously enriched this region with other 
resources that no one must be heard to com- 
plain that one or two gifts "have been with- 


On the 6th day of December, 1825, there 
was duly recorded in the records of Portage 
County, Ohio, by the recorder thereof, a plat 
of a new village. It consisted of about 300 
lots of land, and occupied the territory lying 
between the present i-ailroads, St. Bernard's 
Church, the Goodrich Rubber Plant and the 
Perkins School. The prime mover in this 
allotment was General Simon Perkins, of 
Warren, who owned considerable land in the 
county, a part of which was included in the 
amount platted. With him was associated Mr. 
Paul Williams, who owned the land adjoin- 
ing Gen. Perkins' on the east. These men 
were the founders of Akron. The city cannot 
appropriately celebrate its first centennial 
until 1925, although 1907 completes the first 
century since the settlement of Middlebury, 
which is now a portion of it. 

The survey for the Ohio canal had been 
made, and, by studying tlie altitudes of vari- 
ous places on its length, it was seen that the 
site of this new village occupied the very 
highest point. There is a Greek word, Akros, 
which translated means "high." At the sug- 
gestion of a lawyer fi-iend. General Perkins 
adopted the name "Akron" as a very appro- 
priate one for his new town. She is the 
original Akron. She has been a prolific pa- 
rent, for new "Akrons" are found in New 
York, Colorado, Indiana and many other 
states. The city does not occupy the highest 
land in the state, as is often erroneously as- 
serted. The highest altitude in the city is 
about 1,100 feet above the level of the sea. 
The highest point in the state is in the town 
of Ontario, not far from Mansfield, where the 
elevation reached is 1,373 feet. 

The first building built upon the new allot- 
ment occupied the corner where the Peoples 
Savings Bank is now located. It was built 
by Henry Clark, and was used by him for 
hotel purposes. Soon a store building was 
built on the lot diagonally opposite. When 
the work on the canal began, and dwellings 
and store buildings and shops and ware- 
houses sprang into existence as though stim- 



moned by the wave of a magician, there was 
large demand for the lots, and many of them 
were sold in a few months. The enterprise 
was a splendid success, and the new town 
started under the happiest auspices. A ship- 
yard was started inside the town limits at 
what was afterward called the Lower Basin, 
and on June 27th, 1827, the first canal boat 
built in Akron, and the first to regularly 
navigate the canal, and called the "Ohio," 
was launched. 

So Akron grew until August 10th, 1833, 
on which day the territorial extent of the 
city was doubled by the filing of a new plat 
by which all the lands lying north of the 
town as far as the Little Cuyahoga River, 
and between what is now th^ railroads on the 
east and Walnut and Oak Streets on the west, 
were allotted. As in the former plat, streets, 
parks, and alleys were provided for, and a 
little city was carefully laid out on paper. 
This plat also gave the name of the town em- 
braced by it as "Akron." This last allotted 
territory belonged mainly to Dr. Eliakim 
Crosby. He associated with him Judge Lei- 
cester King and General Simon Perkins, both 
of Warren. Dr. Crosby had settled in Mid- 
dlebury in 1820, coming thence from Can- 
ada, although he had been born in Litch- 
field, Connecticut. He embarked in various 
ventures in Middlebury, operating at times 
the Cuyahoga furnaces, a lime kiln, a grist 
mill, saw mill, etc. He sold them all by 
1831, and conceived a prospect larger than 
any of them. His plan was to carry the 
water of the Little Cuyahoga River by means 
of a hydraulic race, from Middlebury to a 
point on the Ohio Canal near Lock Five, near 
the foot of Mill Street. This would give a 
fall of water which could be used for power 
purposes from Lock Five to the northern 
limits of the town. Work on the race was 
commenced in 1831, and in the spring of 
1833 the waters of the river were flowing 
through it, and giving the power the en- 
gineer of the enterprise, Colonel Sebried 
Dodge, estimated they would. This is the 
race -which now Rcms through the Old Forge, 
around the Rocky Bluff above and just to the 

south of Fountain Park, the present fair 
grounds, and, crossing Summit, Broadway 
and High Streets, is conveyed by a conduit 
under the center of Main Street and down 
Mill Street from the Central Savings Bank 
Corner to the "Old Stone Mill," at Lock Five. 
The mill was built in the year 1832-1833 
to make use of the new power. On the maps 
the new race was called the "Cascade Mill 
Race." The old village had been called 
Akron for eight years and the people looked 
upon the addition as another and separate 
village. The name of the race they adopted, 
therefore, as the name of the town, and it 
was known as "Cascade" for many years 
thereafter, both at home and abroad. This 
name was later given to a newspaper, a hotel, 
and an important store; all named from the 
town of which they were a part. When the 
territory between the old and new village 
became better settled they were often referred 
to as North and South Akron, but gradually 
the distinction was obliterated. Today, by 
"South Akron" the citizen refers to tenitory 
lying south of Thornton Street, and extend- 
ing to a point three miles from the center 
of North Akron. 

The sixth Federal Census did not recognize 
Akron. It was the census of 1840. It gave 
Cleveland, 6,071 ; Steubenville, 4,247 ; Zanes- 
ville, 4,766; Chillicothe, 3.977. It gave the 
number of inhabitants in Summit County as 
22,560. In 1850, the name of Akron appears 
for the first time, and the town is credited 
with 3,266 population. In 1860 this had 
grown to only 3,477. The new railways had 
been in operation only five or six years, and 
their influence was not yet firmly felt. The 
older part of the town was exceedingly jeal- 
ous, in the early days, of the new upstart 
just north of it. Although they were both 
founded by General Simon Perkins, and had 
much in common, still, the rapid growth and 
many superior advantages of the northern 
section was quite sufficient to disturb the 
equanimity of the older community. The 
former possessed the "Stone Mill," and it was 
the largest manufactnring industry in any 
of the three towns. Here, also, was the new 



"Cascade House"; the most modern and best 
of all the hotels in the vicinity. Here was 
the "Cascade Store," occupying the south- 
west corner of Main and Market Streets, 
founded by Jonathan F. Fenn and Charles 
W. Howai'd, and purchased in 1835 by Mr. 
Philander D. Hall, and many other advan- 
tages were enjoyed e.xclusively by the new 
village. Middlebury was also envious and 
jealous, and there was a three-cornered rivalry 
which at times approached to a feeling of 
bitterness. Finally, the contest settled down 
to a conflict between the two Akrons, and 
oftentimes the business rivalry took the form 
of a contest of force. The newspapers of the 
time frequently contained long articles of the 
most bitter recriminations. The two towns 
were separated by a narrow strip of land, per- 
haps 600 or 70(3 feet wide, extending from 
Quarry to Center Streets. This was owned 
by General Perkins, and was neutral ground. 
It was called the "gore," whether because of 
its shape, or the amount of blood it caused 
to be spilled, is not known. This strip be- 
longed to neither of the villages and, lying 
exactly between them, was good compromise 
ground. Hence, when the church congrega- 
tions of that day wished to build a place of 
worship, the partisans of the two sections 
fought each other to a standstill, and then de- 
cided to meet halfway and erect their temple 
on the neutral ground. In order to insure ab- 
solute fairness in the matter, the churches 
were faced toward the west. In this way the 
original Methodist, Baptist and Congrega- 
tional churches were built. The latter occu- 
pied the site of the present Court House, 
while the Baptist was built on the corner of 
Quarry and High Streets. The reader will 
doubtless reflect by this time that the County 
Court House, built in 1841, occupies the site 
on this neutral ground. When the Baptist 
Church was built, it was proposed to make 
it face toward the south. This provoked a 
quarrel that foimd its way into the newspa- 
pers, and was waged with much feeling. 
Many of the members living in North Akron 
withdrew their church membership; some of 
the contributors to the building fund, who 

lived north of the "gore," refused to pay 
their subscriptions, and the church was nearly 
rent in twain on account of this sectional 
warfare. The original Congregational society 
was broken up and disbanded, and the Meth- 
odists engaged in an internecine struggle that 
caused each party to accuse the other, when, 
in 1841, their church building burned down, 
of having set it afire. Judging from the news- 
paper accounts, the fire was not incendiary 
at all. 

But, the contest up to the time of the Post- 
Office War, was mild by comparison with 
what happened during that memorable affair, 
and the year or two next succeeding. Then 
was reached the climax. Up until December, 
1837, the post-office had been located in South 
Akron. It was established in 1826, the year 
after the founding, by President John Quincy 
Adams. He appointed a young lawyer named 
Wolsey Wells as the first postmaster. Mr. 
Wells built a large house on West Exchange 
Street, on the corner of Water Street, and in 
it conducted the operations of the postal serv- 
ice and collected the tolls on the Ohio Canal, 
for he was both postmaster and toll collector, 
and, when he had time, attended to the duties 
of justice of the peace, in addition. It prob- 
ably required the revenues from the combined 
offices to support the one incumbent, and even 
then his salary was doubtless only a modest 

In 1883, Mr. WelLs moved away from 
Akron and President Jackson appointed Lewis 
Humiston, who was then keeping the Clark 
Tavern, on the corner of Main and Exchange 
Streets, as his successor in the post-office. He 
built a small building in the rear of the hotel 
on the north side of Exchange Street, just 
east of Main, and established the post-office 
in it. Early in 1837 Mr. Humiston resigned 
owing to his removal from Akron and the 
war was on. 

There was a large number of applicants 
for appointment to the vacancy. The contest 
finally settled down to a struggle between 
Constant Bryan and Harvey H. Johnson. 
They were both lawyers and both residents 
of the north village. The former was after- 



ward elected probate judge of the county, and 
was the father of Major Frederick C. Bryan. 
The contest grew so acrimonious that the gov- 
ernment threatened to abolish the office un- 
less the community would announce its deci- 
sion at an early date and arrive at it in a 
peaceable manner. The South Akron candi- 
dates then withdrew and, with their respective 
adherents, gave their support to Mr. Johnson 
in return for his promise, it was alleged, that 
the site of the post-office should remain in 
South Akron. This action gave Johnson the 
support of a large majority of the voters of 
the two villages, and accordingly he received 
the appointment. 

He took possession of the office in June, 
1837, and all South Akron rejoiced with him. 
They felt that they were sharers of his good 
fortune. Had they not retained one of the 
greatest factors in the upbuilding of their 
section of the city? The new postmaster was 
received with open arms as a new neighbor. 
They of the North End were inwardly dis- 
pleased. Mr. Johnson was one of them, but, 
by maintaining his office in the South End 
he was giving aid and comfort to the enemy. 
Their displeasure soon manifested itself out- 
wardly and the columns of the newspapers 
bore evidence of their state of feeling. Mr. 
Johnson's "treason" was .strongly denounced, 
and every possible argument for the removal 
of the post-office to the growing North Akron 
was set forth. Surely the South Akronites 
could not object to its removal to the neutral 
ground, called the "Gore"! The churches 
had compromised on this strip, and here was 
the logical and reasonable site for all their 
common activities, the location of which 
might be in dispute. 

South Akron could see nothing to arbitrate. 
They could not see that it was "logical" to give 
up so desirable an acquisition as the post- 
office. For them, to go to the post-office was 
merely to go around the corner or across the 
street, while the north citizens must trudge 
a mile or more in snow, mud and burning 
summer heat to get their mail and buy their 
.'tamps. It is to be feared that the South 
Enders taunted them as they pas.«ed and im- 

moderately rejoiced in their own good for- 
tune. Human nature is the same in all ages. 

So the summer and autumn passed and 
South Akron had settled down to the full 
enjoyment of the post-office as their own prop- 
erty. The reader can imagine then, the sur- 
prise, the absolute consternation, which seized 
South Akron, one morning in December, 
1837, when it looked for its beloved posses- 
sion and could not find it. It searched for 
its post-office everywhere within its four cor- 
ners; it rubbed its eyes and searched again. 
There was no mistaking the fact that some- 
body had done something with the post-office. 
At length the information was brought in 
that it had gone north during the night. It 
had not even stopped on the compromise 
ground. It was not to be a neutral thing, 
it was not to be possessed in common with the 
enemy. It had gone over to the enemy. 
It was resting and operating smoothly in the 
Buckley Building, on the corner of Howard 
and Mill streets. The North Enders were tak- 
ing but a step or two to reach it, while they 
of the South End were trudging a mile in the 
snow to buy their stamps, and a weary mile 
back, nursing their wrath and planning sat- 

If newspaper articles are a means of satis- 
faction in such a contingency, they had it in 
full. "We can well believe that the North 
Enders enjoyed the storm while their cra'^t- 
fallen rivals thundered their vituperation and 
insinuation in the local press. The postmaster 
was denounced as a "traitor" and a "viper." 
The ugliest charges, l)acked up by affidavits, 
were printed in the newspaper. Mr. Johnson 
replied by other articles and made use of 
many personalities calculated to drive his as- 
sailants to cover. Finally the editor of the 
paper refused to extend further the courtesy 
of his columns for the purpose of continuing 
the wordy war, and the contestants took to 
pamphleteering. Sixteen-page pamphlets 
were used to give vent to the feeling of out- 
rage on the part of the South .\kron citizens, 
and their leading men assisted in preparing 
them and lent their names to the cause. It 
speaks well for the self-restraint of the com- 



munity that the warfare was confined to the 
newspapers and that no violence of any kind 
waa done or attempted. 

The injured feeling on the part of the 
South Enders soon passed away. The North 
End, from that time on, rapidly surpassed it 
in population, wealth and influence. Many 
of the citizens of the south village moved their 
business and residences to the North End. 
The spirit of partisanship or rivalry soon 
disappeared, never to be renewed. The post- 
office was moved many times thereafter with- 
out a note of protest from anybody. Dr. 
Dana D. Evans, the successor of Mr. John- 
son, moved it twice, each time further north. 
The first move was into the Stone Block, on 
the east side of Howard street near Market; 
the second was to the large stone "Good 
Block," on the corner of Market and Maiden 

In 1849, postmaster Frank Adams moved 
it back to the east side of South Howard 
street, where Remington's jewelry store is now 
located. In 1853, his successor, Edward W. 
Perrin, moved it a few doors further north to 
a room in the Matthews Block, where it re- 
mained until July 1st, 1870, when the new 
postmaster, James B. Storer, just appointed 
by President Grant, moved it south to the 
corner room in the Msisonic Temple on the 
corner of Howard and Mill streets. The lease 
on the room in the Masonic Temple expired 
before the new government building was 
ready for occupancy, and the post-office took 
temporary quarters in the old office of The 
American Cereal Company, on the south-east 
corner of Mill and Broadway, which had 
been vacated when that company moved its 
general offices to Chicago. Here it remained 
until the completion of the government build- 
ing, on the corner of Market and High 
Streets, where, in all probability, it will re- 
main so long as Akron people will have need 
of postal services. The separate post-office of 
Middlebury has been discontinued and a 
branch of the Akron office installed in its 
place, yet there was no objection to the move 
on the part of anyone. At the present time 
there is no rivalrv between anv of the manv 

sections of the city, but, everywhere, the 
visitor sees evidence of a new spirit, a uni- 
versal desire to pull together for the good of 


The real history of Akron as a municipal 
corporation commences on the 12th day of 
March, 1836, for it was on that day that the 
legislature of the State of Ohio duly passed 
a resolution granting to the two villages. South 
and North Akron, a town charter, in accord- 
ance with their joint request, as contained 
in a petition they presented to the General 
Assembly in 1835. In addition to the land 
contained in the original town plats of Gen- 
eral Perkins, Paul AVdlliams, Dr. Crosby and 
Leicester King, this act of the legislature 
added to the municipal territory more than 
three square miles just east of and contiguous 
to the said plats. The east corporate line 
under this grant of municipal rights extended 
a trifle east of the present Spicer Street and 
from about Hamilton Avenue across Fir, Mar- 
ket and North Main and Howard Streets to 
the Little Cuyahoga River. 

The incoiporating act provided a complete 
scheme of government for the new munici- 
pality, including officers, elections, forms of 
taxation, legislation, boards of education, etc. 
It provided for the election of a mayor, a 
recorder and five trustees. It prescribed that 
the first town election should be held on the 
second Tuesday in June, 1836. The terri- 
tory out of which Akron was formed wa- 
taken from both Coventry and Portage town- 
ships. For the purpose of the first election, 
the usual polling place of Portage Township 
was to be used — the old Clark Tavern, on the 
corner of Main and Exchange Street*. 

In 1836, the North End contained more 
electors than the South End, and, in the 
caucuses of both the Whig and Democrat par- 
ties, it captured the nominations. In the 
election following, political lines were oblit- 
erated, as they always should be in municipal 
elections, and the results showed that the 
voters split on sectional lines of cleavage in- 



stecad. The Whigs nominated Seth Iredell for 
mayor. He was a Quaker who had come 
from Pennsylvania about the time of the 
completion of the canal, and had been in- 
timately connected with the affairs of the 
norlh town since the beginning. Their can- 
didate for recorder was Charles W. Howard, 
a son-in-law of Dr. Crosby's, who, of course, 
was strongly identified with the interests of 
North Akron. The nominees of the Demo- 
crats for m.ayor and recorder were Dr. Elia- 
kim Crosby and Constant Bryan, respectively, 
one the founder of North Akron and the 
other one of its most prominent citizens. 

It was rather poor politics to localize the 
nominations in this way, but the North End- 
ers had the power, and the temptation to 
it to the utmost was too strong to be with- 
stood. The South Enders showed their feel- 
ings by voting against the man who was 
most responsible for the existence of the North 
End, and all others who were intimately con- 
nected with him. The total vote cast in the 
ensuing election was one hundred and sixty- 
six, and the strong interest in the election. 
produced by the warfare of the sections, 
doubtless drew out a full vote. The votes 
were soon counted and it was ascertained that 
Mr. Iredell had been elected by a majority of 
sixteen, while Mr. Bryan w-as elected by a 
majority of twelve. 

The vote was as follows: 


Seth Iredell, Whig 91 

Elilakim Crosby, Democrat 75 


Constant Bryan, Democrat 87 

Charles W. Howard, Whig 75 


Erastus Torrey, Whig •. 153 

Jededlah D. Commins. Democrat 143 

Noah M. Green, Whig 124 

William B. Mitchell, Democrat 114 

William E. Wright, Whig S8 

By the terms of the charter, all the above 
officials were to constitute the Town Council 
and possess within themselves all the execu- 
tive, administrative, legislative and appointive 

functions. The charter provided for a mar- 
shall, treasurer, engineer, solicitor, all to be 
appointed by the Town Council, and for such 
police and fire officers as it might deem ex- 

When the council organized, it was learned 
that Mr. Mitchell had declined to act as 
trustee and Justus Gale, a Whig, was chosen 
to fill the vacancy. After sei-ving a few 
months Mr. Commins also rasigned as trustee 
and the council appointed William K. May 
as his successor. 

The grant of municipal powers from the 
state provided that town officials should hold 
office only one year. These just elected had 
but got well acquainted with their respective 
duties and had settled down to a reasonable 
enjoyment of the honors so hardly won, when 
the time for their exit from the stage of pub- 
lie affairs arrived. Whether they were dis- 
satisfied with their offices or the people with 
their officials, the truth remains that not one 
of them remained in his office for a second 
term'. Akron has earned for herself a repu- 
tation for fickleness in this r&spect that en- 
dures to the present day. 

At the second election, held in 1837, John 
C. Singleton, Jr., wa.s elected mayor, William 
E. Wright, recorder, and William K. May, 
William T. Mather, Dave D. Evans, Jesse 
Allen and Eben Blodgett, trustees. When 
the new council met it elected Moses Cleve- 
land, marshal, and Horace K. Smith, treas- 
urer. The new mayor was a young man of 
twenty-seven years. His predecessor was 
nearly sixty-three. Mayor Singleton came 
of a wealthy family, living at Streetsboro, 
Portage County. He had graduated at Western 
Eeserve College, at Hudson, with the class of 
1835, and was esteemed later as a very bril- 
liant man. He made some very unfortunate 
business ventures upon coming to Akron after 
his graduation, and his inexperience in the 
law prevented his securing many or profitable 
clients, so he was better known in Akron for 
his debts and his poverty than for any especial 
abilities, at the time of his candidacy. 

The fame he won by his first term brought 
him a re-election over such a strong candidate 


as William M. Dodge, who was afterward 
elected probate judge of the county. 

In June, 1839, General Lucius V. Bierce, 
a most remarkable man in many ways, was 
elected as mayor. He had just returned from 
the ill-fated "Patriot" expedition into Can- 
ada. In 1838, it was believed by many 
American citizens that Canada was ready for 
revolution. A Canadian editor, William 
Lyon Mackenzie, was the originator of the 
movement. On the American side, all the 
territory bordering on the Great Lakes, be- 
came interested in it. In the beginning it 
took the form of a fraternal order with the 
accompanying ritual, secrecy, oaths, etc. 
"Hunters Lodges," as they were called, were 
established in many places. A prosperous 
lodge was formed in Akron. The object of 
the order was to assist Canada in throwing 
off the yoke of Great Britain. 

On the burning of the filibustering schooner 
"Caroline" by the Canadian authorities in 
December, 1837, great excitement prevailed in 
Akron and public meetings were held by all 
the prominent citizens and resolutions adopted 
demanding the prompt interference of the 
President of the United States. General 
Bierce was a brigadier-general of Ohio mili- 
tia. He had always been a student of mili- 
tary matters and had early inter&sted himself 
in the State Guard. The Canadian movement 
found him ready to begin hostilities at the 
drop of a hat. A convention of "Patriots" 
was called at Buffalo. General Bierce at- 
tended and so impressed the other delegates 
with his military knowledge that he was 
chosen as military commander-in-chief of the 
whole movement. The movement never 
reached any serious proportions. Judging 
from its size, the character of the men be- 
hind it, and the preparations made for carry- 
ing it out, it never got beyond the stage of 
boys' play. 

An attack of two hundred men was made 
in Canada in the St. Lawrence River district, 
and repelled without appreciable difBculty, 
and the leader of it hanged. Mackenzie was 
driven from Canada. December 4, 1838, Gen- 
eral Bierce at the head of 137 men, made the 

second and last incursion into Canada. It 
started from Detroit and got as far as A\"ind- 
sor, just across the river. Fifty British -sol- 
diers were guarding the barracks here. The 
"Patriot Army," as the commander-in-chief 
delighted to call his squad, .succeeded in set- 
ting fire to the baiTacks and also in burn- 
iing a non-belligerent little steamer, "The 
Thames," lying at the wharf. They were 
soon attacked by 400 Canadian soldiers, and, 
of the 137 who crossed the river, only thirty 
returned. The rest were either killed or 
taken prisoners. 

The captured were transported to Van Die- 
man's land. 

This was the last of the effort to "free" 
Canada. It was a most inglorious affair. It 
is difficult to see now how anyone could pos- 
sibly draw any credit from it, except, perhaps, 
the Canadian soldiers and the American fed- 
eral authorities, who promptly and energetic- 
ally did all they could to break up these fili- 
bustering expeditions and lo maintain our 
ordinary status with the British government 
as a power with whom we were on friendly 
terms. General Bierce, it is alleged by many, 
did not acquit himself with extraordinary 
valor. He has been critici.'^ed for being among 
the first to cross in the little canoe to the 
American side after the disastrous sequel. 
Be that as it may, he returned to Akron with 
.splendid stories of his exploits and speedily 
became a hero in the eyes of his fellow 
citizens. It was something to have an Akron 
man put in command of the "combined Pa- 
triot forces," if they did number only one 
hundred and thirty-seven. Anyhow, the next 
year General Bierce stood for mayor and was 
triumphantly elected. His military renown 
stood him in such good stead that he was 
elected mayor again in 1841-1844-1849-1867- 
1868, and was made president of the Board of 
Education at its first organization, in 1847. 
Other well-known men who have held the 
office of mayor are George W. McNeil. Wil- 
liam T. Allen, George D. Bates, Sr., James 
]\Iathews and Samuel A. Lane. 

In 18.^1, the people of the State of Ohio 
.ndopted a new constitution. Acting under 


RESIDENCE OF JAMES 11, A Nil )|;K\\ s, .\KRONI; 






powers granted by it, the legislature made a 
classification of municipalities according to 
population. In it Akron was classified as a 
village and henceforth was known as the "In- 
corporated Village of Akron." The popula- 
tion then was little more than three thousand. 

December 14, 1864, recorder Henry W. 
Ingersoll, acting under instructions from the 
council, took a local enumeration and found 
the population living within the corporate 
limits of Akron to be 5,066. According to 
the mimicipal classification this entitled 
Akron to be advanced to the grade of "city 
of the second class." On the 25th day of 
Decembei-, 1864, the Village Council passed 
a resolution that the necessary steps for ad- 
vancement be taken and petitioned the State 
authorities to that end. This was done on 
the 21st day of January, 1865. John Brough 
was then Governor of Ohio. On that date 
the "City of Akron" had its inception. Here- 
tofore there had been no wards or precincts. 
Under the enabling act, the Council imme- 
diately met and laid out the city into three 
wards and took the steps for holding the 
first city election on the first Monday in the 
coming April. Hitherto the village elections 
had been held in June. 

April 3, 1865, the first city election was 
held and James Mathews was chosen as the 
first mayor of the new city. The first council, 
elected at the same time, was thus constituted : 
First Ward — Charles W. Bonstedt, elected for 
one year; George W. Crouse, elected for two 
years. Second Ward — John E. Bell, one year; 
Henry W. Howe, two years. Third Ward — ■ 
J. Park Alexander, one year; Lewis Miller, 
two years. This council organized by elect- 
ing Mr. Miller as president and Jeremiah A. 
Long as clerk. 

One of the important acts of this council 
was adding additional territory lying imme- 
diately east of the city. A small strip lying 
between the two municipalities of Akron and 
Middlebury was thickly settled and desired 
the benefits of city government and improve- 
ments. Their petition was acted upon favor- 
ably by the city and the countv commission- 
ers, and, on September 6, 1865, the second 

territorial addition was made to Akron. This 
strip was bounded roughly as follows: On 
the west by the east corporation line of 
Akron, running about the present location 
of Spicer and Fir streets; on the south by 
Exchange Street, running on the same 
courses as it does today; on the east by the 
west line of the village of Middlebury, which 
extended as far west as the present junction 
of East Market Street and Buchtel Avenue. 

Early in 1870 there commenced an agita- 
tion in favor of the annexation of Middle- 
bury. The two municipalities touched each 
other and to all intents and purposes were 
as one. In Akron the sentiment was unani- 
mous in favor of consolidation and in Middle- 
bury a strong feeling in that direction began 
to set in. At length, public sentiment there 
ripened to such a degree that the Middlebury 
Village Council passed an ordinance submit- 
ting the question of annexation to Akron to 
a vote of the village electors. This ordinance 
was passed August 24, 1871. The Akron 
City Council passed a similar ordinance on 
the 5th day of February, 1872. It was 
agreed and provided that the question should 
be voted upon at the regular spring election 
to be held in 1872. 

It was held on the first Monday in April, 
and the annexationists were triumphant in 
both municipalities. In Akron only .-ix 
votes were cast against the project; in Mid- 
dlebury only twenty-six. The total vote in 
favor of annexation was 1,182, of which 
Middlebury gave 140. The Akron Council 
then chose, as members of the joint commis- 
sion to arrange the details of annexation, th6 
following citizens : William T. Allen, George 
W. Crouse and David L. King. The Middle^; 
bury Council selected the following represent- 
ative Middlebury men as its commissioners : 
Frank Adams, George F. Kent and Dr. Men- 
dal Jewett. ■ • 

This joint commission met at once and 
quickly agreed upon all the terms incidental 
to the process- of annexation, such as arrang; 
ing for equitable distribution of the publjc 
debts, taxation, assessments, etc. Their agree- 
ment was incorporated into an ordinance 



which was passed by the Akron Council on 
April 24, 1872, and by Middlebury April 19, 
1872. By this Act, the city of Akron in- 
creased its population about one-fifth and 
added to its domains a large extent of terri- 
tory which possessed great resources. 

Middlebury had been known for its water- 
power and its clay-beds especially. It also 
brought into the city a substantial, sturdy 
citizenship which was bound to make its in- 
fluence felt in muTiicipal advancement. By 
the ordinance of March 9, 1871, the Akron 
City Council had redistricted the city and 
created two new wards in addition to the 
original three, rather they had made five new 
ones of the original three, and, when Middle- 
bury was annexed, it was provided by ordi- 
nance of May 27, 1872, that it should form 
the Sixth AVard of the city. As such it con- 
tinued until 1900, when the annexation of 
much territory on the south, the west and 
the north, made another redistricting neces- 
sary. It then became the Second Ward of 
the city. In 1904, the ward numbers were 
changed again and the old number of Sixth 
was given to the district of Middlebury. In 
the year 1907 it is known as the "Old Sixth" 
ward of the city of Akron. 

On October 28th of the same year (1872) 
a small district lying south of East Exchange 
was made a part of the city of Akron. Ten 
years later, a large district lying to the north- 
east was annexed. This new territory wa's 
in Tallmadge and Portage townships and had 
been known for years as "The Old Forge." 
It had received the name from the wrought- 
iron industry established there in 1817 by 
Asaph Whittlesey, of Tallmadge. Aaron Nor- 
ton and William Laird, of Middlebury. It is 
known today as the "Old Forge" district. The 
ordinance for this annexation passed the 
council of February 18, 1882, and by coun- 
cil action taken on March 1, 1886, it was 
made a part of the Sixth Ward. 

By an ordinance dated March 15, 1886, 
the council took the necessary steps to bring 
about the annexation of part of Coventry 
Township, on the south, and part of Portage 

Township, on the west and north. When this 
action was completed, the south corporation 
line had been extended to about South Street, 
on the south, and to a line running north 
and south and crossing Beck and Byers Ave- 
nues and Market Street, on the west. By this 
action nearly 700 acres of land, well popu- 
lated, was added to the city. These additions, 
made during the decade, lent much interest 
to the census of 1890, and the citizens 
awaited impatiently the announcement of the 
results of the count. The total of 27,601 was 
very gratifying and every true Akronian felt 
that from that time onward the world would 
be compelled to take notice of the existence 
of the city of Akron. 

In 1899-1900, by action of the City Coun- 
cil and the county commissioners, the city of 
Akron took additional territory from both 
Coventry and Portage Townships. The city 
had outgrown its old limits. In South Akron 
a district extending beyond the railroads, at 
Falor's and Wingerter's crossings, was thickly 
populated. The desirable residence features 
of North Hill had attracted many new resi- 
dents there. On the west both Perkins Hill 
and West Hill now contained the costliest 
and fashionable residences in the city. 
Many of these had been built outside the old 
corporation line. This territory on the south, 
west and north was all annexed to the city at 
this time. The new city limits now extended 
beyond Falor's Crossing and Summit Lake 
on the south, passed through the Count}' 
Farm, where the Tnfirmary is located, and 
intersected North Portage Path, near the 
Country Club, on the west ; added a populous 
district on Merriman road, and intersected 
Cuyahoga Falls Avenue on the north. The 
annexation was made in time to have the 
additional population included in the census 
of 1900 as a part of the enumeration for 
Akron. The official count that year showed 
that Akron had a population of 42,728. The 
growth since 1900 has been steady, and at 
the present time the population is close to 




As early as 1843 Horace Greeley said, in 
the Neiv York Tribune after a visit to Akron : 
"This place, with a population of 2,500, has 
five woolen factories, an extensive blast fur- 
nace, a machine shop, a card manufactory, 
nine dry-goods stores, and about as man\ 
other stores; two weekly newspapers, four 
lai'ge flouring mills,- a court house, four 
churches and two more being erected." 

For the purposes of this chapter Mr. Gree- 
ley's reference to the dry-goods stores is alone 
of importance. Now, as then, the Akron mer- 
cantile concerns devoted entirely, or in part, 
to the sale of dry-goods outnumber those deal- 
ing in any other one line of life's so-called 

Up to 1825, the mercantile life of the 
town — as was true of all else savoring of a 
settled community — was centered in Middle- 
bury, which in the year mentioned had some 
ten or twelve stores and was the trading center 
of a considerable portion of northern Ohio. 

The canal was important in Akron's be- 
ginning. It brought the first con.siderable 
number of customers for prospective mer- 
chants. It is recorded that soon after work 
was begun upon the canal, a man named 
Benedict erected a two-story frame store at 
the southwest corner of Main and Exchange 
streets. Mr. Benedict was probably the pio- 
neer merchant of Akron proper. The busi- 
ness which he established was continued for 
many years under the name of the "Mam- 
moth Store," and carried such a variety of 
goods suitable, of course, to the multitude of 
needs of a more or less primitive population, 
that it may rightly be termed Akron's first 
department store. 

Mechanics and laborers poured into the 
infant city. Manufacturers located conven- 
iently near; farmers clustered about the out- 
skirts, and Benedict's "Mammoth Store" soon 
had many rival seekers for the trade of the 
active and progressive population of Akron 
in the twenties. 

In the village of Cascade, the northern one 
of the settlements out of which modem Akron 

was formed, the first store building was one 
erected by the late Seth Iredell in 1832, at 
the southwest corner of Market and Howard 
streets, on the site now occupied by Green- 
wood Brothers. 

In 1832 Jonathan F. Fenn and Charles 
W. Howard established themselves in Mr. 
Iredell's block with a varied line of merchan- 
dise, but after three somewhat stormy years 
these early and disappointed "merchant 
princes" gave up the struggle. In 1835 Phil- 
ander D. Hall acquired a lease of the prop- 
erty and entered into the conduct of the busi- 
ness founded by Messrs. Fenn and Howard. 
He was much more successful than they had 
been, and proceeded, with his brother, to 
build a business and a fortune. The business 
was discontinued only on the death of the 
brothers, a few years ago. Such were the 
beginnings of the "general store" or "depart- 
ment store" business in Akron. It has grown 
as Akron has grown. Hundreds of mercan- 
tile establishments founded and conducted on 
a small basis have made the names of their 
thrifty proprietors household words in the 
localities where they affixed themselves. 
Many such businesses through the judicious 
investment of profits, created comfortable 

But good fortune in Akron has not been 
more nearly universal than elsewhere. For 
instance, no more pathetic and at the same 
time no more remarkable figure has been 
identified with Akron's mercantile life than 
that of the venerable Joseph E. Wesener, still 
among the living, though past eighty years 
of age. Born in Pennsylvania in 1827, Mr. 
Wesener came to Akron from Canton in 
1846, and as a youth of twenty gained a prac- 
tical insight into mercantile affairs by clerk- 
ing in Akron stores for four years. Then he 
entered into partnership with the late Allen 
Hubbard. Two fires were encountered (but 
survived) in a few years, but Mr. Wesener 
pushed on, sometimes alone, and again with 
various partnei-s, dealing in wool, conducting 
dry-goods stores, .speculating where legitimate 
opportunity presented itself, and for a third 
of a century continuing to do a phenomenally 



successful business in Akron. He was at one 
time rated as Akron's wealthiest citizen. Then 
came reverses. One, venture after another 
proved unsuccessful. Disaster after disaster 
visited itself upon him; his properties were 
swept away, and this venerable "captain of 
industry," his wealth vanished, his fame en- 
feebled by the relentless wear of the years, 
is ending his days in dire poverty. 

The following are some of those who have 
had an active part in Akron's commercial life 
since 1840, arranged so far as possible, in 
chronological order: Frank J. Kolb, 1840; 
Major Erhard Steinbacher, druggist and gro- 
cer, 1851 ; Jacob Koch, clothier, beginning 
as a clerk for Koch & Levi in 1854 ; John 
Cook, grocer, 1855 (afterward succeeded by 
his sons) ; Cornelius A. Brouse, 1859 ; C. W. 
Bonstedt, John B. Houghton, John Wolf, 
1862; George C. Berry, 1866. Others who 
have made their names in Akron's mercantile 
affairs were Brouse & Co., O'Neil & Dyas 
(now conducted by Michael O'Neil as The 
M. O'Neil & Co.), who first conceived the 
idea of a modern department store for Akron, 
an idea which has been worked out to huge 
success under the present management; Mur- 
ray & Watt (later the Boston Store, which was 
discontinued within the present year) ; Myers 
& Polsky (still conducted successfully by A. 
Polsky and his two sons) ; Wendel Mangold, 
Dague Brothers (whose business was recently 
purchased by the C. H. Yeager Co.) ; Burke 
C. Herrick, 0. H. Remington, J. B. Storer, 
Dwight A. Hibbard, George J. Neiberg, C. 
M. Hibbard, William J. Frank, D.H.McBride 
and E. C. McBride, George S. Dales, Alfred 
M. Barber, Levi Kryder,"C. M., F- L. and 
J. H. Kryder; Augustus Jabaut, John C- 
Weber, William Gray, John Kreuder, James 
N. Baldwin. George A. Bisbee, Charles W. F. 
Dick, David K. and Albert T. Paige, George 
Viall, Burdette L. Dodge. George W. Weeks, 
Albert T. Kingsbury, Louis Loeb, Fred 
Kuhlke, Shepard B. Lafferty, Nicholas Las- 
karis, Antonio Masino. J. M. Laffer, S. K. 
Black. John D. Rampanelli. Henry A. Akers, 
Emil Ganmeter, Charles A. Pouchot, John 
S. Herrold, George A. Kempel. Oliver A. Sor- 

rick, Josiah J. Harter, A. C. Rohrbacher, John 
Gross, James T. Diehm, William Durr, J. W. 
Little, R. M. Pillmore, and a host of others. 

As will be noticed, many of the names 
which were familiar to commercial Akron a 
generation or more ago are familiar now. 
Business conditions have changed somewhat, 
it is true. The city has acquired metropolitan 
qualities, and the people metropolitan 
requirements. The business details that made 
a concern popular and successful a generation 
ago might easily be shown to be valueless 
now. And such merchants of that other 
Akron as are still in business were obliged 
to be progressive. And they were. There 
are many new names in the mercantile roster 
for 1907. Each of them indicates the city's 
added greatness. 

The double line of business houses which 
formerly extended for a block on Howard 
street and for a short distance on Market 
street, has been found too small to do the 
city's mercantile business. Main street has 
been changed from a rough and rubbish- 
strewn canal bank to a first class business 
thoroughfare of which, in its mercantile as- 
pect, any city might be proud. 

Haeey S. Quine. 



Up to the year 1839, Akron had no fire 
department of any kind, the inhabitants be- 
ing notified by one calling to another or in 
the ringing of the church bells. But in De- 
cember, 1839, an ordinance was passed pro- 
viding for a volunteer fire department. From 
this arose the "North Akron Fire Company," 
formed January 28, 1840, with its twenty- 
six members. And to the people, certificates 
of membership were issued. February 10, 
1846, eight more were added and the numeral 
one was added, thus making them No. 1. 
The equipment of this company was gotten 
by private subscription, it consisting of a ro- 
tary Iiand engine costing $600, with the sub- 
scribers paying $25.00 each toward the en- 



gine. This company bought also for itself 
fifty feet of hose and finally, in 1841, was 
ofifered a small building for headquarters on 
Mill Street. 

"Niagara Fire Engine No. 2" was started 
December 20, 1845, and its membership num- 
bered thirty-seven. A hook and ladder com- 
pany w^as formed in 1847, with the energetic 
name of "Tornado Fire Company No. 3." 
Various other companies were formed from 
time to time, but all volunteer. It was not 
until May, 1858, that there was a paid de- 
partment, and then it was two dollars per 
year for each member. The Niagara Com- 
pany was equipped with a new engine pur- 
chased by the town, with headquarters, finally, 
in the small brick building still standing on 
Federal Street. The West Side had its in- 
dependent company, called the "West Kill- 
ers." Later there was a German hook and 
ladder company called "Washington No. 3." 
Still another organization was known as the 
"Mechanics Hook and Ladder Company." 

At the present time the fire equipment in 
Akron is as good as any in the country. It 
will be recalled that one of the fruitfiil sources 
of improvement in this line has been the 
steady increasing factor of fire insurance. 
Other things being equal, the city with the 
best fire department obtains the lowest rate. 
To see that fire rules are strictly observed, to 
keep buildings free from inflammable mate- 
rial, insurance agents and fire department co- 
operate. The estimating a rate on a given 
dwelling, the construction and exposure are 
considered, and for any building used for 
other than residence purposes there is a sep- 
arate rate. Maps of every street are made and, 
in short, fire protection has changed from a 
matter of convenience and local pride to a 
purely business proposition. 

This being true, it has a marked reaction on 
the fire department. Fire cisterns are located 
over the business centers of the city and a 
superbly equipped and finely organized body 
of men is at the se^\^ce of the city. Civil sen'- 
ice rules prevail strictly and almost military 
discipline is enforced. Every night there is 
drill and so perfect is the discipline that the 

equipment can get away in eleven seconds 
from the first sounding of the alarm. Each 
man is allowed one day off out of five and 
fourteen days vacation in a year. 

Particularly should Akron feel proud of 
its fire and police alarm system. In the year 
1873 there was only one box in the city and 
that was located in the engine house. But 
about 1880 Engineer Loomis began the pres- 
ent system. At first it was a key for each 
box with the key at the nearest house. Now, 
of course, the alarm is turned in as soon as 
the door is thrown open. 

This entire equipment was put in by En- 
gineer Loomis at a cost of three thousand dol- 
lars, whereas, if put in by regular methods, it 
would have cost twelve thousand dollars. To 
look after the details of this intricate system, 
the mechanical engineer, an expert lineman 
and three operators give their entire time. 

The engine-houses in Akron are seven in 
number. No. 1 is the Central, where is lo- 
cated the headquarters of the alarm system. 
Here also are two separate and distinct compa- 
nies, an engine company and a truck com- 
pany. Here also, as at all the engine-houses, 
may be seen the fire district system. The re- 
sult of this is that in case of a fire aff'ecting 
a certain district, the blaze L« attended to by 
the fire company in that district. This leaves 
that engine-house without an equipment. To 
meet this situation the engine companies 
move up according to a regular schedule. 

Engine-house No. 2 is located in East 
Akron and is in charge of Captain Smith. In 
addition to the gymnasium and dining room 
the house has a beautiful fountain presented 
to it by the late D. E. Hill. Probably of this 
fire company more than any other is it true 
that there is a distinct local pride in it. For 
the site of the engine-house is that of the 
town hall of the historic town of Middlebury, 
and local pride is still strong. 

Station No. 3 is located on the West Side. 
Here is the home of Assistant Fire Chief Rice 
and here is one of the new engine-houses. 
Being in a community of wealth many pleas- 
ant social features are seen in connection with 
the regular routine of duty. 


Station No. 4 is located in the South End, 
with Captain Tryon at its head. In addition 
to the splendid equipment there is also a 
branch of the public library. 

Station No. 5 is another new station on 
Buchtel avenue. Here is the official home of 
Chief Mertz, and also one of the finest sta- 
tions in the city. 

Station No. 6 is located on Wooster avenue 
and is in command of Captain Dorner. This 
station has a larger territory than any other 
house in the city. 

Station No. 7 is the latest addition and is 
on North Hill, with Captain N. P. Smith in 
charge. Here the equipment is a combined 
hose and chemical wagon. 


The police depai'tment of the county nat- 
urally centers about Akron and that depart- 
ment has steadily increased from its first 
marshal. Marshal Wright, to the present com- 
plex organization. William Mason was the 
last Marshal of Akron, and with the loss of 
that official succeeded the period of the Police 
Chief with the incumbent, H. H. Harri- 
son. He was so appointed in 1897, and under 
him were twenty-seven officers. In 1900 the 
positions of captain and lieutenant were 
created. At the present time, in addition to 
the officers, are three detectives, a police sur- 
geon, clerk, prison-keeper and photographer. 

This last^ — the photographer — has the task 
of taking the pictures of all suspected crimi- 
nals and at present has two hundred and 

The police alarm system is similar in oper- 
ation to that of the fire department. Each 
officer must ring np hourly when on duty. 
And every box is marked telephone, fire, pa- 
trol, riot, so that his signal indicates the state 
of his beat. 

The patrol — an automobile — for a long 
time was the only one of its kind in the 
world. That, too, was built by Engineer 
Loomis. The old one has just worn out and 
a new one is to be installed in a very short 

No history of the police would be complete 
without a passing mention of the riot of 1900. 
From that riot dates the reorganized police. 
At that time an emergency arose which 
showed all too plainly the lack of organiza- 
tion and the inability to meet the demands of 
that catastrophe. Since then, riot guns have 
been a part of the regular equipment of the 
police, riot calls have been among their expec- 
tations, and there has grown up the feeling 
that the police are a distinct and separate or- 
ganization somewhat apart from the good old 
days when Akron was a village. 

The detective bureau in operation at city 
hall operates along metropolitan lines and is 
a vital part of that complicated and intricate 
machinery by which one is detected. By 
these men a close watch is kept on all strang- 
ers and there are few new arrivals that are not 
watched and inspected. Besides this, by 
means of exchanged photographs, measure- 
ments and other devices, fugitives from jus- 
tice are apprehended and the difficulties of 
escape are increased. Through the depart- 
ment very efficient work has been done and 
in one case, at least, public notice has been 
taken of this branch. John E. Washer, for 
a long time prison-keeper, established a record 
ns an able detective, and is now serving the 
president of the country as a personal body- 

Other prominent local characters connected 
with the detective service have been Edward 
Dunn, now on the pension list; James Burli- 
son, an old-time detective, and our first mar- 
shal, and Captain "Jack" Wright. 

At the present time there is established a 
well regulated pension system for both the 
fire and police department. The working 
of this branch of the service as.?ures the mem- 
bers of these departments of an a.«sured in- 
come at the expiration of a given length of 
service. From it results a steadv class of men 
watchful to maintain the credit of their re- 
spective bodies. 

In times past the bane of both fire and po- 
lice departments has been political influence. 
To minimize this the legislature has placed 
the members iinder civil service rules, and now 



promotions are made on the basis of fitness, 
physical and mental. When a vacancy occurs 
a regulai' examination is held and the candi- 
dates are mai'ked as at school. 

Besides this, both bodies of men are placed 
under the direction of the Board of Public 
Safety, a board appointed by the Mayor of 
Akron. The net results of this system are of 
comparative freedom from "pull." Still the 
counter results of an assured position and the 
difficulty of a trial involving incompetency 
are factors in the other direction. It is true, 
also, in a measure that Akron gets as good a 
force as its people demand. 


Outside of Akron the fire and police de- 
partments exist, but in a modified form. Bar- 
berton has a regular police department and a 
paid fire depai-tment has been recently organ- 
ized. A water-works system prevails there, 
and an unusual degree of efficiency is mani- 
fest in both organizations. 

Cuyahoga Falls still relies on the village 
marshal and has the nucleus of an efficient 
fire department. The other villages of the 
county rely for police protection on their mar- 
shals and constables and on volunteer depart- 
ment. Harry S. Quine. 

the riot of 1900 the darkest night in 

Akron's history. 

Wednesday, the 22d day of August, in the 
year 1900, was a day of rejoicing in America. 
The wires under the Pacific had throbbed 
with a message of joy for all Christendom. 
Pekin had fallen — the capital city of China. 
The Imperial Court had departed in hasty 
flight to the interior. The American troops 
were the heroes of the allied armies. They 
had attacked and repulsed the Yellow Horde 
laying siege to the British Legation, where 
the American minister and his family and 
other good citizens had taken refuge when 
the Boxers arose. America rejoiced that her 
sons and daughters had successfully escaped 
from the perils of the 4,000 shells that fell 

into that legation ; from the famine and sick- 
ness of the long siege, and especially from the 
ferocity and torture and barbarism of the 
legions of Chinese savages. Akron is a rep- 
resentative American conmmnity. Her peo- 
ple were just as glad as any on account of 
the glory which had come upon the American 

In the evening of that day a large part of 
the beauty and wealth and culture of the city 
had met on the beautiful grounds of the Per- 
kins homestead where a lawn party was being 
held for the benefit of a splendid charity. 
Sounds of mirth and music filled the air and 
countless lights and colors made it a brilliant 
scene. It is a common sight in any center of 
culture and fashion. 

Out in Lakeside Park the beautiful sum- 
mer night had drawn a large company of 
spectators to the Casino, and they were en- 
joying to the full the delights oif the thea- 

But the night in Akron had not been given 
over to pleasure alone. What strange con- 
trasts human living presents sometimes ! The 
darkest night Akron had ever seen had fallen 
with the coming of dusk that night. The 
perfect picture of Hell, that was to be beheld 
before the coming of dawn again, was then 
in the making. The Antithesis of joy and 
light and love and good-will was gaining fol- 
lowers in other parts of the city and they were 
preparing for the crowning of Hate, and Re- 
venge, and Lust for Blood. 

If little Christina Maas had not been play- 
ing by the road-side, near the home of her 
parents on Perkins Hill, on Monday evening, 
August 21, 1900, in all probability Akron 
would have been spared her deepest shame. 
Not that the innocent child, in her sweet play, 
was the of what followed, but that she 
was destined to form a link in the chain of 
circumstances, without which completed ac- 
tion could not be had. She was the little, six- 
vear-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Theodore 
Maas. As she played by the roadside in the 
early evening with her girl friends, a negro 
drove by. He called to her. She did not 
fear him. He persuaded the older children to 



leave and promised little Christina a gift of 
candy. He asked her to get into his buggy 
and she responded in her childish confidence 
and natural faith in mankind and all. He 
assisted her as she climbed in. He whipped 
up the horse and drove down the country 
road. The negro was Louis Peck. He was a 
stranger in Akron. He had been here but a 
short time, having come from Patterson, New 
Jersey. His reputation there was very bad 
and the authorities wanted him there for a 
long list of crimes he had committed. (Since 
coming to Akron he and his wife had been 
working in a restaurant. He was about forty 
years of age and black and unprepossessing. 
After his arrest, he confessed freely all he 
did that evening, after he drove into the 
country and until he left the little girl crying 
and injured by the lonely roadside with night 
coming on. 

He had hired the horse and buggy from a 
Main street liveryman. After driving back 
into town he abandoned them and they were 
found soon after by the police. It was by 
means of the horse and buggy that the offi- 
cers were enabled to learn the identity of the 
perpetrator of this outrage. As soon as the 
police department was informed of the crime 
every policeman on duty was notified and in- 
structed to be on the lookout for such a ne- 
gro as Peck. Every place in the city likely 
to harbor him was searched and the railway 
tracks were watched with sharp sight, but 
Peck succeeded in escaping from the city. 
He had lost no time in beginning his flight. 
Not a trace of him could be secured. On 
Tuesday the officers patrolled the railway 
tracks, rather expecting that Peck was still 
in the city, in hiding, and would try to make 
his escape. A number of them were scattered 
along the tracks on Tuesdav night. 

Shortly after midnight a freight train rolled 
into the Union depot from the east. Officer 
Duffy was patrolling the tracks in that vicin- 
ity and, as the train pased him, standing in 
the dark, a negro jumped from one of the 
cars almost into his arms . Officer Duffy ar- 
rested the man. It was Peck. He was taken 
at once in the patrol wagon to the city prison. 

The prison-keeper was awakened and spent 
the rest of the night talking with Peck about 
the crime. By adroit leading and skillful 
questioning Mr. Washer succeeded at last in 
getting Peck to make a full confession. R. 
W. Wanamaker, the prosecuting attorney, 
was summoned, a stenographer secured, and 
Peck's statement was taken down verbatim. 

At 9 o'clock he was arraigned before the 
mayor, W. E. Young, in the mayor's court. 
He pleaded guilty to a charge of rape and was 
bound over by the mayor to the Common 
Pleas Court to await the action of the Grand 
Jury at the coming September term. His 
bond was placed at $5,000, and he was com- 
mitted to the prison because of his inability 
to furnish bail in that amount. 

Greatly exaggerated stories of his confes- 
sion and of the criminal act were circulated 
throughout the city. The appearance of the 
evening papers (especially one, very im- 
prudently printed in red ink) and the cries 
of the newsboys selling them, stirred up a 
feeling of resentment. Excitement was slow- 
ly kindling. Many heedless remarks were 
made by persons whose words usually carry 
weight. An Akron professional gentleman 
was on his way home at 5 o'clock that bright 
Wednesday afternoon. He stopped in a store 
and listened to a recital of the outrage by 
the merchant. Said the professional man in 
the hearing of a little company, "I'll be one 
of a hundred to go over and take him out of 
the jail and hang him." Not a man in the 
company protested. No one deemed the senti- 
ment extravagant or the speech incendiary. 
There was an echo in their own breasts. Every 
man felt a personal interest in having so 
great a wrong redressed and in having it done 
at once. Many such intemperate remarks 
were made that afternoon as the story spread. 

As earlv in the day as noon, threats were 
made to the authorities that the negro would 
be lynched. The executive departments of 
the city government heard the mutterings of 
the coming storm all afternoon. The county 
officers heard it also. None of them can be 
heard to say now that they were taken by sur- 
prise. They were totally impreparcd when 







the hour of trial came, but they were not taken 
unawares. They had full warning more than 
ten hours before the storm broke in all its 
fury. They paid this much attention to the 
threats and warnings they had received — they 
ordered Sheriff Frank G. Kelly to take the 
prisoner to Cleveland during Wednesday aft- 
ernoon for safe keeping. Another colored man 
named William (alias "Bug") Howard had 
been locked up in the prison awaiting commit- 
ment to the county jail as he, too, had been 
bound over to the Common Pleas Court on a 
charge of shooting a white man in the leg. 
It was deemed best to take Howard along, as 
a mob might easily mistake the identity of 
the negro they sought, or might be so incensed 
at the whole black race, that they would not 
hesitate to hang another than the one sought. 
These two black men were soon secure behind 
the gray walls of the Cleveland prison. The 
Akron authorities were congratulating them- 
selves on so successful an issue of their wise 
planSi When a mob appeared they would 
laugh at them and enjoy their discomfiture 
when told the quarry had flown. They know 
more about mobs and mob nature now. 

Crow'ds began to collect at the intersection 
of Main and Howard streets a short time aft?r 
6 o'clock. Knots of men stood about the 
prison talking over the affair. Some were 
already discussing the advisability of trying 
to make an example of the prisoner. Consid- 
erable sentiment in favor of such action had 
been aroused during the day in several of the 
big city factories. Some of these men were 
present and made up their minds that, if an 
opportunity offered, they would make good 
what they had said they would do. 

As it began to grow dark and to become 
difficult to distinguish objects across the 
street, the crowd, much augmented, closed in 
about the old brick building which Akron 
people had known for many years as "The 
City Building." They began to call for Peck 
and to hoot and jeer the police officers who 
were within. The chief of police had become 
alarmed and had summoned everv available 
man for duty at headquarters. 

Much parleying took place between city of- 

ficials and the members of the crowd. They 
tried to push into the building through the 
Main street doors, but the officers prevented 
them. There was still much daylight remain- 
ing when the first attack on the building was 
made. A shower of stones and bricks broke 
the windows and bombarded the stout doors. 
Then a ladder was brought out and quickly 
manned. This was used as a battering-ram on 
the north doors, which lead into the Mayor's 
Court. The stones and bricks continued to 
fly. The doors were rapidly giving way be- 
neath the repeated blows of the improvised 
ram. Then one of the front windows was 
raised and a policeman emptied his revolver 
over the heads of the assailing party. This 
was a foolish move. There was no ammuni- 
tion in the city building beside what was al- 
ready in the chambers of the policemen's re- 
volvers and part of a box which was in pos- 
session of the prison-keeper. The scarcity of 
ammunition was a cause of much alarm to 
the policemen in the building. They had sent 
outside to secure more, but were unsuccess- 

Across the street were a large number of 
.spectators w^atching the efforts of the men in 
their attack upon the building. Among them 
were a few carriages and buggies. In the one 
of the latter sat John M. Da\'idson, with his 
wife and four-year-old daughter, Rhoda. 
They had been out looking at some work Mr. 
Davidson had taken the contract for and were 
returning home by the way of Main street. 
They had started to go up the Quarry street 
hill and were told that the Fire Department 
was coming down. They turned back on to 
Main Street and other buggies crowded 
around them so that they were forced to re- 

Mrs. Davidson was looking at the policeman 
in the window. She saw him shoot his re- 
volver directly at them. She heard bullets 
fly about their heads. Her little daughter 
said, "Oh, mamma," and her head fell for- 
ward on her mother's knee with the blood 
flowang from a mortal wound in her head. 
Glen Wade, a boy of ten years, was also stand- 
ing among the spectators on the opposite side 


of Main street and he received one of the bul- 
lets fi"oni this same policeman's reckless — yes, 
criminal shooting. He was instantly killed. 
Hundreds of shots were fired afterward, and 
charges and charges of dynamite exploded, 
and two large buildings were burned to the 
ground, yet these two innocent children were 
the only persons who lost their lives by reason 
of the riot. The injuries received by other 
parties that night were mostly of a minor 

The party within the walls was increased 
by this time so that it consisted of Mayor 
Young, the four city commissioners, Chief of 
Police HarrLson and seven or eight police- 

A hurried conference was held and it was 
decided to allow the crowd to appoint a com- 
mittee to enter and inspect the jail to make 
sure that Peck was not in it. The mob 
selected a comimittee of six, headed by a mem- 
ber of the City Council, who was one of the and most strenuous of all the seekers 
for the blood of this negro. 

When the doors were opened to admit the 
committee, the crowd poured in after them. 
It was impossible to stem that impetuous rush. 
They filled the building and searched every 
nook and corner of it. The cells of the 
prison were opened, but the mob found no 
negro within the building. Even Mr. Wash- 
er's private apartments were invaded and the 
garments of himself and wife torn from the 
closets where they hung, to see if any one 
was concealed by them. Their cellar was ran- 
sacked, and every spot which could possibly 
contain or shelter a man was searched. The 
disappointment of the mob was plain. Some 
one shouted that Peck was in the county jail. 
The entire crowd started for the jail. Deputy- 
Sheriff Simon Stone was on duty. Sheriff 
Kelly was absent for some unexplained 
cause. His continued absence through all the 
stirring events of that night and until the 
hour of danger had passed caused much com- 

The deputy sheriff met the mob in front of 
the old brick jail, which stood on the east side 
of Broadway, opposite the Court House, and 

which was torn down on the completion of 
the new jail. Standing on the old stone steps 
at the front entrance, he made them a short 
address, telling them that Peck had been 
taken to Cleveland that afternoon and that 
he had never been brought to the county jail. 
He offered to allow a committee chosen by 
themselves to make a search. This was done 
and the same committee searched the jail 
thoroughly and reported that no negro could 
be found. The crowd moved over to the old 
Court House, battered in the wooden doors, 
and trooped into every room in the building 
except the office of the treasurer. 

Here the heavy iron doors resisted their ef- 
forts to make an entrance and caused them to 
desist in their purpose. 

They hastened back to the City Building 
and filled the space in front of it. They were 
still shouting and calling for Peck, and oc- 
casionally a stone or a brick would fly through 
the windows on both the Main street and Via- 
duct sides of the building. When the mayor 
appeared at a window in the rooms of the 
board of health and motioned for silence, the 
crowd listened to him with comparatively good 
attention. He told them that Sheriff Kelley 
had taken Peck to Cleveland that afternoon 
and that there was no use hunting longer for 
him. Some one insisting that this was not so, 
the mayor offered to bet $20 that Peck was 
not in Akron. He urged them to disperse 
and let the law take its course in bringing 
Peck to a full punishment for his crime. 

Of course, this did not satisfy them. It was 
a mistake to suppose that it would. They 
were not there for oratory. They had come 
on a serious business. They sought ven- 
geance. Nothing but blood would satisfy 
them. It was a maddened, blood-thirsty pack 
of wolves, and to advise, and to temporize, and 
to try to compromise with such was entirely 
unreasonable and a waste of efi'ort. It was 
the temporizing policy of the authorities up to 
this time which had helped bring the mob 
up to its present pitch. The attack was re- 
newed with increased vigor. It was no longer 
a crowd of men confronting the officers ; it was 
a furious mob. Many of them carried pistols 




-. «!llfllllllli ^- ^ 



in their hands and a few shots were fired ait 
the building. Occasionally a policeman 
would come to the window and discharge five 
or six shots toward the sidewalk. 

Prison-keeper Washer had been spending 
the evening with Mrs. Washer and friends at 
one of the summer resorts south of Akron. He 
had gone out of town on the earnest solicita- 
tion of the chief of police, who explained to 
him that, if a mob did form, it would make 
the story more credible if it could be said that 
the prison-keeper was out of town with the 
prisoner. When the fish supper was con- 
cluded, Mr. Washer tried to reach the city 
building by telephone, but was unable to do 
so. He became apprehensive that all was not 
right and started for Akron about 8 o'clock. 
He drove into the mob at Main street about 9 
o'clock and they dragged him and Mrs. 
Washer from the buggy. They shoved two 
revolvers into Mr. Washer's face, boring the 
barrels into his flesh, saying they wanted 
Peck and meant to have him. One man, in 
a. perfectly fiendish condition of mind, kept 
scratching AVasher's face shrieking, "It's 
blood we want, blood, blood, blood." He suc- 
ceeded in drawing some of Mr. Washer's. 
Mrs. Washer finally succeeded in reaching 
their apartments at the rear of the building, 
with a large part of her clothing torn from 
her body. Mr. Washer tried to make a speech 
to the mob. The noise and tumult was so 
great he could not make himself heard, ex- 
cept to a few immediately surrounding him. 
He saw a man with a brick in his hand work- 
ing his way up to the front. A minute later 
and this brick struck the speaker on the side 
of the head and he dropped senseless to the 
street. The blow nearly fractured his skull 
and he suffered from the wound it made for 
several years afterward. 

After Mr. Washer had been carried into the 
drug store on the corner, and the police had 
fired a few more desultory shots from the 
building, the crowd withdrew. The larger 
part of them strangelv disappeared and an 
ominous quiet reigned in the neighborhood 
from about 9:30 o'clock until about 11. A 
few spectators stood on the opposite side of 

the street; another knot or two were scattered 
at different street corners. The electric lights 
were all burning brightly and the street cars 
were running as usual. But for the broken 
panes in the building, the stones and bricks 
on the sidewalk, and the ladder lying where 
the mob had left it, no indications that trou- 
ble had happened were present. The city 
commissioners took advantage of this lull to 
leave the building by the rear entrance and 
made a successful escape down the railway 
spur. The mayor also took his departure and 
went direct to his home on Perkins street. The 
Chief of Police, with seven or eight police- 
men, remained. About 11 o'clock the crowd 
began to collect again, and the spectators were 
not long in finding out where its members 
had been in the interim. An electric arc 
lamp hung about half way between the City 
Building and the Beacon-Journal office and 
flooded the vicinity with light. 

The spectators saw a couple of men cross 
the sidewalk with bundles in their arms and 
enter the south door, leading to the stairway 
to the second floor. In a few minutes after 
they returned, a fearful explosion shook the 
neighborhood, and brought a cloud of dust 
into Main street. The concussion was terrific, 
but little apparent damage was done. The 
walls still stood just as before. The dynamite 
for this and the other explosives which fol- 
lowed had been stolen from the Middlebury 
clay banks and from the chests of contractors 
doing work on the Erie Railway. 

A peddler had been arrested that AVednes- 
day morning for peddling without a license 
and released on bail. He drove an old white 
horse in a spring wagon. He volunteered to 
haul the dynamite to the City Building, and 
the mob gladly accepted his services. The 
cessation of hostilities was due to this cause 
and a further desire on the part of several 
to go home and get arms. 

The last of the cars carrying home the 
throng of pleasure-seekers from the Casino at 
Lakeside Park had passed, and empty cars 
were on their way back to the South Akron 
bams. Perhaps a thoiisand men were in Main 
Street, from Church to Howard Streets. Four 



or five thousand more stretched from these 
points down to Mill and up to Center and 
covered the bluff on High Street. The active 
members of the mob numbered not more than 
two or three hundred, including active sym- 
pathizers. The rest were mere onlookers — 
some a prey to a morbid curiosity; others fas- 
cinated by the spectacle of terror enacted be- 
fore them. 

After the first explosion, a few men started 
to lower the electric lamp that was lighting 
the scene. They let it fall the last six feet 
upon the brick pavement, and the place was 
dark enough for the vilest purpose. Up to 
this time, at intervals, a policeman in the 
City Building would approach the window 
and fire five or six shots in rapid succession 
into the sidewalk, directly under the window. 
It was easy to see that the shots were directed 
into the ground and it was not possible that 
even the most foolish in the crowd could be 
fooled by the action, yet this silly performance 
was repeated many times. Then followed 
dynamite explosions, one after another, each 
sounding like the discharge of a mighty can- 
non. These reports should have awakened 
the entire city. The policemen had stealthily 
taken their departure out of the rear door 
and crept off in the darkness. Some of them 
hid in the lumber yard in the rear of Merrill's 
pottery ; others in box-cars in the rear of the 
American Cereal Company's big mill. Their 
demoralization could have not been greater. 
Each man was looking out for himself, and 
no one else. The city property was left to 
the mercy of the relentless mob. 

Soon a little blaze of a match was seen 
burning at the northeast corner of Columbia 
Hall, the large rambling frame building next 
south of the City Building. It had been 
erected as a roller skating rink during the 
days of the first roller craze and had been used 
subsequently as an armory for militia and an 
assembly hall for concerts and bazars, etc. 
The little match kindled a pile of paper and 
dry wood and soon a bright fire was burn- 
ing alongside the front of the hall. The 
building was .so dry and of such favorable con- 
struction that ten minutes had not elapsed 

until it was in flames at every point. It made 
a magnificent spectacle. Great tongues of 
flame leaped high above a seething mass of 
fire, and the sparks ascended in showers. On 
the front side of the hall was a tower with a 
flag-staff. An American flag waved nobly in 
the breeze made by the ascending heat cur- 
rents. The lesson of that waving emblem of 
freedom was lost on that demoniacal assem- 
blage. The fire reigned with unrestrained 
fury. Not a drop of water fell into its midst. 
Violent hands were laid on every one who had 
the courage to attempt to subdue it. 

About midnight a part of the crowd had 
marched down the middle of Main street to 
the Standard Hardware Company, located on 
the ^vest side of South Main Street about 
halfway between Market and Mill Streets. 
They made entrance into the store by break- 
ing a plate-glass window. A few entered and 
passed out guns, revolvers, rifles, knives and 
ammunition, until the store was despoiled of 
its entire stock of such goods. Over one hun- 
dred arms of various descriptions were stolen 
by the mob in this raid. Hidden behind tele- 
phone poles and in dark corners of buildings, 
they kept up a perfect fusillade upon the city 
building, while Columbia Hall was burning. 
The firemen in the central station, only a 
stone's throw east of the City Building, had 
on the first appearance of the blaze, sounded 
an alarm of fire and carried a line of hose 
down Church Street. The fire-bell had been 
rung earlier in the evening, with a response 
on the part of No. 1 company, merely as a 
ruse to attract attention of the mob from the 
City Building. 

Three firemen from Company No. 1 stood 
out in the middle of Main Street, holding the 
nozzle of the line of hose. The water shot 
through it for only a few seconds. The riot- 
ers had cut the hose in many places, and, 
while the three firemen stood in the street 
alone, a perfect hail of bullets and shot were 
fired at them. One of them fell and another 
promptly stepped forward and took his place 
at the nozzle while others came out and re- 
moved their fallen comrade. It was the finest 
exhibition of heroism ever seen in Akron. 



That little band stood out there until the 
walls fell in, waiting for the water to come 
through that hose, and laying new lines to 
replace the damaged. Cowards were firing 
at them from behind walls and telephone 
poles, yet they went about the performance of 
their duty as calmly as though it were an or- 
dinary attack upon their customary foe, the 
Fire Demon. 

It was a superb exhibition of manly cour- 
age. Many a man who felt the flame of faith 
in human nature die out that night, found it 
rekindled after beholding the deeds of those 
heroic firemen. 

The alarm had called out other companift*. 
In responding, one of them sent a 
south on Main from Mill Street. As they 
neared the Wilcox Block, a couple of ruffian* 
called upon them to halt and presented guns 
from behind telephone poles. They paid no 
attention to the command and both guns were 
discharged point blank at them. How they 
ever escaped alive remains a marvel to those 
who witnessed the scene. They drove on, fol- 
lowed by bullets and shot, and only desisted in 
their efforts to quench that fire when borne 
down by overwhelming numbers. 

Shortly after the tower, with its staff and 
M'aving flag, had fallen into the flaming pit, 
the fire broke out in the City Building. 
Whether it communicated from the conflagra- 
tion south of it or was set afresh is not known. 
The more probable view is that the rioters 
hastened the destruction by setting the build- 
ing afire directly. In an incredibly short time 
fire was bursting from every window in the 
building. The dynamite explosions had 
wrecked the floors and partitions, doors and 
windows had been demolished by the battering 
and storm of shot, and the flames made quick 
work of the resulting debris. Both buildings 
were soon enveloped in flames and the con- 
flagration was at its height. All the splendor 
of the scene when Columbia Hall first burst 
into flames was doubled. The street was as 
light as day. The heat drove all but the fire- 
men back into the shadows. They stood their 
gro\ind, be.side their useless hose and appara- 
tus. The mob would not permit a drop of 

water to be thrown upon the fire and, like a 
tremendous furnace, it seethed and rolled and 
roared — an awful spectacle to the thousands 
who covered hill-sides and house-tops, at a safe 
distance from the bullets of the rioters. The 
gleam from the fire lighted up their faces, still 
diabolical with hate and blood-lust, as they 
peered from behind their barriers of defence. 
The frenzy possessing them had been stilled 
by the tremendous power shown by the nat- 
ural element Fire. Even their disordered 
minds could perceive the magnitude of the in- 
fluences they had called into operation. Even 
they stood thrilled by the raging and tumult 
of elemental power. Occasionally a malignant 
jeer, a demoniacal howl of delight, or a shot, 
broke the spell and recalled the thoughtful 
spectators to the dread reality of the scene. 

The minutes passed unheeded, but prob- 
ably an hour passed, with the great fire hold- 
ing the center of the stage — the one great 
spectacle that centered the interest and gaze of 
all. Then the walLs of the City Building fell, 
and the flames gradually shrunk within the 
pit of the white heat. In the east, pale streaks 
along the horizon indicated the coming of 
another day. The somber gray mellowed 
into gold and the first gleam of dawn mingled 
with the reddened glow from the ruins. The 
outlines of objects became more distinct. It 
was a signal from the powers of darkness to 
slink away. As the Sun-God scatters the 
forces of Night; as Death dwindles into in- 
significance before the truth of the resurrec- 
tion; so the slaves of the Demon of Anarchy 
slunk away into their places of hiding, from 
their revel of blood and fire, before the mes- 
senger on the hilltops, who heralded the 
coming of the source of light — typical of or- 
der, law and right. 

By 4 o'clock all of the thousands who 
thronged the sti-eets had gone and the scene 
was almost deserted. It was safe enough now 
for those policemen who were in hiding to 
come forth and go to their homes, and they 

At 7 o'clock the first of the militia arrived. 
It was Company C of the Eighth regiment, 
from Canton. It was known as "The Presi- 



dent's Own." Never were the boys in blue re- 
ceived with more profound gratitude. The 
feelings of Akron citizens were too deep for 
cheers or a demonstration. Nevertheless, deep 
in their hearts they welcomed the soldier 
boys. What a relief to see those swinging 
battalions and to know that they represented 
the majesty of the law! What a comfort in 
those grim rifles, those well-filled ammunition 
boxes and the keen sight of those sworn foes 
to disorder! For the thoughtful citizen had 
been much disturbed. He had seen his en- 
tire city surrendered to the will of a riotous 
mob. There was absolutely nothing to re- 
strain that mob from doing anything it 
pleased with the property and the lives of all 
the citizens of Akron. Not a dollar, not a 
life was safe in Akron that night. Had the 
notion been taken, every store and every home 
might have been pillaged and looted. The 
leaders of that mob might have easily per- 
suaded it to assist in working out revenge for 
private grievances by murder and arson. They 
were drunk with power to which they were 
unaccustomed, and reveled in the use of it. 
For instance, just as the City Building burst 
into flames a number broke in the doors of 
the little building alongside and ran out the 
electric police patrol automobile. As many 
as it would hold climbed into it; others clung 
to the steps and climbed upon the top. Then, 
it was started amid the cheering of the mob 
and run about the downtown streets, with its 
occupants singing and yelling, \intil they tired 
of the sport and ended the wild orgy by send- 
ing it full speed into the canal. 

It was like a scene from the wildest period 
of the French Revolution. One must go to 
the orgies of that carnival of disorder to find 
a parallel, unless, indeed it .shall be found in 
the conceptions of certain great minds con- 
cerning the Inferno. It was the very apothe- 
sis of evil. 

In the meantime something was being 
done in an attempt to stop the tide. There 
were a few citizens aware of what was hap- 
pening, who were not spellbound by the aw- 
ful seenas nor frightened into supine sub- 
servience by the exhibition of the power of 

the mob. Some of them sought the sheriff. 
For reasons known to himself, and guessed at 
by others, he could not be found. Akron had 
two full companies of militia and .some other 
organizations of a semi-military character 
who carry rifles and look real brave on parade 
days. The captains of these companies were 
appealed to. The reply was, "You must see 
the Governor." An attempt to asemble the 
companies resulted in getting only three or 
four men at the annories; the rest were min- 
gled with the crowd watching the fire. As be- 
fore stated, the city authorities, from the high- 
est to the last-appointed policeman, were com- 
pletely demoralized. Finally Governor Nash 
was reached by telephone and he promised to 
send a regiment of militia, if requested by the 
sheriff of the county or the mayor of the 
city. Probate Judge George M. Anderson, 
accompanied by a few citizens, then took a 
cab to search for the mayor. They found 
him at home and persuaded him to ask the 
Governor for help. 

The Fourth regiment of the Ohio National 
Guard was in camp at Minerva Park, near 
Columbus. They had arrived there only a 
day or two before for their anual encamp- 
ment, as required by law. They were under 
the command of Colonel J. D. Potter, who 
is a son of General Potter, of the United 
States Armj'. They received their orders at 
1 :45 o'clock A. M. At 2 :45 the entire nine 
companies were entrained and on their way 
to Akron. A special train on the Cleveland, 
Akron & Columbus Railway brought them 
into Akron at 9 o'clock on the morning of 
the 23d. They immediately marched down- 
town and joined Company C of the Eighth 
Regiment in guarding the city. Colonel 
Adams of the Governor's staff arrived and 
took charge of all the military forces in the 
city, including the local companies, which 
were never called from their armories dur- 
ing the disturbed period. The streets near 
the ruins were roped off. and none was al- 
lowed to approach them. The downtown 
street assumed a maxtial appearance. 
Armed sentries paced everywhere and compa- 
nies were marching back and forth to mess 



and temporary barracks at all hours. At 
noon, after a consultation of officials and citi- 
zens, the mayor issued a proclamation closing 
all the saloons in the city until further no- 
tice. The revulsion of feeling against the 
rioters was so strong that the saloon-keepers 
were very willing to assist, as much as pos- 
sible, in the general effort to restore law and 
order. The proclamation was generally re- 
spected. Closing the saloons undoubtedly 
was a great factor in the bringing back of 
peace and quiet to the city. 

In the afternoon of the 23d a meeting of all 
the city officials and a few prominent citizen-' 
was called at the Hotel Buchtel. Chief of 
Police Harrison could not be found anywhere. 
It was reported that he was seen about 4 
o'clock in the morning driving out of the 
city. John Durkin had been appointed by the 
city commissioners as acting Chief of Police. 
\A^ith the city officials, there assembled at the 
Hotel Buchtel Judge U. L. Marvin, Prosecu- 
tor R. M. Wanamaker. Judge G. M. Ander- 
son, Fire Chief Frank Manderbach, Colonel 
Potter, Colonel Adams and others. At this 
meeting the situation was thoroughly dis- 
cussed and the city government reorganized. 
It was understood the city was not under mar- 
tial law. but that the city authorities were in 
power and the military arm of the govern- 
ment was there, not to supplant, but to assist 
them. Barracks were arranged for the mili- 
tia and they were quartered at the old Mar- 
ket House Hall, at the Court House and in a 
North Main Street livery barn. Business 
was practically suspended in the downtown 
stores and offices all day of the 23d. The riot 
was the one theme of conversation every- 
where. A constant stream of people kept 
moving all day long about the ruins of Co- 
lumbia Hall and the City Building. No 
crowds were allowed to congregate. The sol- 
diers kept everyone moving; a good example 
for the police, don't you think? These latter 
moved about town in companies of two and 
three. When night came many people were 
apprehensive that more trouble would take 
place. Many rumors had been heard during 
the dav that another attack would be made. 

Many persons remained down street rather ex- 
pecting excitement of some sort, but they 
were disappointed, and the soldiers had no 
other duty than the weary work of sentry 

On Friday business was resumed and the 
marching of the soldiers was the only inci- 
dent different from the ordinary routine of 
Akron affairs. In the middle of the after- 
noon those in charge of things startled the 
whole community by an act of exceeding dar- 
ing. It was successful and can be called dar- 
ing; if it had failed, it would have been 
termed foolhardy . This coup de'etat was no 
less a feat than bringing the rapist Peck back 
to Akron for trial. It happened in this 
way : 

A meeting of the officials was held Friday 
morning to determine the course to pursue in 
regard to Peck. The crime was committed 
in Summit County and he would have to be 
brought back here for arraignment. Why 
was it not better to bring him back while the 
militia were here to protect him and prevent 
additional rioting? The stay of the soldiers 
must, of necessity, be brief, hence, the sooner 
action was taken, the better. The very au- 
dacity of the thing, too, would aid in its suc- 
cessful prosecution. The people would be 
far from expecting any move of this kind 
and the rioters would not be prepared to take 
advantage of their opportunity. John E. 
Washer, the prison-keeper, was still weak from 
the effect of the blow on his head, but it was 
decided that he was the best man to go to 
Cleveland for Peck, who was .still confined in 
the Cuyahoga County jail. Dr. A. K. Fouser 
was engaged to accompany Mr. Washer and 
give him such medical attention as he might 
require. Driving to a Valley train in a cab. 
they succeeded in getting out of toTvn unob- 

In Cleveland they were not so fortunate. 
Thej' had been in the jail but a few moments 
when the news spread fast that they had come 
for Peck and, when they were ready to de- 
part, a large crowd surrounded the carriage 
in front of the jail and filled the street. It 
was a crowd disposed to make trouble, too. 



What was to be done? The afternoon was 
passing and whatever was to be done must be 
decided upon quickly. A special train on the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had been engaged 
by the Summit County authorities and was 
waiting at the station to take the party to 
Howard Street, without any stops. Colonel 
Potter had detailed a company of soldiers to 
meet the train upon ite arrival. Sheriff 
Bai-ry was to telephone from Cleveland as 
soon as the party started. Judge David J. Nye 
had been called over from Elyria to hold a 
special session of Common Pleas Court. A 
special Grand Jury had been empaneled at 2 
o'clock that afternoon. One witness had been 
heard and a true bill found against Lewis 
Peck. It was understood that he would plead 
guilty to the indictment. He would then be 
taken to Columbus on the afternoon train and 
the cause of the riot would be safely out of 
the jurisdiction. These were the plans and 
they were carefully laid. But in the crowd 
outside the Cleveland jail, and constantly 
growing larger and more restless, was an ob- 
stacle not considered by the plotters. What 
was to be done? So much time had been lost 
that it was nearly time for the Columbus train 
to start — the one upon which it was planned 
to carry Peck to the penitentiary. Washer 
and Barry got their heads together and 
planned a neat trick upon the crowd. They 
telephoned for another closed carriage to be 
driven to the rear door of the jail. Washer, 
Fouser and the prisoner, the latter manacled 
to Washer, were all ready to enter so soon as 
it drove up. As it appeared in sight. Sheriff 
Barry went to the front door and thus engaged 
the attention of the crowd, which pressed JFor- 
ward, expecting the prisoner next. Giving 
his party time to enter their carriage, he re- 
entered the jail, as if he had forgotten some- 
thing, and joined them. The horses were 
whipped up and a wild race started for the 
Union depot to catch the Columbus train. 
The Baltimore & Ohio special was left stand- 
ing at the Water street depot. 

.\ few who had obsei*ved the ruse gave an 
alarm and the crowd started after the carriage. 
Most gave up the chase after running a block, 

but a few newspaper reporters reached the 
station nearly as quick a.s the officials, one or 
two hanging onto the carriage, which they h d 
overtaken. They rushed by the ticket' in- 
spector at the gates and the party was soon 
safe within the railway car. The newspaper 
men followed and the whole party were scarce- 
ly seated when the train pulled out. Sheriff 
Barry ordered the conductor to lock the doors 
of the car and this was done. As the train 
neared Euclid Avenue, the reporters prepared 
notes to be thrown out and carried to their 
papers. The windows were all put down and, 
upon Washer's threat to shoot the man who 
touched a window, no effort was made to 
throw out notes at Euclid station. Sheriff 
Barry left the train there and Mr. Washer and 
Dr. Fouser proceeded alone, with the cringing 
negro on his knees, on the floor between them, 
imploring Washer to shoot him. The news- 
paper men were carried along, although some 
of them had no money to pay their fares. 

Sheriff Barry telephoned the change of 
plans from Cleveland and a carriage was wait- 
ing at the Union depot in Akron. There was 
no crowd at the station and no guard but two 
soldiei-s and one policeman, who were on duty 
there. Arrangements had been made to ho'd 
the train for thirty minutes at the station. It 
arrived at 3 :20. The employees of the Tap- 
lin Rice & Co. saw Peck taken into the Court 
House and swai-med out into the street. In 
the court room the judge was waiting and 
all the other requisites of a criminal action at 
law were ready. The judge cleared the room 
of soldiers, ordered Washer to put up his pis- 
tol and remove the manacles from the pri.s- 
oner. Peck waived the reading of the indict- 
ment. Upon being asked whether he wished 
to plead guilty' or not guilty to the charge of 
rape he replied, '"Guilty." Thereupon the 
court inquired if he had anything to say be- 
fore sentence should be pronounced upon him. 
His answer was no. The court then imposed 
a sentence of life imprisonment in the peni- 
tentiary at Columbus, the first thirty days of 
which were to be passed in solitary confine- 
ment. Pock wa.? visibly frightened through- 



out the whole proceedings. He was again 
manacled, trembling like a leaf. A guard of 
twenty militiamen surrounded him and Sher- 
iff Kelley as they started for the train. In 
the meantime the conductor of the train had 
been ordered by telephone to bring hi^ train 
up to Center Street. As the little party moved 
out into Broadway toward Center the crowd 
of workingmen surged about and tried to seize 
Peck. The soldiers fixed bayonets and met 
the new rioters with .sharp steel. They de- 
sisted their attempts only when the pris3ner 
was safely within the train. The sheriff was 
waiting for it as it di'ew up. It did not come 
to a full stop, but the prisoner was hustled 
aboard, the sheriff' followed, and Peck wa.s on 
his way to the only .spot that will again know 
him on earth. He was arraigned, pleaded 
guilty, was sentenced, and on his way to 
prison all within twenty minutes. Just four 
days after his crime was committed he had 
commenced to serve his sentence. Justice can 
move quickly when it has to. 

These things happened on Friday, August 
24, 1900. Justice in this case was fully done. 
It was not overdone as some very interested 
parties would have you believe. Peck richly 
deserved his sentence. No more heinous 
crime was ever committed in Summit County. 
It was revolting and repulsive in the extreme. 
The public has neVer learned the details and 
it never will, for they are too loathsome to 
publish. Unspeakable cruelty was practiced 
by that black ravisher upon that innocent lit- 
tle baby. Not only that, but Peck's record 
was a bad one before coming to Akron. The 
New York Tribune printed a list of the crimes 
for which he was wanted at Patterson, New 
Jersey. It is far better for him and for so- 
ciety that he be denied his liberty until Death 
shall free him, and his shrivelled soul shall 
pass on for the sentence of the Great Judge. 
No maudlin sentimentality should be allowed 
to interfere with the complete execution of 
this just sentence. The pleas of lawyers en- 
gaged by his friends to obtain his release are 
mercenary and should fall upon deaf ears. 


With Louis Peck safely in the penitentiary, 
the members of the military forces began to 
think of discharge from the irksome duties 
which had been unexpectedly imposed upon 
them. The Fourth Regiment had lost a large 
part of the benefit of their annual encamp- 
ment and they longed to return to Minerva 
Park. Colonels Adams and Potter desired to 
leave Akron with their commands on Friday 
night. The city authorities were apprehensive 
of trouble to come on Saturday night. The 
mayor urged the colonels to remain until 
Monday morning. Saturday brought with it 
a half-holiday and most of the shops and fac- 
tories paid their men on that day. Hence, it 
was thought that if new trouble were to arise 
it was most probable that it would come Sat- 
urday night. The militia officei"s reluctantly 
complied with the wishes of the mayor. Sat- 
urday and Sunday pas.9ed without extraordi- 
nary incident. If anything, the city was 
more orderly than usual. 

On Saturday afternoon the mayor held the 
first session of Police Court since AVednesday 
morning. By consent of the county officials, 
it was held in the Court House. The city 
government was without a home of any kind. 
On Mondaj^, August 27, at an early hour in 
the morning, the military companies took 
their departure and the city was left to take 
care of itself. The city commissioners had 
leased for one year the substantial stone of- 
fice building of the American Cereal Com- 
pany, on the cornel" of Mill and Broadway. 
This had been abandoned by the company 
when its principal offices had been moved to 
Chicago. The postoffice department of the 
federal government had occupied it for a 
while as the .site of the Akron postoffice while 
the government building was being com- 
pleted. It had been vacant several years and 
was the only available location for the pur- 
poses of the city. The Board of City Commis- 
.sioners met here on Monday morning and 
tran.sacted their first real business subsequent 
to the riot. Their first biisiness was to act 
upon the request of Chief of Police H. H. 



Harrison for a leave of absence for ten days. 
It was granted and lie left for Chicago to at- 
tend the annual reunion of the Grand Array 
of the Republic, of which he is a member. 
The coroner, E. 0. Leberman announced that 
he would hold his inquest over the victims of 
the shooting during the latter part of the week, 
as evidence was rapidly being secured. The 
public authorities, both city and county, had 
already taken steps to bring about the arrest 
of all parties who had been active in the law- 
less proceedings of Wednesday night. De- 
tectives from Cleveland and Pittsburg were on 
the scene by Thursday and were fast securing 
evidence against the guilty ones. By Tues- 
day, the 28th, the authorities began to suffer 
from a perfect deluge of anonymous letters, 
threatening them all with death if any ar- 
rests were made. They paid no attention to 
these threats, but persevered in the task of run- 
ning down the criminals. Many of the riot- 
ers were strangers in the city and many others 
had left upon learning that they were likely 
to be brought to justice. Hence, the work 
was very difficult. Finally a special grand jury 
was impaneled amd J. Park Alexander was 
made foreman of it. The county prosecutor, 
who had been indefatigable in the work, laid 
before it the evidence he had secured. Tiiie 
bills were returned against forty-one men and 
boys who had been the leaders of the mob. 
Soon the county jail was filled with the ac- 
cused persons. Officer John E. Washer ar- 
rested one man, Vernand Kempf, down in 
Tennessee, and brought him safely back to 
Akron. Upon his trial for shooting wnth in- 
tent to kill, he was found guilty and sen- 
tenced to imprisonment in the penitentiary 
for eighteen months. The other cases were 
disposed of as follows: 

State of Ohio vs. William Hunt, George 
Brodt and James McNaughton — Gharo;e, riot- 
ing. Hunt retracts his plea of not guilty and 
enters plea of guilty, and is sentenced to pay 
a fine of $25 and costs. Defendant McNaugh- 
ton plead guilty; sentence, $20 and costs. 

State of Ohio vs. Harry Earle, Jr., Claude 
Bender, .4ndrew Morgan. Andrew Wilburn — 
Charge, rioting. Defendant Bender pleads 

guilty, sentenced to workhouse for thirty 
days and pay $10 fine and costs. Nolle entered 
as to all the defendants except Bender. 

State of Ohio vs. Walter Wingerter, Ar- 
thur Sprague, Prank Sickles, William Henry 
— Charge, burglary and larceny. Wingerter 
sentenced to the reformatory. Same as to de- 
fendants Sickles and Henry. 

State of Ohio vs. Frank Bisson — Shooting 
with intent to kill or wound. Sentenced to 
Boys' Industrial School. 

State of Ohio vs. Howard McClelland. 
Shooting with intent to kill or wound. Sen- 
tenced to penitentiaiy for one year. 

State of Ohio vs. John Rhoden. Shooting 
with intent to kill or wound. Sentenced to 
penitentiary for one year. 

State of Ohio vs. Charles Timmerman, 
David Spellman, Frank Wheeler, Joseph 
Higy — Charge, rioting. Defendant Wheeler 
plead guilty; sentence, thirty days in jail and 
pay the co.ste. Defendant Spellman, $25 and 
costs. Dismissed as to Higy, 

State of Ohio vs. Walter Wingerter, Frank 
Sickles and William Crile — Charge, rioting. 
Defendant Crile .sentenced to pay $20 and 

State of Ohio vs. Arthur Sprague, Norma/n 
Breckenridge and Edward Eppley — Charge, 
rioting. Brockenridge, thirty days in jail and 
$25 fine and costs. Sprague the same. Ep- 
pley, no trial. 

State of Ohio vs. Sandy Coppard, William 
Henry and Edward Henry — Charge, rioting. 
All sentenced to thirty days in jail and $25 
fine and costs. 

State of Ohio vs. William Averill, Andrew 
B. Halter and Frank BLsson — Charge, rioting. 
Halter and Averill fined $50 and costs. Bis- 
son dropped from the docket. 

State of Ohio vs. Charles Timmerman — 
Charge, breaking into prison and attacking 
officer for the purpose of lynching. Sen- 
tenced to penitentiary for one year. 

State of Ohio vs. Edward Ej^pley, Harry 
Earle, Jr., and Oliver Morgan — Charge, un- 
lawful pos«es.sion and use of dynamite. All 
sentenced to refonnators- and to pay costs. 

State of Ohio vs. William Averill — Charge, 


shooting, with intent to kill or wound. Sen- 
tenced to reformatory. 

State of Ohio v.s. Vernando Kempf — Charge, 
shooting with intent to kill or wound. Sen- 
tenced to penitentiary for eighteen months. 

State of Ohio vs. Charles Fink and David 
Snyder — Charge, rioting. Defendant Fink 
pleads guilty; sentence, thirty days in jail. 
$25 and costs. Defendant Snyder plead 
guilty ; sentenced to pay $20 and costs. 

State of Ohio vs. Frank Viall, Lovell Nigh 
and August Simmonette — Charge, rioting. 
Nigh sentenced thirty days in jail, $25 and 
costs. Simmonette, thirty days in jail, $25 
and costs. A^iall, $50 and costs and thirty 
days in jail. 

Thus it will be seen there were thirty con- 
victions in the cases resulting from the riot. 
When one reflects upon the amount of work 
necessary to prepare for and conduct one im- 
portant criminal action at law, he will read- 
ily appreciate the titanic labor performed by 
the public authorities. Able counsel had 
been secured to defend each of the accused 
men, and the trials were hotly contested. The 
result reflects every credit upon R. M. Wana- 
maker, the prosecuting attorney. It is hardly 
possible to bestow too much praise upon the 
energy and skill he devoted to his work in 
bringing retribution upon those guilty of 
causing so much shame to the fair city of 

There was one glaring miscarriage of jus- 
tice. The public felt keenly that the mem- 
ber of the city council, of whom mention was 
made in the last chapter, and who was one of 
the leaders of the mob, should have been pun- 
ished for his misdeeds that night. He es- 
caped free. It was also regretted by many 
that the court, in passing sentence upon those 
convicted, did not impose heavier sentences, 
because of the heinousne.?s of the offenses. 
There is this to be said in extenuation, that 
for many of them, it was a first offense ; that 
the excitement of the moment carried some 
of them off their feet; that some up to this 
time had borne good reputations in the com- 
munity; that some had families dependent 
upon them for support, and that the sen- 

tences, such as they were, would be a suffi- 
cient deterrent from future violation of law. 

Thus justice emerged triumphant, as she 
always will. Law and Order were fully re- 
stored and affairs moved along in orderly pro- 
cession. The citizens began to take an ac- 
count of their losses. The City Building was 
but a heap of bricks, stones and twisted iron. 
Columbia Hall, one of the chief meeting- 
places of the city, was the same. The build- 
ings on the opposite side of Main Street had 
been damaged by flames and the violence of 
the mob. One of the stores there had been 
looted. The stores south of Columbia Hall 
had been damaged by fire and smoke. The 
Standard Hardware Company had lost its en- 
tire stock of fire-arms. For all this loss not 
one cent of fire insurance could be collected. 
Several cases brought to collect insurance 
dragged their weary lengths through the 
various counts for several years afterward, 
but it was uniformly decided that the com- 
panies were not liable for loss occa.sioned by 
the mob. The loss in money was about a 
quarter of a million dollars. A whole regi- 
ment of soldiers was quartered for nearly a 
week. The city and county had large bills 
to pay for detective service and the expense 
of the trials. Many citizens received serious 
injuries from bullets and flying missiles of all 
kinds. Among them the newspapers men- 
tioned the following: Fred Vorwerk, W. H. 
Dussel, Park Stair, Arthur E. Sprague, John 
Ahren, E. Chemelitzki, Albert Grant, Frank 
Sours, E. Shelby and Albert Stevens, of the 
citizens; L. Manch&ster, W. Roepke, Minor 
Fritz, John Denious, A. Eberle and David 
Phillips, of the firemen, and John E. Washer, 
Alva Greenlese, John King and Edward 
Dunn, of the police force. 

Although seven years have passed since that 
momentous time, the city is still occupying 
the old office of the American Cereal Com- 
pany as a City Hall. Three different adminis- 
trations have conducted the city's affairs 
within its walls. They are still called "tem- 
porary quarters," but there is no prospect of 
anything more permanent for years to come. 
The city is so busy building viaducts and 



paving streets and expending so much money 
for such purposes and the present quarters are 
so well adapted for the present needs that it 
is probable that Akron will have no City Hall 
of her own for many years to come. In spite 
of some objections on the part of some offi- 
cials, it must be admitted that the present 
building makes a very good housing for the 
conduct of municipal affairs, and that the 
rent is not unreasonable for such a structure. 
The City Council has a room large enough 
for it.=! deliberations ; the Mayor's Court is well 
provided for; the Boai-d of Health, the Audi- 
tor, the Solicitor and the Police Department, 
all have separate and commodious apart- 

The main damage caused by the riot was 
that done to the hitherto fair reputation of 
the city. In the heart of the cultured West- 
ern Reserve of Ohio, it was not thought pos- 
sible that such an outbreak of lawlessness 
could occur. The other cities of the Western 
Reserve blushed for us. The great state of 
Ohio was ashamed of us. We had brought 
discredit upon the great state of which we 
are so proud. Our shame went abroad 
throughout the land — throughout the worH. 
The great newspapers sent special correspond- 
ents to Akron and covered their front pages 
with great, black headlines to publish to the 
world our disgrace. As an example, the Pitts- 
b\irgh Dispatch of August 24, 1900. bore 
across the entire front page in .startling type, 
this inscription : "National Guard Preserves 
Order in Shamed Akron." This shame, this 

disgrace, this damage to a splendid reputa- 
tion, was our greatest loss. 

If the cause of it all can be said to belong 
to those who might have averted it, then 
there is no difficulty in putting the blame 
where it belongs — at the door of incompetent 
public officials. The errors of judgment on 
their part were so numerous that it will not 
be possible to mention them here. Even when 
the riot was at its height, a dozen determined 
policemen could have put the entire mob to 
rout. Many times that night it happened, 
that some one would cry, "The Police are 
Coming Out," and the entire crowd would 
take to their heels and scatter in all direc- 
tions. It is to be feared that downright cow- 
ardice, as well as lack of judgment, was one 
of the prominent characteristics of those now 

From the black picture let us turn to a 
bright one. Letters of shining gold should 
be used to tell of the deeds of Akron's fire- 
men who played so noble a part in that 
night's doings. From its very beginning, 
Akron's fire department has never been found 
wanting in any emergency, but on this occa- 
sion, it covered itself with everlasting glory. 
The prison-keeper and a few of the police- 
men proved also that night that they were 
brave men. These, with the county prose- 
cutor, and the members of the Grand and 
Petit juries who dealt with the riot cases, are 
they who emerged with credit from the Riot 
of 1900. 



Settlement and Organization of the Townships — Settlement and Founding of the Towns 
Sketches of Barberton, Cuyahoga Falls, Hudson, Tallmadge, Peninsula, Etc. 

Summit County possesses some of the most 
beautiful scenery in Ohio. There is not an 
uninteresting township in the whole county. 
Each has some special charm to prove that 
Nature has been most lavish of her gifts. 
The valley of the Cuyahoga divides the upper 
half of the county, while the southern half 
is diversified by a chain of beautiful lakes. 
Everywhere there is variety; monotonous ex- 
panses of level ground are nowhere to be 
seen. Near the head of the Cuyalioga A^al- 
ley are the famed Northampton Hills which 
offer vistas of hill country that remind the 
beholder of New England. Here, on a 
smaller scale, are the qualities which have 
made the Berkshires famous for their beauty. 
The Lake Country has its eminences, also, 
rising two or three hundred feet almost from 
the water's edge. The lakes, nestling amid 
these green hills, make a picture which is 
worthy the long journey which many travel- 
ers make to see it. From these high points, 
the land stretches away to the east and west 
in long rolls and billows. It is not a matter 
of wonder that Medina and Portage and Stark 
counties objected so strenuously to being de- 
prived of the townships which were taken 
from them to form the new county of Sum- 
mit. By that process they lost the fairest 
portion of their domain. 


Of the early settlers of Bath Township 
there are two families which stand out pre- 
eminent — the Hfxles and the Hammonds. 
The influence of the Hale family during the 
years subsequent has been stronger and wider 
felt than that of perhaps any other family in 
the county. It has been of incalculable bene- 
fit, exerted, as it always has been, in behalf 
of high thinking and clean living. The fact 
that for a long time this region was called 
"Hammondsburgh" shows the prominent 
part Jason Hamimond played in the perform- 
ance of its early affairs. The hamlet of 
Hammond's Corners still bears the name of 
this first settler. The first real settlement of 
the township was made in 1810. During the 
summer of that year, Jonathan Hale and Ja- 
son Hammond, both Connecticut men, came 
to Ohio to settle upon the land they had re- 
cently purchased. They were obliged to dis- 
possess other white men whom they found 
living upon their land without color of title. 
A survey of the township had been made in 
1805, and the name "Wheatfield" given to it 
by Rial McArthur, the surveyor, probably be- his eyes had been gladdened that day 
by a .sight of a waving field of that grain. 
It is a pity the name did not survive. Fine 
fields of wheat may be seen on all hands, to- 
day, in season, and it is one of the success- 



ful crops of the township, while the name of 
Bath is of no significance, locally, whatever. 
It is said the name was given to the town- 
ship in joke. It is now firmly affixed and 
"Bath" this township will ever be. Bath was 
organized as a township in 1818, and Jona- 
than Hale was made the first trustee; Jason 
Hammond, supervisor; Henry Hutson, jus- 
tice of the peace, and Eleazer Rice, consta- 
ble. Bath sent nearly one hundred men into 
the Union Arrny during the Civil War and 
many of her citizens have occupied promi- 
nent places in the county and State. Among 
them' may be mentioned Gen. A. C. Voris. 
Peter Voris, R. 0. Hammond, J. Park Alex- 
ander, Sumner Nash, C. 0. Hale, Jared Bar- 
ker and 0. W. Hale. The principal plac&s 
in the township are Botzura, a station on the 
Cleveland and Terminal Valley branch of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; Montrose 
(formerly called Latta's Corners and some- 
times Ellis' Corners) ; Hammond's Corners 
and Ghent. At the picturesque village last 
mentioned there are extensive saw-mills, grist- 
mills, a general store, etc. P. A. Ganyard 
is the township clerk in 1907, and William 
Davis and C. S". Parsons are justices of the 


Boston Township contains three villages — 
Peninsula, Boston Mills and Everett. The 
earliest settlers were also from Connecticut. 
In 1805, the purchasers of the holdings of 
the Connecticut Land Company sent many 
surveying corps into Summit County for the 
purpose of alloting the lands. In this year 
Alfred Wolcott, Jamas Stanford. John Teale 
and Samuel Ewart came into Boston Town- 
ship for the purpose of making a survey. In 
1806, Wolcott and Stanford both purcha.sed 
land surveyed by them the summer previous 
and located upon it at once. Tlioy thus be- 
came the first settlers in the town.ship. The 
Wolcott family afterward became very promi- 
nent and influential. The town.ship wa.? or- 
ganized in 1811, as a part of Portage County. 

its firet officers were Timothy Bishop, Andrew 
Johnson and Aai'on Miller, trustees; William 
Beers, clerk; Launcelot May, treasurer; Al- 
fred Wolcott and Moses Cunningham, jus- 
tices of the peace, and James Jordan, consta- 
ble. More than 140 men of Boston township 
fought for the Union in the war of 1861-65, 
the most distinguished of whom was Colonel 
Arthur L. Conger. On July 4, 1889, Colonel 
and Mrs. Conger presented to Boston Town- 
.ship the fine soldiers' monument which stands 
in the village of Peninsula at its western bor- 
der. Peninsula has an extensive flour-mill 
and, in the southern part of the village, a 
large stone-quaiTy of a fine-gi'ained, white 
.sand-stone, from which mill-stones are made. 
Boston has saw-mills and the great paper- 
mills of the Akron-Cleveland Paper Bag 
Company, the power for which is partly se- 
cured from a large dam thrown across the 
Cuyahoga River. Colonel A. L. Conger aaid 
Hon. S. P. Wolcott are the Boston citizens 
who have earned for themselves the greatest 
fame. At the present time Charles Peterson 
is clerk and E. B. Conger and N. B. Wise are 
justices of the peace. 


Copky Township came to us from Medina 
County when our county was created in 1840. 
It is well watered by Pigeon Creek, Wolf 
Creek and Chocolog Creek, besides having 
within its confines AMiite Pond, Black Pond 
and Chocolog Pond. Formerly a great swamp 
called Copley Swamp occupied a large part 
of it, but by judicious draining it has been 
reduced to an insignificant area. It Ls now 
one vast garden — the old peat and muck beds 
furnishing the best kind of soil for raising 
celery, onions, etc. In early times it was the 
great game preserve of the whole region. 
Copley was first settled in 1814 by Jonah 
Turner, who came from Pennsylvania. Six 
additional families arrived during the next 
five years. ■ It was set apart as a township of 
Medina County in 1819, and was named 
Greenfield at first by Garner Green, who origi- 



nally owned a large part of ite territory. He 
afterwards changed the name to Copley, the 
maiden name of his wife. When the North- 
ern Ohio Railroad was built, in 1891, it gave 
Copley an outlet, and was the means of start- 
ing a new hamlet — Fairlawn, which now 
boasts a mill, general store, smithy, etc. Cop- 
ley sent nearly 150 men into the Union 
Army. Homer G. Long is now township 
clerk and C. C. Frederick is justice of the 


Coventry Township lies to the north of 
Franklin and Green and just outside of the 
City of Akron. It is also the southern line 
of the Western Reserve. Its physical fea- 
tures are unusual in that it is dotted by nu- 
merous lakes and in early days was traversed 
by a considerable stream, the Tuscarawas. In 
addition to this, about 1840, the Reservoir 
was built, composed partly of natural and 
partly artificial bodies of water. Long Lake 
is the largest of these natural bodies of 
water. The Indian seem to have made 
this their headquarters and naturally so, for 
New Portage was at the head of the Indian 
Trail. These Indians were Delawares and the 
most importajit of their chiefs was Ilopocan 
or Captain Pipe. He called . himself, "Ho- 
pocan, King of New Portage." The finst white 
settler of the township was Daniel Haines, 
who can^e from Pennsylvania about the year 
1806. After him, in 1811, came the Aliens, 
from New York State, forebears of the^ Al- 
iens, who live there today. The town.ship 
grew at an ama^iing pace and a great future 
seemed before it. The Tuscarawas was then 
an immense stream capable of floating -large 
boats, and many a boatload went from 
Coventry to New Orleans. A glass factory 
started and for some time many articles of 
value and profit were turned out. A distillery 
was started by Adam Falor. Saw-mills and 
grist-mills started up. A lawyer by the name 
of Van Humphreys settled there and the 
"State of Coventry" began to be. The now 

well known "State Mill" arose in this fashion: 
At the time of the construction of the Reser- 
voir it was neces-sary to destroy the mill 
formerly there, and to replace it the 
State built a large mill at that point. 
For a long time it was the center of 
the mill business of that district, and of late 
\ears has become valuable, chiefly as a sum- 
mer resort. With the advent of the canal 
the township continued to flourish and for a 
time seemed to rival Middlebury. However, 
its prospects died down and it settled down 
to the regular way of a town.ship. Still it is 
to be remembered that with the last increase 
of territory to Akron, a large part of Coventry 
was annexed to the city, and the old city- 
spirit of Coventry survives possibly in another 

The township organization occurred in 
1808. and at that time Coventry was a part 
of Springfield and they were a part of 
Portage County, till the organization of Sum- 
mit in 1840. At the present time the taxable 
property in the township is valued at about 
$1,300,000. With the rapid growth of the 
city south, and the addition of Barberton and 
Kenmore, it seems that it will be only a short 
time till the township will disappear within 
municipal lines. Among the prominent 
families in the township have been the 
Brewsters and the Falors. From Coventry 
township also came John R. Buchtel, the 
founder of Buchtel College, and William 
Buchtel, who represented Summit County in 
the State legislature from 1901-3. The pres- 
ent representative, Howard C. Spicer. is also 
from Coventry township. B. T. Davis and H. 
E. Shook are the present justices of the peace 
for the township. 

The village of Cuyahoga Falls was 
founded in 1825 by Elkanah Richardson. 
Among the earliest settlers were Joshua Stow 
and William Wetmore. In 1815 a saw-mill 
was in operation near Gaylord's Grove, oper- 
ated by power derived from a dam across the 
river at that point. The name Cuyahoga 
Falls was adopted in accordance with a sug- 
gestion from the postoflfice department. The 



tirni ol' Stow and Wetniore built several mills, 
dams and business buildings in the new vil- 
lage, and by 1830 the town took on am im- 
portant aspect. In that year they built a 
large paper mill, an industry that is still car-' 
ried on profitably. They were a?.sisted in the 
paper business by John Rumrill, who had 
learned the art in the New England paper 
mills. About 1825 Henry Newberry came 
from Connecticut and built more dams, a 
saw-mill, linseed oil-imill and a paper-mill. 
He was a graduate of Yale and was one of the 
most prominent of the early settlers. March 
5, 1851, the citizens of Cuyahoga Falls organ- 
ized a township of the same name and co- 
extensive with the territory of the village. 
The government of tlie village was then given 
over to the township officers who were elected 
at that time as follows: Horace A. Miller, 
Henry Newberry, Jr., and Porter G. Somers, 
trustees; Lucious Bradley, treasurer; Grant P. 
Turner, clerk ; William H. Taylor, assessor, 
and W. J. Wilson and W. W. Luca.'S, con- 
stables. This arrangement failed to give sat- 
isfaction and on .June 3, 1868, the village gov- 
ernment was reorganized. On September 1, 
1868, the first election was hel-d and William 
A. Hanford was elected mayor; Henry C. 
Lockwood, treasurer; Porter G. Somers, re- 
corder; T. F. Heath, Charles Hunt, W. M. 
Griswold, John Hinde and L. W. Loomis, 
trastees. In 1841 the Board of Commi.s.sioners, 
to locate the county seat decided upon Cuya- 
hoga Falls, but the legislature interfered the 
year following, and, leaving the question to a 
popular vote, it was located at Akron. It 
cannot be said that Cuyahoga Falls was at 
any time the county seat, in spite of the acts 
of the commission. 

Cuyahoga Falls' schools have always been 
among the best in the county. The village 
obtained its reputation as an educational cen- 
ter very early in its exi.stence. In 1834 a pri- 
vate school wfiis opened by J. H. Reynolds. 
In 1836 a school for girls was opened by 
Sarah Carpenter. Later schools were con- 
ducted bv Frances C. Barron nnd Eliza 
Deaver. In 1837, the Cuvahoga Fnlls Insti- 
tute was opened for pupils by Rev. Roswcll 

Brooks and Charles Clark. The present brick 
High School building was built in 1871. The 
High School was organized in 1855, H. F. 
Taylor being the first principal. Among his 
successors have been such famous men as Ed- 
ward R. Sill, Vergil P. Kline and William I. 
Chamberlain. In 1833, "The Ohio Review," 
Cuyahoga Falls' first newspaper, was started 
by Horace Canfield and Timothy Spencer. It 
ran about one year. It was followed in close 
succession by the "Renovator," "The Young 
Buzzard," "The Telescope," "The American 
Eagle," and "The True American." The last 
mentioned stopped about 1843. In 1870 "The 
Cuyahoga Falls Reporter" was founded by E. 
0. Knox and, by good business management, 
has succeeded in continuing publication until 
the present time. In 1881 "The Weekly 
Journal" was started, but did not last more 
than a year. 

The village sent nearly 200 men into the 
Union Army during the Civil War. In 1859 
"The Union Fair ^\s.sociation" was fonned 
and fitted iip fair grounds at the north end 
of the village. Not being a success financially, 
the association was wound up in 1861. Cuya- 
hoga Falls has had her share of prominent 
citizens, among whom can be named Edward 
Rowland Sill, one of America's very best 
poets, and whose fame has just begun to grow. 
Elisha N. Sill, Samuel W. McClure, ' Henry 
McKinney, George Paul and Charles R. 

Cuyahoga Falls now has the following 
churches: Church of Christ, Rev. W. L. 
Denslow, pastor: First Congregational, Rev. 
A. E. Woodruff, pa.stor; Methodi4 Episcopal. 
Rev. W. J. Wilson, pa.stor; St. John's Epis- 
copal; St. Joseph's Roman Catholic, Rev. J. 
A. Nolan, pa.stor, and the Welsh Congrega- 
tional. The principal industries now are 
The Walsh Paper Company, C. M. Walsh, 
president ; T. A. Murphy, vice-president and 
general manager; E. A. Prior, secretary, and 
F. T. Moloney, treasurer. They have a very 
large factorv on River Street. On Portage 
Street are the Pearl Flour Mills, operated by 
the Walsh Milling Company, of which Cor- 
nelius ]M. A^' is president. The large fac- 








tory of the Falls Rivet and Machine Company 
is located on the railroad at Portage Street. 
Edwin Seedhouse is president and C. H. 
Wells, treasurer. They make rivets, bolts and 
power transmission machinery. The Acme 
Wire Company has officers as follows : W. C. 
Hall, president; S. H. Miller, vice-president; 
L. D. Brown, treasurer; E. A. Henry, general 
manager. Falls Hollow Staybolt Company, 
C. M. Walsh, president; The Falls Lumber 
Company, G. R. James, secretary and treas- 
urer; The Keller Brick Company, Frederick 
W. Keller, president ; W. F. Keller, secretary 
and president; Tift and Vogan, consisting of 
Smith D. Tift and Fremont D. A^ogan ; Tur- 
ner, Vaughn and Taylor, of which Calvin W. 
Vaughn is general manager; Isaac N. Reid, 
who 'makes carriages and does a general 
smithy businass; the Fair Oaks Villa is a sani- 
tarium for mental and nervous diseases, con- 
ducted successfully by Drs. W. A. Searl and 
H. I. Cozad. The Cuyahoga Falls Savings 
Bank was organized September 2, 1904, upon 
the failure of the Akron Savings Bank, which 
had conducted a Cuyahoga Falls branch. It 
has a capital of $50,000 and is ably managed 
by following officers: President, C. M. Walsh; 
vice-president, W. R. Lodge ; vice-president, 
Edwin Seedhouse; treasurer and cashier, F. 
T. Moloney; secretary, E. A. Prior. The 
Falls Savings and Loan A.«sociation is ably 
conducted by L. W. Loomis, president; E. A. 
Prior, secretary; Dr. W. A. Searl, treasurer, 
and C. T. Grant, attorney. Bauman and Orth 
(Edward H. Bauman and Frank W. Orth) 
are the present proprietors of the Cuyahoga 
Falls Reporter. The Central Union Tele- 
phone Company and the Akron Peoples' Tele- 
phone Company both have exchanges here. 
The population of Cuyahoga Falls is now 
about 4,000. In 1907 its officials are: Mayor, 
C. A. Davis; clerk, C. D. Crumb; treasurer, 
Theodore Heath; marshal, I. Goldwood. The 
mayor and clerk are Democrats, the other 
two Rejiubliciuis. 


Tallmadge was founded in 1806 by David 
Bacon, mini.ster, missionarv and colonizer. 

His experiences in the wilderness and the dif- 
ficulties he had to contend with in establish- 
ing his little colony are typical, and for that 
reason are here set forth in full according to 
the excellent narrative of his .son, Dr. Leonard 
Bacon, as published in Howe's Historical Col- 
lections (Ohio). It may readily be believed 
that the labors and dangers incident to the 
settlement of Tallmadge were no greater than 
those attending the settlement of the other 
townships of the county. 

Rev. David Bacon, the founder of Tall- 
madge, was born in Woodstock, Connecticut, 
in 1771, and died in Hartford in 1817 at the 
early age of forty-six years, worn out by ex- 
cessive labors, privations and mental suffer- 
ings, largely consequent upon his financial 
failure with his colony. He was the first mis- 
sionary sent to the Western Indians from Con- 
necticut. His means were pitifully inade- 
quate, but with a stout heart, reliant upon 
God, he .started, August 8, 1800, from Hart- 
ford, afoot and alone through the wilderness, 
with no outfit but what he could carry on his 
back. At Buffalo Creek, now the site of the 
city of Buffalo, he took vessel for Detroit, 
which he reached September 11, thirty-four 
days after leaving Hart-ford, and was hospit- 
ably received by Major Hunt, commandant 
of the United States garrison there. After a 
preliminaiy survey he returned to Connecti- 
cut, and on the 25th of December was mar- 
ried at Lebanon to Alice Parks, then under 
eighteen years of age ; a week later, on the last 
day of the year of the last century, De- 
cember 31, 1800, he was ordained regularly 
to the specific work of a missionarj' to the 
heathen, the first ever sent out from Con- 

On the 11th of February, 1801, with his 
young wife, he started for Detroit, going 
through the -n-dlderness of New York and Can- 
ada by sleigh, and arrived there Saturday, 
May 9. The bride, before she got out of Con- 
necticut, had a new and painful experience. 
They stopped at a noisy countrj"- tavern at 
Canaan. There was a large company alto- 
gether, some drinking, .some talking and some 



swearing, and this they found was common 
at all the public-houses. 

Detroit at this time was the great empo- 
rium of the fur trade. Some of the Indian 
traders were men of great wealth for those 
days and of highly cultivated minds. Many 
of them were educated in England and Scot- 
land at the universities, a class today in Brit- 
ian termed "university men." They gen- 
erally spent the winter there, and in the 
spring returned with new goods brought by 
vessels through the lakes. The only Ameri- 
cans in the place were the officers and soldiers 
of the garrison, consisting of an infantry reg- 
iment and an artillery company, the officers 
of which treated Mr. Bacon and family with 
kindnees and respect. The inhabitants were 
English, Scotch, Irish and French, all of 
whom hated the Yankees. The town was en- 
closed by cedar pickets about twelve feet high 
and six inches in diameter, and so close to- 
gether one could not see through. 

At each side were strong gates which were 
closed together and .guarded, and no Indians 
were allowed to come in after sundown or to 
remain over night. 

Upon his arrival in Detroit the missionary 
society paid him in all four hundred dollars; 
then, until September, 1808, he did not get 
a cent. He began his support by teaching 
school, at first with some success, but he was 
a Yankee, and the four Catholic priests used 
their influence in opposition. His young 
wife assisted him. They studied the Indian 
langiiage, but made slow progress, and their 
prospect for usefulness in Detroit seemed wan- 

On the 19th of Febniary, 1802, hi^ first 
child was born at Detroit. — the afterwards emi- 
nent Dr. Leonard Bacon. In the May fol- 
lowing he went down into the Maumee coun- 
try with a view to establishing a mission 
among the Indians. The Indians were 
ly drunk, and he was an unwilling witness to 
their drunken orgies. Little Otter, their chief, 
received him courteously, called a council of 
the tribe, and then, to his talk through an in- 
terpreter, gave him their decision that they 
would not have him. Tt was to this efi'ect: 

Your religion is very good, but only 
for white people; it will not do for In- 
dians. When the Great Spirit made 
white people he put them on another 
island, gave them farms, tools to work 
with, horses, horned cattle and sheep 
and hogs for them, that they might 
get their living in that way and he taught 
them to read, and gave them their reli- 
gion in a book. But when he made In- 
dians he made them wild, and put them 
on this island in the woods, and gave 
them the wild game that they might live 
by hunting. We formerly had a reli- 
gion very much like yours, but we found 
it would not do for us, and we have dis- 
covered a much better way. 
Seeing he could not succeed he returned to 
Detroit. He had been with them several days 
and twice narrowly escaped assassination from 
the intoxicated ones. His son, Leonard, in 
his memoirs of his father, published in the 
Congregational Quarterly for 1876, and from 
which this article is derived, wrote : 

"Something more than ordinary courage 
was neces-sary in the presence of so many 
drunken and half-dninken Indians, any one 
of whom might suddenly shoot or tomahawk 
the mLssionary at the slightest provocation or 
at none." The two instances mentioned by 
him in which he was enabled to baffle the 
malice of savages ready to murder him remind 
me of another in,stance. 

"It was while my parents were living at 
Detroit, and when I was an infant of less than 
four months, two Indians came as if for a 
friendly visit; one of them, a tall and stal- 
wart, young man, the other shorter and 
older. As they entered my father met them, 
gave his hand to the old man, and was just 
extending it to the other, when my mother, 
quick to discern the danger, exclaimed, 'See! 
He has a knife.' At the word my father saw 
that, while the Indian's right hand was ready 
to salute, a gleaming knife in his left hand 
was partly concealed under his blanket. 

"An Indian intending to a.ssassinate waits 
until his intended victim is looking away 
from him and then strikes. Mv father's keen 



6ye was fixed upon the murderer, and watched 
him eye to eye. The Indian found himself 
strangely diseoncert.ed. In vain did the old 
man talk to my father in angry and chiding 
tones — -that keen, black eye was watching the 
would-be assassin. The time seemed long. 
My mother took the baby (himself) from the 
birch-bark cradle, and was going to call for 
help, but when she reached the door, she 
dared not leave her husband. At last the old 
man became weary of chiding; the young 
man had given up his purpose for a time and 
they retired." 

Failing on the Maumee, Mr. Bacon soon 
after sailed with his little family to Mackinaw. 
This was at the beginning of summer, 1802 
Mackinaw was then one of the remotest out- 
posts of the fur trade and garrisoned by a 
company of United States troops. His object 
was to establish a mission at Abrecroche, 
about twenty miles distant, a large settlement 
of Chippewa Indians, but they were no less 
determined than those on the Maumee that 
no missionary should live in their villages. 
Like those, also, they were a large part of the 
time drunk from whiskey, supplied in 
abundance by the fur traders in exchange for 
the proceeds of their hunting excursions. 
They had at one time no less than 900 gallon 
kegs on hand. 

His work was obstructed from the impos- 
sibility of finding an interpreter, so he took 
into his family an Indian lad, through whom 
to learn the language — his name was Singe- 
nog. He remained at Mackinaw about two 
years, but the Indians would never allow him 
to go among them. Like the Indians gen- 
erally, they regarded ministers as another 
sort of conjurors, with power to bring sickness 
and disease vipon them'. 

At one time early in October the second 
year, 1803, Singenog, the young Indian, per- 
suaded his uncle, Pondega Kawwan. a head 
chief, and two other Chippewa dignitaries, to 
vi.»it the missionar\r, and presenting him a 
string of wampum, Pondega Kawwan made a 
ver^' non-committal, dignified speech, to the 
effect that there was no u.^e of his .going 
among them, that the Great Spirit did not 

put them on the ground to learn such things 
as the white people taught. If it were not 
for rmn they might listen, "but," concluded 
he, "Rum is our Master." And later he said 
to Singenog, "Our father is a great man and 
knows a great deal ; and if we were to know so 
much, perhaps the Great Spirit would not let 
us live." 

After a residence at Mackinaw of about two 
years and all prospects of success hopeless, the 
!iii.ssionary society ordered him to New Con- 
necticut, there to itinerate as a missionary and 
to improve himself in the Indian language, 
etc. Ahout the l.^t of August, 1804, with h-s 
wife and two children, the youngest an infant, 
he sailed for Detroit. From hence they pro- 
ceeded in an open canoe, following the wind- 
ings of the shore, rowing by day and sleep- 
ing on land by night, till having performed a 
journey of near 200 miles, they reached, about 
tlie middle of October, Cleveland, then a mere 
hamlet on the lake shore. 

Leaving his family at Hudson, he went on 
to Hartford to report to the society. He went 
;ilmost entirely on foot a distance of about 600 
miles, which he wearily trudged much of the 
way through the mnd, slush and snow of win- 
ter. An arrangement was made by which he 
could act half the time as pastor at Hudson, 
and the other half as a missionary to the 
various settlements on the Reserve. On his 
return a little experience satisfied him that 
more could be done than in any other way for 
the establishment of Christian institutions on 
the Reserve, by the old Puritan mode of 
colonizing, by founding a religious colony 
strong enough and compact enough to main- 
tain schools and public worship. 

An ordinarv township, with its scattered 
settlements and roads at option, with no com- 
mon central point, cannot well grow into a 
town. The unity of a town as a body politic 
depends very much on fixing a common cen- 
ter to which every homestead shall be obvious- 
ly related. In no other rural town, perhaps, 
is that so well provided for as in Tallmadge. 
"Public spirit, local pride," writes Dr. 
Bacon, "friendly intercourse, general culture 
and good taste, and a certain moral and re- 



ligious steadfastness are among the character- 
istics by which Tallniadge is almost pro- 
verbially distinguished throughout the Re- 
serve. No observing stranger can pass through 
the town without seeing that it was planned 
by a sagacious and far-seeing mind. 
"It was fit that he who had planned the set- 
tlement, and who had identified with it all 
his hopes for use-fuln&ss for the remainder of 
his life, and all his hopes of a competence for 
his family, should be the first settler in the 
township. He did not wait for hardier ad- 
venturers to encounter the first hardships and 
to break the loneliness of the woods. Select- 
ing a temporary location near an old Indian 
trail, a few rods from the southern boundary 
of the township, he built the first log cabin, 
and there placed his family. 

"I well remember the pleasant day in July, 
1807, when that family made its removal 
from the center of Hudson to a new log-house 
in a township that had no name and no hu- 
man habitation. The father and mother — 
poor in this world's goods, but rich in faith 
and in the treasure of God's promises; rich 
in their well-tried mutual affection ; rich in 
their expectation of usefulness and of the 
comfort and competence which they hoped to 
achieve by their enterprise; rich in the 
parental joy with which they looked upon 
the three little ones that were carried in their 
arms or nestled among their scanty house- 
hold goods in the slow-mo\'ing wagon — were 
familiar with whatever there is in hardship 
and peril or disappointment, to try the cour- 
age of the noblest manhood or the immortal 
strength of a true woman's love. The little 
ones were the natives of the wilderness — ^the 
youngest a delicate nur.?ling of six months, 
the others bom in a remoter and more savage These five, with a hired man, were the 

"I remember the setting out, the halt before 
the door of an aged friend to say farewell, 
the fording of the Ciiyahoga, the day's jour- 
ney of somewhat less than thirteen miles 
along a road that had been cut (not made) 
through the dense forest, the little cleared 
spot where the journey ended, the new log- 

house, with what seemed to me a stately hill 
behind it, and with a limpid rivulet winding 
near the door. That night, when the first 
family worship was ofi'ered in that cabin, the 
prayer of the two worshipers, for themselves 
and their children, and for the work which 
they had that day begun, was like the prayer 
that went up of old from the deck of the May- 
flower, or from beneath the wintry sky of 
Plymouth. One month later a German fam- 
ily came within the limits of the town ; but 
it was not until the next February that a sec- 
ond family came, a New England family, 
whose mother tongue was English. AVell I do 
remember the solitude of that first winter, and 
how beautiful the change was when spring 
at last began to hang its garlands on the 

"The next thing in carrying out the plan 
to which Mr. Bacon had devoted himself was 
to bring in, from whatever quarter, such 
families as would enter into his views and 
would co-operate with him for the early and 
permanent establishment of Christian order. 
It was at the expense of many a slow and 
weary journey to older settlements that he 
succeeded in bringing together the families 
who, in the spring and .summer of 1808, be- 
gan to call the new town their home. His 
repeated absences from the home are fresh in 
my memory, and so is the joy with which we 
greeted the arrival of one family after an- 
other coming to relieve our loneliness: nor 
least among the merhories of that time is the 
remembrance of my mother's fear when left 
alone with her three little children. She had 
not ceased to fear the Indians, and .sometimes 
a straggling savage, or a little company of 
them, came by our door on the old portage 
path, calling, perhaps, to try our hospitality, 
and with signs or broken English phrases ask- 
ing for whiskey. She could not feel that to 
'pull in the latch string' was a stifflcient ex- 
chision of such visitors, and in my mind's 
eye I seem now to see her frail form tugging 
at a heav\' chest, with which to barricade the 
door before she dared to .sleep. It was, in- 
deed, a relief and joy to feel at last that we 
had neighbors, and that our town was begin- 



ning to be inhabited. At the end of the sec- 
ond year from the commencement of the sur- 
vey, there were, perhaps, twelve families, and 
the town received its name, Tallmadge." 

Slowly the settlement of the town proceeded 
from 1807 to 1810. Emigration from Con- 
necticut had about ceased, owing to the stag- 
nation of business froni European wars, and 
the embargo and other non-intercourse acts 
of Jefferson's administration. Mr. Bacon 
could not pay for the land he had purchased. 
He went East to trj^ to make new satisfactory 
arrangements with the proprietors, leaving 
behind his wife and five little children. The 
proprietors were imnmovable. Some of his 
parishioners felt hard towards him because, 
having made payments, he could not perfect 
their titles. With difficulty he obtained the 
means to return for hi^^ familv. 

In May, 1812, he left Tallmadge, and all 
"that was realized after five years of arduous 
labor was poverty, the alienation of some old 
friends, the depression that follows a fatal de- 
feat, and the dishonor that falls on one who 
cannot pay his debts." He lingered on a few 
years, supporting his family by traveling and 
selling the "Scott's Family Bible" and other 
religious works, from house to house, and oc- 
casional preaching. He bore his misfortunes 
with Christian resignation, struggled on a 
few years with broken spirits and broken con- 
stitution, and died at Hartford, August 17, 
1817. "My mother," said Dr. Bacon, "stand- 
ing over him with her youngest, an infant in 
her arms, said to him : 'Look on your babe 
before you die.' He looked up and said, with 
distinct and audible utterance: 'The blessing 
of the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, 
rest upon thee.' Just before dawn he breathed 
his la«t. Now he knows more than all of 
us, said the doctor; while my mother, bathing 
the dead face with her tears, and warming it 
with kisses, exclaimed: 'Let my last end be 
like his.' " 

There is little doubt that Rev. David Bacon 
was the first white person who made his home 
in this township. Other early settlers were 
George Boosinger, .Justin E. Frink, Ephraim 
Clark, .Jonathan Sprague, Titus Chapman, 

William NeaJ, Elizur Wright, Moses Brad- 
ford, Salmon Sackett, John Caruthers, Reu- 
ben Upson, John Wright and Luther Cham- 
berlain. The township was named in honor 
of one of its early proprietors, Benjamin Tall- 
madge, of Litchfield, Connecticut. Nearly 
all the original settlers were from Connecti- 
cut. It was organized as a separate township 
in November, 1812. Elizur Wright was 
elected clerk and Nathaniel Chapman, justice 
of the peace. Tallmadge has from the very 
earliest days brought a very strong religious 
and educational influence to bear upon the 
surrounding communities. The average of 
culture is higher here than in any other com- 
munity in this vicinity — perhaps in Ohio. 
The purpose of its founder was religious. The 
Congregational Church was organized here in 
1809. In 1810, a school-house was opened 
and Lucy Foster, who married Alpha Wright 
the next year, was its first teacher. In 1816 
"Tallmadge Academy" was incorporated and 
opened to students. Among its teachers, 
Simeon Woodruff and Elizur Wright were 
the earliest, while later came Sidney Edger- 
ton. About 1835 Ephraim T. Sturtevant 
opened a private school and taught it suc- 
cessfully for several years. Tallmadge estab- 
lished the first public library in Summit 
County, opening it in 1813, and continuing 
and increasing it until the present writing. 
The Congregational Church edifice was built 
in 1822, and Ls a fine specimen of the New 
England church architecifure of the period. 
With very few changes, it has continued to 
serve the society until now.. In 1825 the 
Methodist established a church organization, 
and in 1832 erected a church building. In 
1874 they built the present structure near the 
public square. Coal and potters' clay are ex- 
tensively mined in the township. In the 
early '40's several veins of iron ore were dis- 
covered and a furnace erected to smelt them. 
The attempt was unsuccessful and the enter- 
prise ultimately abandoned. Some manufac- 
turing has been successfully conducted, 
notably, carriage manufacturing, begun in 
1827 by Amos Avery and William C. Oviatt. 
In 1836 thov took in Isaac Robinson. In 



1841 Ira P. Sperry organized the firm of 
Oviaitt & Sperry and later took in Samuel J. 
Eitchie. L. V. Bierce and J. E. Baldwin also 
manufactured cairiages for many year.?. In 
1868 Alfred Sperry, Charles Tryon and Ben- 
jamin D. Wright began the manufacture of 
sewer-pipe, Henry M. Camp later succeeding 
Mr. Tryon. In 1871 Samuel J. Ritchie and 
Ira P. and Willis Sperry bought them out and 
continued the business with success until the 
fire of 1878. In 1881 Ira P. and George P. 
Sperry rebuilt the w^orks. The apple-butter 
factory of John A. Caruthers should also be 
noticed. Tallmadge gave her full quota of 
men to preserve the Union during the rebel- 
lion of 1861. Tallmadge claims two of the 
greatest names in Summit County history in 
Sidney Edgerton and William H. Upson. 


The original proprietors of Hudson town- 
ship were Stephen Baldwin, Da\nd Hudson, 
Birdsey Norton, Nathaniel Norton, Benjamin 
Oviatt and Theodore Parmalee. It consisted 
of 16,000 acres, and, in the distribution of the 
lands of the Connecticut Land Company, it 
was sold to the above mentioned proprietors 
at 32 cents per acre. In 1799 David Hudson 
organized a party of eleven persons for the 
purpose of inspecting the new purchase. They 
started overland from Litchfield, Connecticut, 
and, with their wagons, oxen and cows, made 
a very respectable looking caravan. They 
were nearly two months in making the jour- 
ney, reaching the present township about the 
latter part of June. The summer was spent 
in surveying; erecting a bark hut and a more 
substantial log-house; clearing land of timber; 
planting and sowing crops, and platting the 
village, now called Hudson, after its founder. 
Early in October the survey of the township 
was completed and David Hudson, with his 
son Ira and the two surveyors, started back to 
Connecticut, leaving the remainder of the 
party as a nucleus of the future settlement. 

By offering bounties of land and other in- 
dticements, Mr. Hivdson succeeded in getting 
together twenty-eight colonists who agreed to 

return with him into the wilderness and as- 
sist in the pioneer work of settling the new 
township. In this party were Heman Oviatt, 
Joel and Allen Gaylord, Joseph and George 
Darrow, Moses Thompson, Samuel Bishop 
and others. After enduring the usual perils 
and deprivations incident to pioneer journey.-;, 
they arrived safely in Hudson in May, 1800. 
Their first act was a public meeting to con- 
duct services of thanksgiving for their safe 
journey and deliverance from the perils of 
the way in the wilderness. On October 28, 
1800, there was born to David Hudson and 
his wife, Anna (Norton) Hudson, a daughter, 
whom they named Anner Mary Hudson. She 
was born in Hudson and was the first white 
child born in what is now Summit County. 

Early in 1802 the county commis-sioners 
of Trumbull County, of which this locality 
was then a part, organized Hudson township 
and arranged for the first election in April, 
1802. There were elected at that time. He- 
man Oviatt, Ebenezer Sheldon and Abraham 
Thompson, tmstees; Thadeus Laeey, clerk; 
Rufus Edwards, Ebenezer Lester and Aaron 
Norton, constables, etc., etc. 

On September 4, 1802, the first church or- 
ganization in what is now Summit County 
was made by David Hudson, with twelve of 
his fellow-colonists, who were members of 
Congregational Churches back in Connecti- 
cut. The first church thus established was a 
Congregational Church, and, from that day to 
this, not a single Sabbath has passed T\'ithout 
public worship being held by the Congrega- 
tional Church of Hudson. In 1820 the so- 
ciety completed a fine church edifice on the 
site of the present Town Hall, which was used 
continuou.ely until the splendid brick church 
on Aurora Street, next to the "Pentagon," was 
built in 1865. This has proved sufficient for 
the needs of the Congregational Society until 
the present day. 

In 1828 Moses Draper, Daniel Gaylord and 
Perley Mansur organized a Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, the history of which is not a 
record of unvarving success. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church was or- 
ganized in 1842 bv Frederick Brown, Anson 



Brewster, Henry O'Brien, Arthur Sadler and 
others. It is called the "Parish of Christ 
Church, of Hudson, Ohio." Its membership 
has never been large and, at time.s, the organ- 
ization has been maintained with difficulty. 

St. Mary's Catholic Church was built in 
1858 and has been maintained in connection 
with the church of that denomination in 
Cuyahoga Falls. 

In 1890 an organization of the Disciples 
of Christ was effected and Rev. F. H. Moore 
was installed as its pastor. 

From the very beginning Hudson led the 
intellectual life of the AVestern Reserve. What 
the influence of Western Reserve College has 
been has been told elsewhere in this work by 
Dr. Findley. The spirit of which that insti- 
tution is a product manifested itself the year 
after the founding of the first settleiuent. 
George Pease, of Enfield, Connecticut, estab- 
lished the first school in a log-house, about 
where the present Town Hall stands. The 
growth of the schools kept pace with that of 
the population. In 1868 the fine brick High 
School building was erected. In addition to 
the public schools many private schools have 
been conducted at various times. The first 
was the Nutting School for young ladies, es- 
tablished in 1827. Then followed the Hud- 
son Academy for boys and girls in 1834; 
Hudson Female Seminary in 1845; the Gro.s- 
venor Seminary and the Phelps "Seminary 
for Ladies," established a few years later ; the 
J. W. Smith school in 1853 ; the Emily Met- 
calf school in 1860, and the Hudson Acad- 
emy, revived in 1874 by Rev. H. B. Hos- 

In the decade of the '50's Hudson was bad- 
ly smitten with the railroad fever. There 
was scarcely one of her citizens of means who 
did not invest everv- penny he could possibly 
raise in one or more of the railroad enter- 
prises undertaken at that time. Profe.ssor 
Henry N. Day. of Western Reserve College, 
seems to have been the moving spirit in all 
these schemes. The investors lost every cent 
they put in and the depreciation in Hudson 
business has been constant since that time. 
The town never rallied from the great finan- 

cial losses brought about by the failures of 
these railroad projects. The Cleveland and 
Pittsburgh Railroad was completed from 
Cleveland to Hudson in 1852. The "Akron 
Branch" was built soon after. These were 
successful and improved business conditions 
in Hudson so much that when subsequent 
projects were broached no difficulty was en- 
countered in getting the support of every Hud- 
son citizen. In 1852 Prof. Day and his asso- 
ciates "promoted" "the Clinton Line Rail- 
road." which was to be part of a great trans- 
continental railroad. In 1853 the same par- 
ties organized a bankruptcy club, the mem- 
bers of which were allowed to contribute to 
"the Clinton Line Extension," to run from 
Hudson to Tiffin. In the .same year Hudson 
citizens were asked to contribute toward de- 
fraying the expenses of another dream, iri- 
descent and alluring, called the "Hudson and 
Painesville Railroad," designed as an exten- 
sion of the "Akron Branch Railroad." The 
work on all these railroads was started and 
carried on to various extents. Much of the 
old grading, fills and culverts may yet be 
seen in the woods and pastures near Hudson. 
At least one of the roads was nearly half com- 
pleted, when, in 1856, the bubble burst. The 
dream was over, but the lapse from conscious- 
ness had cost the village every available nickel 
in it. These roads remain today just as they 
were left when work stopped in 1856. As a 
promoter. Prof. Day was a very great failure. 
Besides his railroad enterprises, which ended 
in disaster, might be mentioned his "Penta- 
gon" scheme and his book-publishing com- 
pany, both of which were wound up by as- 

It is a pleasure to turn from these business 
failures to some other enterprises which were 
built upon a more substantial ba=is and thus 
became successes. The conspicuous is 
the immense business built up by S. Straight 
& Co., established in 1867. ' Their busi- 
ness was the manufacture of butter and cheese 
and at one time they operated fourteen fac- 
tories. In 1870 E. A. 0.sborne erected his 
butter-tub and cheese-box factory. Other 
mills were those of Era.«tus Crov, built in 



1878; E. B. Shields, 1890; E. J. Tobdell; the 
Oviatt Manufacturing Company, in 1878, and 
the G. H. Grimm Manufacturing Company. 
Hudson's mercantile status is better today, 
perhaps, than at any time in the past. The 
great fire of a few years ago, which wiped 
out the entire western portion of the business 
part of town, has been the means of bring- 
ing about a great change for the better. Fine 
brick blocks have taken the place of the an- 
tiquated frame buildings in which business 
was formerly done and merchants have filled 
these modern rooms with larger stocks of 
finer goods. The Cleveland Bank failure, 
which brought so much loss upon Hudson 
merchants, through its Hudson branch, has 
been largely forgotten. After the fire above 
mentioned, Hudson possessed but one hotel, 
"The Delta," located near the depot, the old 
"Mansion House," located on the west side of 
Main Street, having been destroyed in that 
conflagration. In 1907 a fine, new hotel was 
opened up in the old Beebe Mansion, on the 
north side of the square, and called the "Park 
Hotel." Among the prominent merchants of 
the past and present should be mentioned 
Charles H. Buss, Edwin S. Bentley, John 
Whedon, George V. Miller, Dennis J. Joyce, 
R. H. Grimm, Seba.stian Miller, James A. 
Jacobs, Henry Wehner, John G. Mead, C. A. 
Campbell, C. H. Farwell, J. N. Farrar, P. N. 
Shively, J. L. Doncaster, W. M. Beebe, 
Charles Kilbourn and others. 

Hudson village was incorporated April 1, 
1837. At the first election, held that year, 
Heman Oviatt was chosen mayor; Lyman W. 
Hall, recorder; Frederick Baldwin] Harvey 
Baldwin, John B. Clark, Jesse Dickinson and 
Daniel C. Gaylord, trustees. 

Hudson M'as one of the centers of anti-slav- 
ery sentiment in Ohio. Like Oberlin and 
Tallmadge, her citizens took an open and 
active part in attacking the great evil and 
arousing public opinion against it. Many 
fugitive slaves found an asykmi here. When 
the Civil War broke out Hudson did her full 
duty and furnished more than one hundred 
and fifty men for the Union Armv. Todav, 

nowhere in the county is Memorial Day more 
reverently celebrated. 

Hudson Township has given us Judge S. H. 
Pitkin, M. C. Read and W. I. Chamberlain. 

At the present time E. E. Rogers is town- 
ship clerk and also justice of the peace. The 
census of 1890 gave Hudson a population of 
1,143; the last census (1900) showed a de- 
crease to 982. 


In the drawing of lands of the Connecticut 
Land Company the present township of 
Northampton fell to W. Billings, David King, 
Ebenezer King, Jr., F. King, John Leavitt, 
Jr., 0. P. Holden, Luther Loomis, Joseph 
Pratt, Timothy Phelps, Solomon Stoddard 
and Daniel Wright. It was first settled in 
1802 when Simeon Prior, a veteran of the 
Revolutionary War, brought his wife and ten 
children overland from the beautiful village 
of Northampton, on the Connecticut River, in 
the green hills of Hampshire Coimty, Massa- 
chusetts. Other early settlers were Justus 
Remington, David Parker and Samuel King. 
Later came Rial McArihur, David Norton, 
Nathaniel Hardy, Sr., Daniel Turner. 
Northampton Township was very slow in be- 
ing settled. The Indians remained here lon- 
ger than in any other part of the country. It 
was not until the American forces began to 
assemble here for the war of 1812 that the 
last of the red men departed. Many of their 
village sites, mounds, etc., may be seen at the 
present time. Here was a rendezvous for mili- 
tia during the second war with England, and 
three vessels of Commodore Perry's fleet were 
built in Northampton and floated down the 
Cuyahoga to Lake Erie. 

in 1886 the village of Niles, at the mouth 
of Yellow Creek, was platted. It never grew 
to anything more substantial than a vision in 
the minds of its projectors, Peter Voris and 
his associates. The site is now called Botzum. 
Other hamleis are Northampton Center, 
Steele's Corners, McArthur's Corners and 
French's Mill. Northampton did far more 
than her share in fumishins men for the 






Union Army in 1861-65. More than one 
hundred and forty of her citizens responded 
to the call of the nation. In 1907 W. E. Voss 
is township clerk, and P. D. Hardy and L. A. 
Hart are justices of the peace. 


Northfield was first settled in April, 1807, 
when Isaac Bason brought his family from 
Massachusetts and built a log-house for them 
about a mile and one-half from the present 
Town Hall. Other early settlers were Jere- 
miah Cranmer, George Wallace, Orrin Wil- 
cox and William Cranny. The township was 
organized May 24, 1819, when an election 
was held, at which Jeremiah Cranmer, John 
Duncan and George Wallace were elected 
trustee.? ; Henry Wood, clerk ; Watrous 
Mather, treasurer; and Abraham Cranmer 
and Edward Coyne, constables. In 1840 the 
township had a population of 1,041. It fur- 
nished more than one hundred and twenty- 
five men to the Federal Army in the Rebel- 
lion. In 1907 M. A. Van Horn is township 
clerk and 0. E. Griswold and H. A. McCon- 
nell, justices of the peace. Flourishing cen- 
ters are Northfield, Little York, Macedonia 
and Brandywine. 


Norton township was originally a part of 
Wolf Creek township, but was organized as a 
separate township in April, 1818. It was 
named for Birdsey Norton, one of its Con- 
necticut proprietors. It was first settled in 
1810 by James Robinson, who came from 
New York and built a cabin for himself on 
Wolf Creek. Other early settlers were .John 
Cahow, Abraham Van Hyning, Henry Van 
Hyning, John D. Humphrey, Charles Lyon, 
P. Kirkum, Seth Lucas, Charles Miller and 
Nathan Bates. At the organization in April, 
1818, the following officers were elected: 
Clerk, Joseph D. Humphrey; justice of the 
peace, Henry Van Hyning, Sr. ; trustees, 
Charles Lyon, Abrahaim Van Hyning and 
Ezra Way; .supervisors, .John Cahow, Elisha 

Hin.sdale and Jo.seph Holmes. Norton pos- 
sesses some of the richest land in the county 
and many of her citizens have amassed much 
wealth from agriculture and mining of coal. 
The township also posse.-ses some of the most 
prosperous hamlets, like Norton Center, West- 
ern Star, Loyal Oak, Hometown, Johnson's 
Corners, Sherman and Dennison. 

It is also fortunate in having within its 
limits that marv&l of the closing years of the 
nineteenth century, the "Magic City" — Bar- 
berton. It is a city that was almost literally 
built in a day. In 1890 its site was a typical 
Ohio farm, with its fertile fields, rich mea- 
dows, stretches of woodland, running brooks, 
comfortable farm-houses and huge bank- 
barns. In its center was a little pond of clear 
water, fed by springs in its bottom, and named 
"Davis Lake." Rolling farm lands sur- 
rounded it on all sides. A mile or two to the 
north was the village of New Portage, a sta- 
tion on the Erie and Cleveland, Akron and 
Columbus Railroads, a port on the Ohio 
Canal, and the southern terminus of the 
Portage Path, that aboriginal highway which 
connected the northern waters of the State of 
Ohio with the southern. Five miles further 
north was Akron, then a city of 27,000 peo- 
ple. In one short year all this was changed 
as though a magician's wand had swept over 
the scene. The old farms were platted into 
city lots, .streets, parks and factory sites. An 
army of men .set to work, leveling the land, 
removing fences and grading, and curbing 
the streets. Hundreds of workingmen's cot- 
tages were commenced; splendid residences 
along the shady boulevard around the lake 
gradually took form ; great factory buildings 
along the railroads arose day by day, and a 
belt line of railroad began to encircle the 
town. By the end of 1891 there was a popu- 
lation of nearly 2,000 people settled on the 
old Coventry farms of the year before. The 
reader should bo cautioned that this was not 
a "boom" town ; that its growth was not like 
the mushroom towns of the western mining 
regions; that the buildings were not tempo- 
rary structures to be replaced later by a more 
substantial construction. Here were no rough 



pine store-buildingri, no tents, no "slab" sa- 
loons or groceries. On the contrary, severe 
building restrictions were incorporated in 
each deed of land and were strictly enforced 
by the grantors. The residences around the 
lake would be a credit to any oity. The store- 
buildings were mainly of brick and each fac- 
tory building was of the most modern steel, 
brick and stone construction. Indeed, the 
thing which imOvSt impressed the visitor in 
.those early days was the substantial, perma- 
nent character of all he saw about him. Dur- 
ing that first year the construction of the 
magnificent Barberton Inn was commenced. 
No city in Ohio had a better hotel at that 
time. The fine railroad station and the Bank 
building were also started. In a few months 
more than a million dollars had been invested 
in permanent improvements. The old farms 
had disappeared forever; the walls of Barber- 
ton .had arisen to endure so long as men shall 
buy and sell. 

The founder of Barberton was Ohio Colum- 
bus Barber, the president of the Diamond 
Match Company, the American Sewer-pipe 
Company and a hundred other companies, 
and the boy who, in the fifties, had peddled 
matches which his father had dipped by hand 
in the little frame building in Middlebury. 
Early in 1890 he a.ssociated with himself 
Charles Baird, John K. Robinson and Albert 
T. Paige, and together they purchased nearly 
1,000 acres of land. Later in the year they 
sold an undivided one-half interest in their 
holdings to George W. Crouse, Sr.. and a 
Pittsburg syndicate, the head of which was 
M. J. Alexander. In May, 1891, these men 
organized themselves as "the Barberton Land 
and Improvement Company," with Mr. Bar- 
ber as its president. One-half of the stock 
was owned and held by the four men first 
above mentioned. Their first endeavor was to 
bring to Barberton as many manufacturing 
establishments as possible. They organized 
many themselves. By 1892 the following big 
-concerns were doing business in the new city 
and emploving many hundreds of workmen, 
namely: The National Sewer Pipe Company, 
with a capital invested of a quarter million 

of dollars and employing 200 men ; the Amer- 
ican Strawboard Company, capital $6,000,- 
000, and employing 200 men ; the Sterling 
Boiler Company, capital, half a million, work- 
force, 300 ; Kirkum Art Tile Company, $300,- 
000, 500 employees; Creedmoor Cartridge 
Company, $500,000, men employed, 200 ; the 
American Alumina Company, $500,000, em- 
ployees, fifty ; the United Salt Company, capi- 
tal one million, men employed, 150. Mr. 
Barber was made president of all these compa- 
nies, as well as of the Barberton Belt Line 
Railroad Co., and the Barberton Savings Bank 
Company, Avith a capital of $100,000. The 
other men interested with him were elected 
directors and officers in nearly all these com- 
panies. The next year the great corporation, 
known as the Diamond Match Company, and 
which had its principal factory in Akron, be- 
gan the constmction of its vast factory on the 
line of the Cleveland, Akron and Columbus 
Railroad just south of the station. When 
completed, the entire Akron plant was moved 
to Barberton and the working population of 
the town was thus increased by nearly a thou- 
sand persons. The Creedmoor Cartridge Com- 
pany was soon absorbed by the Cartridge trust, 
to the great profit of the local promoters, and 
the plant dismantled. The buildings, how- 
ever, did not long remain idle, for the Alden 
Rubber Company was later organized and its 
business grew so rapidly that large additions 
to the original buildings were soon neces,sary. 
Before the end of the decade had been reached 
the Columbia Chemical Company, with its 
millions of capital and its hundreds of em- 
ployees, had come within the zone of Barber- 
ton's activities. Its plant covers many acres 
in the southern part of the town and it has 
been one of the big industrial successes of 
the place. About the same time the Pitts- 
burgh Valve and Fittings Company was added 
to the long list of industries successfully doing 
business in Barberton. So, we say, advisedly, 
that Barberton will endure so long as men en- 
gage in commerce. Its foundation is as sub- 
stantial as any biLsiness community in the 
world. It has shown a remarkable power to 
rallv from reverses. It has had several such. 



The Kirkum Art Tile Company ceased to do 
business after its large plant had been entirely 
wiped out by fire. The Barberton Pottery 
Company, after an unsuccessful career, was 
finally sold in bankruptcy proceedings. One 
of Barberton's two banks also found the 
stress of competition too severe and suc- 
cumbed. There were other failures which 
also brought great losses upon Barberton peo- 
ple, but they are all infinitesimal in compari- 
son with the colossal successes which have 
been won. Barberton today is a splendid 
monument to American energy and sagacity. 
The census of 1900 was the first in which 
the name of Barberton appeared. The total 
population then was 4,354. Today it is prob- 
ably in the neighborhood of 7.000. The pres- 
ent officials are: Mayor, James McNamara; 
clerk, George Davis; treasurer, E. A. Miller; 
marshal, David Ferguson. 


Green and Franklin are the southern town- 
ships of the county, and originally were part 
of Stark County, being inhabited by the de- 
scendants of the Germans of Pennsylvania, or, 
as they are familiarly called, "Pennsylvania 
Dutch." Summit County is made up of four- 
teen townships from Portage, and Franklin 
and Green from Stark, the formation taking 
place in 1840. Vigorous opposition aro.?e on 
the part of Stark to this separation, both be- 
cause of natural affection for the parent 
Dutch stock and on account of the geograph- 
ical location of the new county seat at Sum- 
mit. At the time it was said that the Dutch 
and Yankees could not mix, but, like all idle 
assertions, time has shown the absurdity of 
that remark. 

Franklin is noted in natural features for 
the possession of numerous small lakes. The 
Tuscarawas, in early days a much larger 
stream than at present, offered a water supply 
apparently unfailing, and Turkeyfoot Lake 
seemed to hold out large promise. The coal 
deposits have always been large, and during 
the first settlements the cranberry crop was an 
unfailing source of revenue, great quantities 

of this berry being sent east. The peach 
crop was also large, and from this a compound 
known as peach brandy was made, and thor- 
oughly tasted before shipment abroad. In 
1833 distilleries were established, but flour- 
ished for a comparatively short time. The 
more stable product of lumber enriched the 
possessors of forest, and great quantities of it 
were shipped up to Cleveland, and from 
thence to the more distant Lake ports. 

The early settlements of Franklin were 
Cartersville and Savannah. ■ The -first w^ 
named for a Wheeling quaker, who owned 
large tracts of land on which his town was lo- 
cated. Inability to withstand the encroach- 
ments of the rivers made this place speedily 
uninhabitable, and shortly after its founding, 
1806, it was abandoned. In 1816 David Har- 
vey planted and planned the town of Savan- 
nah, but after a struggle of ten years, this 
settlement yielded to the superior merits of 
Clinton. The latter had all the advantages re- 
sulting from proximity to the canal. Clin- 
ton was originally laid out in 1816, and from 
the first was a consistent busine.-« mart. It 
became the center of business for several ad- 
joining counties. Large storehouses for grain 
were erected, doctor.*', lawyers and merchants 
settled there, and the increased shipment of 
coal made the town a veritable emporium. 
After flourishing till about 1850, Clinton de- 
clined in influence and, owing to the en- 
croachment of Akron and several allied towns, 
decreased in power and influence. The pass- 
ing of the railroad beyond its borders con- 
signed it permanently to the role of the rural 
village. The town of Manchester was started 
in 1815, and, being inland in location, never 
rose to anything like the business gait of Clin- 
ton, but, nevertheless, has had a steady, sub- 
stantial growth. 

The township organization took place in 
1817. Previous to that, in 1811, it, with 
Green and Lake and Jackson, Townships of 
Stark, had had one set of officers. In matters 
of education and religion Franklin has been 
second to none. While it is somewhat uncer- 
tain as to the first teacher, yet it seems that a 
Mr. Mishler ha.« that honor. Rev. J. W. Ham- 



mond was the first preacher and varied the 
hTiigaiage of his sermons according, as the 
majority of his hearers were German or Eng- 
lish speaking. The township has an. honor- 
able Civil War record, and was very active in 
the promotion of the celebrated "Underground 

At the present time Franklin has a tax val- 
uation on all its property of over a million 
dollars and from her people have gone forth 
men who have served with fidelity and intel- 
ligence in all the walks of life. 

The township has given to public life Hon. 
Hugh R. Caldwell, judge of common pleas; 
Hon. John Hoy, judge of common pleas; 
Hon. Jacob A. Kohler, representative, 1883- 
85 ; attorney general of the State of Ohio, 
1886-88, and judge of common pleas, 1900- 


Green, the sister township of Franklin, has 
had a varied experience. In the first place, 
her Indian history, like that of all early set- 
tlements, has been full of romance. Turn as 
we may from time to time to the old stories, 
as we read that of Green the thought of the 
sufferings and hardships of those pioneers in 
conflict with the red man must absorb our at- 
tention. What battles were fought there we 
may not know, but from time to time great 
masses of flint arrow-heads have been turned 
up, also an old mass of stones with its awful 
suggestion of am altar for human sacrifice — 
these are matters that divert our minds from 
the prosy life man has been condemned to 
live with only work as a mitigating circum- 
stance. However numerous the Indians were, 
they were driven out .shortly after the war of 
1812, supposedly because the aborigines sided 
with the British. With them gone, the 
"Dutch" were allowed to turn their energies 
to the cultivation of their farms. At first 
there was some promise of coal, but this failed 
and at this time the township is experiencing 
a boom from clay found there, which is 
worked up in tlie village of Altman. As is 
often the case there is some question as to who 

was the first settler, Ixit the consensus of opin- 
ion gives that honor to John Kepler, with 
others claiming that it was either William 
Triplett or John Curzen. 

A distdiuct town.ship organization was ef- 
fected in 1814, and in 1840 occurred the sep- 
aration from Stark County with the promise 
that there should be no tax on public build- 
ings in the township till 1890. Probably the 
nearest Green ever came to a boom was the 
event surrounding the organization and up- 
building of the Seminary. This was a Meth- 
odist school, startled in 1854, with a capital 
of $2,000, divided into share? of $50 each. At 
one time .some one hundred and thirty stu- 
dents attended the seminary and it passed 
through varioiis stages till its final decline 
about 1875. 

The towns of Green are: Greensburg, 
founded in 1828 by David Baer; East Lib- 
erty, founded in 1839 (as might be expected 
these towns have been rivals in a quiet way, 
but this feeling has shown itself chiefly in po- 
litical contests) ; Myersville, founded about 
1876, has importance chiefly because it has 
railroad facilities and has shown some ele- 
inents of steady and vigorous growth. 

George W. Grouse was reared in Green 
Township. He has served as county treas- 
urer. State senator, 1885-87, and federal rep- 
resentative, 1887-90. 


Richfield, like the other townships of the 
Western Reserve, became the separate prop- 
erty of individuals upon the drawing of lands 
conducted by the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany. It was settled soon after by families 
who came from Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts. The first settler was Launcelot Mays, 
who came in 1809. The township was or- 
ganized in April, 1816, and John Bigelow 
was elected clerk; Isaac Welton. treasurer; 
William Jordan, Daniel Keys and Nathaniel 
0\Tatt, trustees, and Isaac Hopkins, con- 
stable. The population then was in excess of 
L50. In 1840, it had grown to 1,108. In 
1818 a Union church organization was ef- 



fected, which, in a few years, beoame the 
First Congregational Church. The Metho- 
dists, Baptists and United Brethren also or- 
ganized societies verj- early in the history of 
the township and have been uniformly pros- 
perous, thus indicating the sound basis upon 
which society in Richfield is built. The in- 
fluence of Richfield has always been exerted 
in behalf of the personal and civic virtues. 
Her schools are among the best in the coun- 
try. In 1836 the Richfield Academy was 
opened and attracted manj^ pupils from out- 
side the township. Some of its graduates aft- 
erwards acquired a national fame. It after- 
wards became the East High School, was 
burned in 1887 and replaced by a fine modern 
building. There is also a brick high school 
building at the West Center. Richfield Cen- 
ter is composed of two parts — the East Cen- 
ter and the West Center, situated about a mile 
apart. Both centei-s had a hotel and a post- 
office. The West Center has now a fine ho- 
tel which is the equal of any of the rural 
hotels in the county. Of late years Richfield 
has been gaining prestige as a summer re- 
sort, many wealthy Cleveland families coming 
here to spend the summer. Owing to the lack 
of transportation facilities, Richfield has 
never had any manufacturing industries. Mr. 
H. B. Camp, of Akron, is now (1907) pro- 
moting a railroad from Cleveland to Akron, 
which, if built, will pass through the centers. 
In mercantile life, however, many of her 
citizens have been successful. Among such 
may be mentioned William C. Weld, Everett 
Famam, George B. Clarke, Frank R. Brower, 
Henr>' C. Searles, Baxter H. Wood. The ho- 
tels have been successful in the hands of Lewis 
P. Ella? and Fayette Viall. Other village en- 
terprises which have been successfully con- 
ducted, some of them for many years, owe 
their success to John Ault. Peter Allen, Seth 
Dustin, T. E. Elkworth, Z. R. Townsend, C. 
P. Townsend, S. E. Phelps, Henry Killifer, 
Michael Heltz, C. F. Rathburn, Henry Green- 
lese, Percy Dustin, Samuel Fauble, George L. 
Dustin, Julius C. Chapman, P. Oarr and 
E. D. Carr. Mention should be made of the 
tile factory built by Ralph Farnam and 

Berkly S. Braddock. The former was an ex- 
pert in ceramics, and a large factory and pot- 
tery was built upon the old Farnam farm 
about 1890. About the same time, these two 
gentlemen equipped the finest stock farm in 
Summit County for the raising of fine horses 
and cattle. One stallion alone cost them 
$5,000. The tile industry proved unremu- 
nerative, owing to the long distance from a 
railroad. Both men sunk their large private 
fortunes in these enterprises. Ralph Far- 
nam aftem-ards went to New Jersey and was 
very successful in the tile business. The old 
farm finally pa.ssed into the possession of 
Charles P. Brush, of Cleveland. Richfield 
gave over 150 men to the of the Union 
in 1861-65. Two men of national fame have 
gone forth from Richfield in the persons of 
Russell A. Alger and Samuel B. Axtell. The 
present to-miship clerk is R. H. Chapman and 
0. B. Hinnian is justice of the peace. 


Springfield township was first settled in 
1806, when Ariel Bradley moved from Suf- 
field to what is now the village of ^logadore. 
Other early settlers were Thomas Hale, Ben- 
jamin Baldwin, John Hall, James Hall, Na- 
than Moore, Reuben Tupper, Abraham De- 
Haven, the Ellet family, the Norton family, 
Patrick Christy, James McKnight, William 
Foster et alii. The township was organized 
in April, 1808. The manufacturing of the 
township is all in the pottery line, as great 
beds of potter's clay are found here. Coal is 
also mined. Mogadore is the principal vil- 
lage. North Springfield, Brittain, Thomas- 
town, Millheim and Krumroy are also flour- 
ishing hamlets. Springfield furnished nearly 
150 men to the Federal armies in the Ci\-il 
War. At the present time, J. Ira Emmet is 
township clerk, and R. C. Gates, Milo White 
and M. S. Mishler are justices of the peace. 


Stow Township is named after Joshua 
Stow, the original proprietor by grant from 
the Connecticut Land Company. The first 



settler in this township was William Walker, 
who in 1802, came from Virginia. He was 
followed in 1804 by William Wetmore, who 
built a hoiise at what is now called "Stow 
Corners." Other pioneers were Gregory 
Powers, John Campbell, John Gaylord, Adam 
Steele, George Darrow, Erastus Southmayd, 
James Daily, Isaac Wilcox and David Rug- 
gles. The township was organized in 1808. 
It is now best known as the location of Silver 
Lake, a summer resort which is spreading its 
fame country-wide. Since the death of R. H. 
Lodge, his family have wisely continued his 
policies, under which great prosperity came 
upon Silver Near by are two other 
beautiful lakes — Wyoga and Crystal Lake. 
Stow township also contains Monroe Falls, 
a village on the Cuyahoga River a few 
miles above Cuyahoga Falls. This vil- 
lage was founded in 1836 by Edmond 
Monroe, a wealthy capitalist of Boston, Mass. 
A number of mills had been erected there 
to make use of the water-power afforded by 
the falls in the river. Up to the advent of 
the Monroes it had been called Florence. Mr. 
Monroe organized the "Monroe Falls Manu- 
facturing Company," and built a large store, 
many residences and the mill which is now 
used for the manufacture of paper. The 
township furnished 104 men to the country 
when our national life was threatened in 1861. 
W. Nickerson is now township clerk and Noel 
Beckley and W. R. Lodge are justices of the 


The first settlement of Twinshurg Town- 
ship was made in April, 1817, and the honor 
of being the first settler belongs to Ethan 
Ailing, who was then a mere boy of 17 years, 
sent on by his father to prepare for the later 

coming of the Ailing family. Moses Wil- 
cox and Aaron Wilcox, twin brothers, were 
ako among the very earliest settlers. They 
were also among the original proprietors, as 
was Isaac Mills, who gave the township its 
first name "Millsville." The Wilcox twins 
afterwards persuaded the settlers to let them 
name the township, which they did, calling 
it Twinshurg in honor of their relationship. 
The township was organized in April, 1819. 
The first officials were Frederick Stanley, 
Lewis Ailing, Luman Lane, Samuel Vail, 
Elisha Loomis and Elijah Bronson. Ethan 
Ailing died in 1867, and by his will left eight 
shares of the stock of the Big Four Railroad 
Company to the mayor of the city of Akron 
for the purpose of having the dividends, de- 
clared thereon, being used to buy clothing, so 
that destitute children might be enabled to 
attend Sunday-school. These dividends are 
being used for this purpose at the present 
day, being turned over to the city poor direc- 
tor by the mayor upon their receipt. As 
early as 1822 both the Methodists and Con- 
gregationalists organized churches in Twins- 
burg. The latter built a church in 1823 and 
the present one in 1848. The Methodists 
built churches in 1832 and 1848. The Bap- 
tists organized in 1832 and built a church in 
1841. In 1843 "The Twinsburg Institute" 
was opened by Samuel Bissell, which was one 
of the most successful educational institu- 
tions in the county. The beautiful soldiers' 
monument on the Public Square was dedi- 
cated July 4, 1867. One hundred and twenty- 
eight men of Twinsburg went to the front 
during the Civil AVar. From 1856 to 1870 
"The Twinsburg Fair" was one of the great 
features of agricultural life in this vicinity. 
At the present time, E. J. McCreery is town- 
.ship clerk, and A. J. Brown and Isaac Jayne 
are justices of the peace. 




The City Hospital of Akron had its incep- 
tion in the fund left by an early French 
resident of Akron, Boniface De Roo, many 
years ago. This fund, which represented the 
lifetime savings of a frugal hard-working 
man, amounted to $10,000. The first building 
used was the old frame house at the corner 
of Bowery and Center streets. Here a num- 
ber of patients were cared for, but the place 
was palpably too old and behind the times, 
so it was given up and the city got along 
for a number of years longer without hospital 
facilities, the trustees holding the fund until 
such time as the sentiment in favor of estab- 
lishing a permanent hospital should take 

In April, 1892, the City Hospital Associa- 
tion was formally organized, with T. W. Cor- 
nell, president; 0. C. Barber, vice president; 
Henry Perkins, secretary, and William Mc- 
Farlin, treasurer. Twelve trustees were chosen 
from the Hospital Association. The De Roo 
fund, $10,000 contributed by T. W. Cornell, 
and a like sum by 0. C. Barber, were used 
to purchase the Bartges homestead on East 
Market for hospital purposes. After some 
improvements the building was opened as 
the City Hospital of Akron on October 18, 
1892. Before many years this building be- 
came constantly overcrowded, and 0. C. Bar- 
ber announced that he would see that a 
larger one was built. With the completion of 
this new building and its opening on -Tune 5, 
1904, Mr. Barber has invested nearly one 
quarter of a million of dollars, and the city 
of Akron has a hospital equipment second 
to none. Modern operating rooms and nurs- 
ing facilities, with the best of everything in 

its line, have been secured. The training 
school for nurses was opened in 1897 with 
a class of two, and has been constantly in- 
creasing in number of students and efficiency 
since that time, graduating eight in May, 
1907. June 27, 1906, the first resident phy- 
sician or interne was engaged, and his pres- 
ence proved so helpful that another was se- 
cured May 1, 1907. The internes serve for 
eighteen months without pay, their compen- 
sation coming from their experience gained 
during residence in the institution. 

The officers of the new institution are as 
follows: President, 0. C. Barber; vice presi- 
dent, George T. Perkins; treasurer, Harry J. 
Blackburn ; recording secretary, Alexander 
H. Commins; president of the Auxiliary 
Board, H. M. Houser; superintendent, Marie 
Anna Lawson. 

The Board of Trustees: 0. C. Barber, 
George T. Perkins, M. O'Neil, H. B. Camp, 
C. B. Ravmond, J. A. Kohler, George W. 
Grouse, C. E. Sheldon, I. C. Alden, P. E. 
Werner, A. H. Marks, C. C. Goodrich, C. C. 
Benner, William A. Palmer. 

Junior Board of Trustees: George W. 
Grouse, jr., Tom A. Palmer, L. C. Miles, A. 
H. Commins, W. B. Baldwin, E. E. Andrews, 
H. M. Houser, E. S. Harter, H. H. Camp, 
C. H. Isbell, B. N. Robinson, George C. Koh- 
ler, Karl Kendig, Alvin V. Baird. 

Officers of Staff: President, Dr. H. H. Ja- 
cobs; vice president, Dr. William Murdoch; 
secretary. Dr. J. N. Weller. 

Hospital Staff: Consulting surgeons, Dr. C. 
W. Millikin, Dr. L. S. Ebright; consulting 
physicians. Dr. J. P. Boyd, Dr. William Mur- 
doch, Dr. L. S. Sweitzer, Dr. 0. S. Childs, 
Dr. F. C. Reed. 



Visiting Surgeons, Dr. J. W. Rabe, Dr. F. 
C. Pai-ks, Dr. A. F. Sippy, Dr. D. E. Cranz, 
Dr. G. F. Rankin, Dr. L. C. Eberhard. 

Visiting Physicians, Dr. E. S. Underwood, 
Dr. E. J. Canffield, Dr. H. D. Todd, Dr. J. 
H. Seller, Dr. W. S. Chase, Dr. A. A. 

Assistant Surgeons, Dr. G. W. Stauffer, Dr. 
J. H. Hulse, Dr. J. H. Weber, Dr. E. S. 

Gynecologists and Obstetricians, Dr. I. C. 
Rankin, Dr. H. H. Jacobs. 

Assistant Obstetrician, Dr. A. W. Jones. 
Consulting Oculist, Dr. A. E. Foltz. 
Oculists, Dr. J. G. Grant, Dr. M. D. Steven- 

Ear, Nose and Throat, Dr. T. K. Moore, 
Dr. E. L. Mather. 

Anaesthetist, Dr. J. N. Weller. 
Neurologist, Dr. W. W. Leonard. 
Pathologist, Dr. L. C. Eberhard. 
Bacteriologist, Dr. C. E. Held, 
Ladies' Auxiliary Board: Mi-s. W. C. Ja- 
cobs, president; Mre. William Murdoch, first 
vice president; Mrs. Ira Miller, second vice 
president; Mrs. T. C. Raynolds, secretary; 
Mrs. C. H. Palmer, treasurer. 

Members: ]\Irs. W. B. Raymond, Mrs. R. 
L. Ganter, Mrs. F. H. Ma.son, Mrs. G. W. 
Plumer, Mrs. H. J. Shuffler, Mrs. L. M. Wolf, 
Mrs. Ira Miller, Mrs. F. H. Adams, Mrs. John 
Greer, Mrs. M. O'Neil, Mi-s. William Mur- 
doch, Mrs. H. M. Smith, Mrs. G. G. Allen, 
Mrs. S. N. Watson, Mrs. J. M. Beck, Mrs. C. 
H. Palmer, Miss Dorothy Work, Mrs. R. P. 
Marvice, Mrs. C. I. Bruner, Mrs. E. S. Under- 
wood, Mrs. Albert Roach, Mrs. I. C. Alden, 
Mrs. H. K. Raymond, Mrs. G. W. Grouse, 
jr., Mrs. C. L. Brown, Mrs. I. C. Rankin, 
Mrs. R. H. Kent, Mrs. T. C. Raynolds, Mrs. 
E. W. Barton, Mrs. W. C. Jacobs, Mrs. Louis 
Loeb, Mrs. J. H. Greenwood, Mrs. F. H. 
Smith, Miss Emma Whitmore. 


In the early days of the county the poor 
and indigent were cared for by action of the 
trustees of the various town.ships. The meth- 

ods varied much in different townships and 
the system was far from satisfactory. The 
usual way was to "let out" the keeping of 
the unfortunate citizens to the lowest bidder. 
This was a shiftless and lazy way of dispos- 
ing of the burden, and remains a great re- 
proach to those unworthy trustees who were 
guilty of such a breach of trust. The con- 
tractor was bound to get as much out of his 
contract as possible, and the only way to 
accomplish this was to do as little for the 
pauper as possible. In the great majority of 
cases all that was done was just sufficient to 
keep the soul in its wretched body. The 
first poorhouse was built in the forties, and 
was a rough affair, situated in South Akron, 
between Main Street and the present Brew- 
ster switch. In 1849, the old regime, with 
its neglect and cruelty, came to an end. The 
county commissioners, acting under an Ohio 
statute, purchased 150 acres of land about 
two miles west of How^ard Street, and lying 
between Market, Exchange and Maple 
(Streets, extended. In the summer of that 
year $2,000 was expended in adding a two- 
story frame building to the other buildings 
upon the land. This was the beginning of 
our fine County Infirmary of today. In 1856, 
and again in 1879, additional land was pur- 
chased, until today the county farm embraces 
a tract of nearly 225 acres. In 1864, the 
legislature authorized the expenditure of 
$16,000 for the erection of the brick main 
building. By utilizing the labor of the in- 
mates and burning the brick from clay found 
on the farm, and using strict economy, a 
much finer building was built than was orig- 
inally contemplated. Large additions were 
made to this main building in 1875, 1880 
and 1887, and many smaller additions since 
1890. Today there is no better county farm 
or poorhouse in Ohio than the Summit 
County Infirmary. The infirmary directors 
are chosen by the people at the time of the 
State election. The present efficient officers 
are Z. F. Chamberlain, of Macedonia; J. M. 
Johnston, of Fairlawn, and W. E. Waters, of 
Akron. The present superintendent is S. B. 




Stotler, who has been in the office for many 
yeare and has rendered its difficult duties to 
the entire satisfaction of the citizens. 


In August, 1882, the Summit County com- 
missioners purchased of George Allison, of 
Tallmadge, a farm near Bette's Corners, con- 
sisting of 140 acres of land, for $15,000. 
Upon this tract it was their purpose to estab- 
lish a home for orphan children, and such 
others under sixteen years of age as should 
be in need of county care. ■ A strong senti- 
ment began to set in against this action of 
the commissioners, it being felt that so large 
a tract was not needed and that the location 
should be nearer to Akron. The commission- 
ers accordingly suspended improvement oper- 
ations, and in November, 1885, leased the 
brick boarding-houses on Broadway, nearly 
opposite the court-house, which was demol- 
ished in 1906. when George Crisp & Son built 
their large .storage building upon the site. 
Finally, in 1889, the commi.ssioners, having 
sold parcels from' the Allison farm and se- 
cured legislative permission, bought the old 
Jewett homestead, on South Arlington Street, 
in the extreme southeast corner of the city. 
The property now embraces nearly seven 
acres of land, and the old building has been 
entirely remodeled and thoroughly adapted 
to its new uses. The growth of the city and 
county, however, have left the original plat 
far in the rear, and steps should be taken at 
once for the erection of a modern, brick and 
steel, fireproof structure for a children's 
home. The county ha.> provided a stone pal- 
ace for the county criminals (the new jail is 
all that) ; why should it not do as much for 
its little children? It has been pointed out 
many times that the present building is a 
perfect firetrap. If any taxpayer begrudge.-? 
the amount necessary to care for these inno- 
cent children in a proper way, he is not a 
worthy member of this Western Reserve com- 


One of the splendid chai-itable works ac- 
complished in Akron was the founding and 
maintenance of a nursery where children 
might be kept during the day, thus enabling 
mothers to undertake work outside the home. 
To the "King's Daughters" belongs the credit 
of perceiving and adequately meeting this 
need. In 1890, these young ladies organized 
the Akron Day Nursery, and first occupied 
rooms in the Union Charity Association 
Building, on South High Street, where the 
Y. W. C. A. Building now is. A year later 
Colonel George- T. Perkins presented the 
young ladies with a house and lot on South 
High Street near Buchtel Avenue, and the 
dissociation became incorporated. The name 
was then changed to "Mary Day Nursery," 
in honor of Mary Raymond, Colonel Perkins' 
first grandchild. A few years later the munifi- 
cence of Colonel Perkins was again expe- 
rienced and the association had the extreme 
pleasure of accepting from his hands the 
splendid building on the northeast corner of 
Broadway and Buchtel Avenue. It is splen- 
didly equipped for nursery and kindergarten 
purposes and will meet the needs of the city 
in these respects for many years to come. 


This society wa.s incorporated in 1889 for 
the purpose of relieving destitution and pre- 
venting indiscriminate alm.s-gdving. It is 
the clearing-house for Akron's charities. It 
was founded by the union of the Akron 
Board of Charities and the Women's Benevo- 
lent Association. It purchased a frame dwell- 
ing-house on High Street near the corner of 
Market, the site of the present Young 
Women's Christian A.sosciation Building. In 
1903, it erected the fine brick building called 
"Grace," the money for which was 
contributed almost entirely by Colonel George 
T. Perkins. As the work of the association 
has fallen more and more to the lot of the 
Young Women's and Young Men's Christian 
A.ssociations, it was found advisable, in 1906. 



to give up Grace House, and, accordingly, 
it was turned over to the Young Women'.^ 
Christian Association. The latter remodeled 
and enlarged the building at an expense of 
$15,000, and today it enjoys one of the finest 
association buildings in the State. The asso- 
ciation has moved three times, originally 
occupying the basement rooms in an apart- 
ment house on the east side of South High 
Street, between Mill and Quarry Streets ; 
thence moving into the entire third story of 
the Wilcox Building on South Main Street, 
where for two years, 1905-1907, it success- 
fully conducted its splendid work among the 
young women of Akron. In April, 1907, it 
moved into the new building on South High 

The present secretary of the Young Men'."? 
Christian Association has announced that 
that organization is in no sense a charitable 
one. However, in giving their money to es- 
tablish it, the citizens of Akron understood 
that it was to be devoted to charitable ends. 
At the present time the color line is strictly 
drawn, and only white men of a certain social 
grade and upwards, are welcomed at the club- 
house. The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion is the result of a movement on behalf of 
boys and A'oung men, started by the mayor 
of Akron in 1902. Actively assisted by Sam- 
uel P. Orth, he interested a number of influ- 
ential citizens in behalf of a Boy's Club. Mr. 
Orth was at that time a professor in Buchtel 
College. The idea was to get boys without 
regard to color, race, habits or social stand- 
ing, in from the streets. After the move- 
ment had progressed considerably it seemed 
best to a majority of those interested in it 
to turn the whole project over to the Ohio 
Young Men's Christian Association and make 
use of their organization. No one doubted 
that the original objects of the promoters 
would be carried out by the latter association. 
In this they were mistaken. In 1903, work 
was commenced on a fine building on South 
Main Street at the southeast corner of Main 
and State Streets, the site having been pur- 
chased by the association. Early in 1906 it 
was ready for occupancy. It is a splendid 

structure for the purpose, and consists of gym- 
nasium, dining-rooms, baths, dormitories, au- 
ditorium and reception and social rooms. 
Since the building has been opened and its 
restricted character announced, no little regret 
has been expressed that the purpose of its 
early promoters was not persisted in, the 
Young Men's Christian Association has never 
been a success in Akron, two former asso- 
ciations having gone to the wall after more 
or less checkered careers. 


The Akron Public Library is the outgrowth 
of an earlier organization. The Akron Li- 
brary Association, this in turn having its 
rootage in the Akron Lecture Association. 
Through a series of lectures which continued 
for many years, through membership fees 
and generous donations, the Akron Library 
Association grew vigorously. In 1873, the 
library had assumed such proportions that it 
required more care than the association felt 
inclined to give, and it was offered to the 
city, with the stipulation that it receive proper 
support. The propo.sition was duly consid- 
ered and accepted in January, 1874. The 
library began its career as a public one in 
March of the same year. The city bought 
three rooms on the second floor of the Ma- 
sonic Block, and the library occupied these 
until October, 1898. The growth during 
some twenty odd years made another move 
necessary, and, in 1898, the second floor of 
the Everett Building, then in process of con- 
struction, was reserved for the library. Prom 
these bright comfortable rooms it moved on 
April 23, 1904, into its permanent home, the 
building given by Mr. Carnegie. The library 
opened to the public August 1, 1904. 

The library now numbers 16,046 volumes 
for circulation, and 7,580 volume* of refer- 
ence and government reports — 23,626 vol- 
umes in all. Aside from the main library, it 
reaches the public through eight stations for 
book exchange. The reading room has a 
large and attractive list of magazines and 
papers, and is always well patronized. From 



the beginning the library has been an active 
and vigorous force in the community. 

Librarians of Akron Public Library— 
T. A. Noble to 1875; Horton Wright, 1875- 
1882; J. A. Beebe, 1882-1889; Miss M. P. 
Edgerton, 1889 to present year (1907). 

Assistants — Miss Mary Vosburg and Mias 
Anna M. Krummer to 1875 ; Miss Bessie Wil- 
lis, 1875-1885; Miss M. P. Edgerton, 1885- 
1889; Mrs. J. M. Proehl, 1889 to present; 
Miss Clara B. Rose, 1895-1901; Miss Maud 
Herndon, 1901 to present ; Miss Grace M. Mit- 
chell, 1903-1907 ; Miss Euphemia MacRitchie 
(cataloguer), 1903-1905; Miss Rena B. Find- 
ley, 1907 ; Miss Ella C. Tobin, 1907. 

Directors of Library Association to 1874 — 
D. L. King, J. S. Lane, J. H. Pitkin, I. P. 
Hole, C. P. Ashmun, G. T. Perkins, N. D. 
Tibbals, E. P. Green, Ferdinand Schu- 
macher, J. H. Peterson, Thomas Rhodes, 
R. L. Collett, J. A. Long, B. S. Chase, Sid- 
ney Edgerton, John Wolf, J. H. Hower, W. 
C. Jacobs, J. R. Buohtel. 

Directors of Library Since Its Organization 

as a Public Library — J. R. Buchtel, J. P. 
Alexander, M. W. Henry, E. P. Green, G. T. 
Ford, W. L. King, C. A. Collins, Adams 
Emerson, Mason Chapman, N. A. Carter, L. 
Miller, T. E. Monroe, F. M. Atterholt, C. W. 
Bonstedt, C. P. Humphrey, 0. L. Sadler, R. 
P. Burnett, C. R. Grant, Elias Fraunfelter, 
A. H. Noah, Louis Seybold, G. D. Seward, 
C. S. Hart, P. E. Werner, W. T. Allen, H. 
K. Sander, A. H. Noah, M. J. Hoynes, John 
Memmer, W. B. Cannon, H. C. Corson, F. W. 
Rockwell, W. T. Tobin, F. C. Bryan, C. P. 
Humphrey, W. T. Vaughan, J. C. Frank, 
G. W. Rogers, J. W. Kelley, A. J. Tidyman, 
T. J. Mumford, W. J. Doran, H. A. Kraft. 

Board of Directors (1907)— President, W. 
T. Vaughan; secretary, G. D. Seward; John 
C. Frank, Rev. G. P. Atwater, Dr. M. V. Hal- 
ter, Henry A. Kraft. 

Library Staff (1907)— Miss M. P. Edger- 
ton, Librarian; Mrs. J. M. Proehl, Miss Maud 
Herndon, Miss Rena B. Findley and Miss 
Ella Tobin, assistants; James C. Gillen, cus- 



By far the oldest of the agricultural or- 
ganizations of various kinds in Summit 
County is the Summit County Agricultural 
Society, under the auspices of which the an- 
nual autumn fair is held. This society has 
had an uninterrupted existence since about 
1841. There is now no way of determining 
the exact date of its organization, as the 
early records have all been destroyed. The 
rather uncertain recollection of persons who 
came to Akron in 1840 is to the effect that 
a show of agricultural produce was held an- 
nually commencing within a year or two after 
that dat€. The first mention made of any 
such society in the local papers of the time 
which have survived to us occurs in 1844. 
In May of that year a notice was published, 
calling a meeting of the executive committee 
for the purpose of adopting rules, under 
which the annual fair was to be conducted. 

Subsequently, the State of Ohio had passed 
certain acts for the encouragement of agri- 
cultural societies. By the terms of one of 
them, any such society organized in Summit 
County and holding an annual fair might 
draw $137.50 from the public treasury, each 
year, to be applied toward defraying the ex- 
penses of the society. This was not a large 
sura and would not go far in meeting the ex- 
penses of a very modest fair; but the results 
of the offer in many of the counties of Ohio 
deinonstrated the wisdom of the legislature. 
The thrift of the Summit County farmer is 
proverbial. As might be expected, the offer 
of the State was soon accepted. 

It is probable that the affairs of the early 
society had not moved forward without inter- 
ruption ; it may even have ceased to exist. 

At any rate, in October, 1849, the auditor 
of the county issued a call for a public meet- 
ing of all those who would be interested in 
the formation of a society of agriculture. In 
pursuance of this call, a public meeting was 
held in the new court house on the eleventh 
day of November, 1849. The meeting or- 
ganized by electing officers and appointing a 
committee of five farmers, representing differ- 
ent portions of the county, to prepare a suit- 
able constitution and code of by-laws for the 
governing of the organization. Before the 
meeting adjourned, the society had secured 
seventy members from among those who had 
attended. The name of the old society, The 
Summit County Agricultural Society, was 
adopted as the name of the organization. 
Perhaps it is error to speak of the "old so- 
ciety," for it may not have ceased to exist. 
However, the real history of the society, as we 
know it, begin.s with this meeting held in 
the autumn of 1849. If the old society was 
maintaining an uncertain existence, it was 
put firmly on its feet by this public meeting. 
That call to action aroused a strong public 
sentiment which has been a potent factor 
ever since. The ultimate result has been to 
make the Summit County society the strong- 
est one in the State, and the Summit County 
Fair one of the most important held any- 
where in the Middle West. 

On November 18, 1849, the a-ssociation 
held another meeting at the court house, at 
which time a constitution and by-laws were 
adopted and permanent officers elected. This 
was the first board of officials of which we 
have any record. Colonel Simon Perkins 
was elected president; William H. Dewey, 



treasurer; William A. Hanford, of Tall- 
madge, secretary, and John Hoy, of Frank- 
lin; Sylvester H. Thompson, of Hudson, 
Avery Spicer, of Coventry; James W. Weld, 
of Richfield, and Philo C. Stone were elected 
as a board of directors or managers. At the 
present time the practice is to take one di- 
rectoT from each to^-nship in the county. 
These directors arranged and published a pre- 
mium list and made all preparations for hold- 
ing a fair during the fall of 1850. This, the 
first large and well-organized fair in the 
county, was held October 2nd and 3rd, 1850 
At that time two days were deemed enough. 
The officers probabh' followed the custom in 
New England, of confining the fair to two 
days, the first of which was given over to the 
"Horse Show" and the second to the "Cattle 
Show." For the last twenty-five or thirty 
years, at least, it has been the custom to de- 
vote four days, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thurs- 
day and Friday, of fair week to the purposes 
of the exhibition. It is now held on the 
same week in the year as the earliest fair, 
in 1850. It is probably the most satisfactory 
time which could be selected. 

At first the society had no grounds of its 
own and was obliged to request the county 
commLssioners for permission to hold it on 
the grounds surrounding the (then) new 
county court-house. The permission was will- 
ingly granted, and the fair was held in the 
grove which then covered the block of land 
between High, Church, Broadway and State 
Streets. The court-hoase building wa.* used 
for the display of flowers, fruits and domestic 
articles, while the stock was exhibited in the 
surrounding grove. There was no race-track 
and, of course, no races. If the interest it 
aroused in things agricultural may be taken 
as a criterion, the fair of 1850 wa* a big 
success. On account of the fact that no ad- 
mission was charged, the total receipts for the 
first year were only $327.53, of which $100 
were spent in awarding premiums. The so- 
ciety secured the court-house grounds for its 
fair of 1851, and al.«o held its third fair 
there in 1852. The increasing number of 
exhibits made it neces.sary to erect temporary 

booths and sheds to accommodate them. This 
being a source of expense which might be 
avoided by securing permanent grounds, and 
the interest of the public throughout the 
whole county increasing, it was determined 
by the society to lease suitable grounds and 
erect more substantial and worthy buildings. 
The president of the .society, Simon Perkins, 
then offered it, without charge or rent, the 
use of a tract of land on South Main Street 
nearly opposite the plant of The B. F. Good- 
rich Company, and consisting of about six 
acres of land. An exhibition hall, stock- 
sheds and a high fence around the grounds 
were built. The fourth fair was held on 
thase grounds on October 12th and 13th, 

In five years the annual attendance had 
grown so large that the grounds had be- 
come entirely inadequate. The receipts had 
increased to $1,400 m 1858. When the so- 
ciety decided to secure new quarters, the fine 
public spirit which Cuyahoga Falls had al- 
wavs shown, was once more demonstrated. 
That village made an offer of $6,000 if the 
new grounds should be located there. Never- 
theless, the society leased for a period of five 
years a beautiful tract of about thirty acres 
of land in the western part of the city. It 
was owned by Da\4d L. King and consisted 
of the high land immediately west of the 
canal between Glendale Avenue and Ash 
Street. This site is now occupied by the Mil- 
ler and Conger mansions and the fine grounds 
surrounding them. . The society fitted np 
these grounds with the necessary buildings, 
a race-track, etc., at a cost of several thou- 
sand dollars. The first fair held on these 
grounds was that of 1859. In 18G4, the lea'^e 
from Mr. King expired. Althotigh he offered 
to sell the whole tract to the society, for fair 
puri:>oses only, for the extremely low price of 
$5,000, and although the site was perfectly 
adapted to such purposes, yet the society, in 
pursuance of a .short-sighted policy, deter- 
mined to move again. This time they went 
still further west and located on the grounds 
of P. D. Hall, just east of Balch Street. Mr. 
Hall leased thirtv acres, most of it covered 



with a fine grove of trees, to the society for 
a term of ten years. This tract has been 
known, popuhirly, ever since as the old "Hall 
Fair Grounds." The first fair held here was 
in the autumn of 1864. Successful fairs were 
held on these grounds during the whole of 
the ten years. The expiration of the lease 
found the society with several thousand dol- 
lars in its trei^ury which it could devote to 
the purchase of grounds of its own. A spir- 
ited contest then began between the advocates 
of different sites. Nine or ten different tracts 
adjoining the city on the w&st and south 
were offered to the society at prices ranging 
from $200 to $500 per acre. Every one of 
these tracts has since increased in value to 
as many thousands. At first the society de- 
termined to purchase the property of Dr. S. 
H. Coburn and Samuel Thornton west of 
South Main Street. Then the committee of 
purchase concluded to accept the offer of 
James McAllister for his thirty acres on the 
highest point of West Hill, just west of Por- 
tage Path. The deed was made and the so- 
ciety became the owner of it. This action 
aroused a storm of protest. The people of 
Akron objected to the long distance from 
the business center of the city and the inhabi- 
tants of every township in the county, except 
those in the western part, were loud in their 
objection that, for them the location was 
practically inaccessible. As a result, the so- 
ciety, in 1875, decided to sell the new 
grounds and buy others located on North 
Hdll. Mr. A. T. Burrows had offered them 
forty-five acres there at a price of $400 per 
acre. At a meeting held six months later 
this determination was reconsidered and a 
final choice was made of a tract of forty- 
five acres lying in the valley of the Little 
Cuyahoga, near the old Forge, and known 
as the "Austin Powder Patch." This tract 
of land haid belonged to the Austin Powder 
Company, and had been the site of their pow- 
der mills until about 1860, when they were 
moved to Cleveland. Explosions and fires 
had long before destroyed all the buildings 
upon the tract. The writer first saw it in 
1874, and it certainly looked far from invit- 

ing. Although it was not decided until June 
26, 1875, to purchase this tract, yet by dint 
of much hard labor the next fair, that of 
October, 1875, was held there. It was the 
first fair held on the society's own grounds. 
Contrary to the expectations of many citi- 
zens of the county, it was a big success. The 
attendance and the exhibits were larger than 
ever before. In the next few years, the so- 
ciety spent much money in grading, improv- 
ing and beautifying the grounds. It became 
a real expofsition, on a small scale. Mercan- 
tile Hall, Agricultural Hall, Floral Hall, the 
Grand Stand and many dining halls, exhibi- 
tion booths and stands were built; the 
grounds were laid out in an attractive man- 
ner with artificial lakes, fountains, etc., and 
the name "Fountain Park" was given to the 
new fair grounds. Since 1875, the successive 
fairs of the society have been held here, in- 
cluding the 1907 fair just held. Since 1906 
there has been a strong sentiment setting in 
toward selling Fountain Park and securing 
more accessible grounds. The society has 
been successful on these grounds, but the in- 
crea.sing crowds make it impossible for the 
tran-sportation companies to properly handle 
visitors. The present grounds would make 
very desirable railway yards, and it is now 
understood that one railway company, at 
least, would like to add them to its posses- 
sions. The many dangers attending the ap- 
proach to the present grounds certainly ought 
to lead the present members of the society to 
consider the purchase of other grounds more 
favorably situated. 

The officers of the Summit County Agri- 
cultural Society for 1907 are: President, L. 
M. Kauffman; vice president, B. H. Prior; 
secretary, 0. J. Swinehart; treasurer, G. W. 
Brewster; superintendent of race^, E. M. Gan- 

When the Summit County Agricultural 
Society reached the determination to move 
the site of its annual fair from Hall's Pair 
Grounds to the New Fountain Park, much 
dissatisfaction was expressed by those opposed 
to the new site. The discontent prevajiled 
mostly among the farmers in the southern 



and western parts of the county. It was said 
that the new site was difficult and dangerous 
to approach, and doubts were held as' to the 
healthfulness of it. These feelings and ex- 
pressions of dissent finally culminated in the 
formation of a rival association called the 
"Summit County Fair Association." The 
society was incorporated with a capital of 
$5,000, and the following officers were 
elected: President, James Hammond, of Cop- 
ley; vice president, Frank A. Foster, of 
Copley; secretary, Wellington Miller, of Nor- 
ton ; trea.surer. Philander D. Hall, Jr., of 
Akron. Mr. Hall made a new lease of his 
large tract on favorable terms to the new 
society, and the capital paid was expended in 
providing buildings, sheds, fences, etc. The 
fair was held in the last week of September, 

1875, and was an entire success, both from 
the point of attendance and interest, and 
from the point of exhibits. The new society 
was much encoiiraged, and made more exten- 
sive plans for the fair of 1876. While the 
latter was succe.'vsful from all points of view. 
yet the rival fair in Fountain Park had con- 
tinued to grow in popularity and the old 
objections to its site had been found by the 
experience of two years to be largely un- 
founded. The younger association did not 
feel encouraged to continue their exhibition, 
in face of the strong sentiment setting in 
toward the "old fair" on the new site. It 

.was accordingly decided to wind up the affairs 
of the new association and disband. Since 

1876, the Summit County Agricultural So- 
ciety has conducted the only agricultural ex- 
hibition held in the county. It has been 
uniformly successful and is today an exceed- 
ingly strong and prosperous organization. 

When the difficulty over the selection of 
new grounds arose in 1859, the fine public 
spirit of Cuwhoga Falls was again mani- 
fested. That village made an offer of $6,000 
in cash to the Summit County Agricultural 
Society, provided the new fair grounds should 
be located there. Upon the refusal of this 
splendid offer, the citizens of the village de- 
termined to have an agricultural exhibition of 
their own. They formed an organization 

called the "Union Fair Association," and pro- 
vided extensive grounds in the northern part 
of the village as a site for an annual autumn 
festival. The advantages of the site were all 
that could reasonably be asked. In fact, it 
was superior in nearly all respects to any 
of the sites previously or since selected for 
this purpose. The grounds were first opened 
for exhibition on September 1, 1859. The 
fair was well attended and netted the asso- 
ciation a profit of several hundred dollars. 
The attendance was mainly from the north- 
ern part of the county. The profits of this 
first fair were all wiped out, however, by a 
race meet, which was held in the latter part 
of October of the same year. In 1860, the 
date of the fair was changed to the fir.=t week 
of October. The attendance was not as large 
as had been hoped for, although the exhibi- 
tion itself was well worthy of patronage. The 
last fair held on these grounds was that of 
1861. The display of stock and products of 
the farm was excellent, and an attraction in 
the form of competitive military drills be- 
tween the different 'military companies of the 
county was added, but the attendance was 
far below the line of profit. With the inevi- 
table staring the a.ssociation in the face, it 
was decided to disband, and the Summit 
County Association from that time on had 
no competition from the "Union Fair Asso- 

Two other town.ships which tried to con- 
duct rival fairs without lasting success were 
Richfield and Twinsburg. The citizens of 
Richfield organized the "Richfield Agricul- 
tural Club" in 1851, and in the fall of that 
year conducted a fair which was reasonably 
successful. It was supported by a well-popu- 
lated and wealthy community, and being 
economically condiicted, it continued to grow 
in popularity and influence. At length, in 
1858, the "Union Agricultural and Mechanic 
Arts Society" was incorporated, comprising 
citizens of parts of Medina and Cuyahoga 
counties as well as Summit. This tri-countv 
fair continued to prosper and held succe.«sful 
exhibitions each autumn on well-appointed 
fair grounds, situated between the two villages 



of East and West Richfield. Finally, the in- 
terest in the central exhibition at Akron be- 
came so strong that at was decided that the 
agricultural interests of the county would be 
best subserved by limiting the exhibitions to 
the big one held at the county seat. The last 
fair on the Richfield grounds was held in 
•1875. The next year the society sold its 
grounds and wound up its affairs. 

About the time the Richfield Fair was 
started, the people of Twinsburg commenced 
an annual township exhibition of agricultural 
products. In 1855, this was expanded into 
the "Union Fair Association," composed of 
Twinsburg, Hudson and Northfield town- 
ships in Summit County; Solon and Bedford 
townships, in Cuyahoga County, and Aurora 
township, in Portage County. Fine fair- 
grounds were established near Twinsburg 
Center, and the society prospered for many 
years. After the war the interest began to 
wane, and after the fair of 1871, it was de- 
cided to discontinue them. In 1872, the 
grounds were sold and the "Union Fair As- 
sociation" of Twinsburg was, from that time 
on. merely a matter of history. 


Among the organizations which the agri- 
culturists of the county have provided for 
their betterment, physically, mentally and 
spiritually, the Grange occupies an important 
place. That the movement has been well 
thought of in this general vicinity is evi- 
denced by the, following iinposing list of 
Summit County Granges. The names of 
their respective officers is for the year 1906- 
1907. Granges and officers are as follows: 
Pomona Grange — Eugene F. Cranz, of Ira, 
master; S. J. Baldwin, of Tallmadge, lec- 
turer, and Mrs. 0. S. Scott, secretary. Dar- 
row Street Grange — W. M. Darrow, master; 
Mrs. F. R. Howe, lecturer; Mabel E. Shively, 
secretary. Osbom's Corners' Grange — W. E. 
Riiple, master; Monnie Woodruff, lecturer; 
A. L. Aikman, secretary. Northampton 
Grange — George W. Treap, master; 0. Mc- 
Arthur, lecturer; Howard G. Treap, secre- 

tary. Richfield Grange — Henry S. Gargett, 
master; Mrs. Mary Baughnian, lecturer; 
Frank M. Hughes, secretary. Copley Grange 
— Arthur Chrisanan, master; R. J. Dalling.i, 
lecturer; Herbert Hammond, secretary. Bath 
Center Grange — I. L. Underwood, master; 
Mrs. William Waltz, lecturer; E. C. Robin- 
son, secretary. Tallmadge Grange — S. C. 
Barnes, master; Mrs. Lottie Clark, lecturer; 
II. J. Walters, secretary. Highland Grange 
— E. Blender, master; George Lauby, lec- 
turer; J. W. Foltz, secretary. 


By Aaron Teeple, Esq. 

In the early settlement of Summit County 
our pioneer fathers were beset with the stern 
realities of life^ — a house to shelter, the pro- 
curement of raiment and the wherewithal to 
be fed. The forests had to be cleared away, 
habitations, though rude, erected, and the 
unbroken soil subdued. Without markets in 
which to dispose of any surplus products or 
to procure necessary supplies, only at remote 
distances through roadless forests, their cm- 
ditions, as we view them now with our mod- 
ern improvements, were that of unwonted 
hardship and deprivation. The writer can 
well remember the old time "log-rolling," 
when the neighbors came together for miles 
around to pile the timbers previously cut 
into huge heaps for burning. Then it was 
the custom for each farmer to grow a piece 
of ground to flax, that was in time pulled, 
broken, beaten, heckled, and finally spun and 
woven into cloth for clothing or beddinar. 
Almost every log cabin was then provided 
with an upper chamber reached by ascending 
a ladder, where the children were put to bed, 
with only a puncheon roof above to protect 
from the storm without. Usually in this 
cabin near the ladder stairway, a hole was 
bored in one of the logs, and a strong wooden 
])in driven, where any wild game, brought 
in to add to the food supply, was hung. At 
night, when the meat supply became low, 
the stuTdy woodman would take down the 





rifle, fasten a lighted candle on his hat and 
visit the chopping. Deer were plentiful then 
and the newly cut timber affoi'ded excellent 
browsing. The approach of the light would 
give alarm, and the reflected light from the 
eyeballs of the deer give the hunter the point 
to aim at, while the light of the candle en- 
abled deliberate precision for deadly work. 

The pre-eminent factor then was the so- 
ciability everywhere manifest. Did a neigh- 
bor want, he had only to make it known. 
Be it labor, food, or other supply, all were 
ready to sacrifice, if need be, to meet the 
want. In those days but little attention was 
devoted to the esthetic culture of home or 
the ornamentation of its surroundings. 
Doubtless our ancestors had as ardent ta^te 
or desire to cultivate and enjoy the beautiful, 
as we, their progeny, but the sterner demands 
had first to be met and overcome ere these 
could be gratified, or luxuri&s be considered. 
The wild flowers, in many instances, were 
transplanted and in a measure domesticated 
by culture, as were several species of grapes 
and berries found growing on low lands in 
the forest. 

Among the early settlers in our county 
were Austin M. Hale, of Mogadore, Dr. Men- 
dell Jewett, of Middlebury; Daniel Hine, of 
Tallmadge ; Andrew Hale, of Bath ; Edwin 
Wetmore, of Northampton, and a Mr. 
Robinett, who lived just over the line of 
Northfield in Cuyahoga County, father of B. 
A. Robinett, of Northfield. With them the 
love and culture of fruit was supreme and 
uppermost. To provide a supply in their 
new home, to be, various kinds of seeds, 
vines and small trees and shnibbery were 
brought from their New England homes, and 
planted in their gardens, becoming the basis 
from which most of the orchards and gar- 
dens of Summit County sprung. 

Daniel Hine was the pioneer in grape and 
pear culture, Andrew Hale and Austin Hale 
of apples, and Edwin Wetmore of peache«. 
By careful cross fertilization, the wild with 
improved varieties, many new types were se- 
cured. Of the tree fruits, especially the apple 
has undergone but few changes. The old 

Rambo, the Rhode Island Greening, the Bel- 
mont, and many of the older varieties, re- 
main as distinct as when first introduced and 

The pioneer nursery business was instituted 
by Austin M. Hale of Mogadore, Denis A. 
Hine and M. Jewett of Middlebury, and Jobe 
Green, just over the Bath line in Granger, 
Medina County. In order to increase their 
stock, seed of fruit was planted and the seed- 
ling stock set in nursery rows, producing in 
mast instances fruit of very inferior quality. 
To improve the fruit, long journeys were 
made to South Eastern Ohio near Marietta, 
where Israel Putnam, jr., had established a 
nursery of forty or fifty varieties of choice 
fruit brought from his old home in Connec- 
ticut prior to the year 1817. Scions were 
secured and young tre&s grafted. About the 
year 1824, the Kirtlands established a nur- 
sery in Trumbull" County with stock brought 
from New England, including peaches, pears, 
apples and many of the smaller fruits. Our 
home nursery men, alert to increase their 
product in quantity as well as quality, were 
not .slow to avail them.selves of anything new 
in their line and became customers to some 
extent of the Trumbull County nursery, 
from these sources most of the orchards and 
small fruits w-ere originally desseminated. 
Among the older orchards of Summit County 
were that of Maxwell Graham in Stnw, Jphn 
Ewart of Springfield, W. B. Storer of Por- 
tage, and Andrew Hale of Bath — orchards 
that by careful treatment haVe and are now 
yielding large crops of choice fruit annually. 
For many years Summit County was noted 
as being a dairy and farming community. 
The milling interests at the county seat 
created a demand for cereals and the southern 
part of the county being adapted in soil to 
their growth, it became largely a grain-grow- 
ing section. While the northern part of the 
county was a heavier soil better adapted to 
grass, and the dairy interest thrived. But 
with the building of railroads increasing fa- 
cilities of transportation, the close proximity 
to coal fields cheapening fuel, Akron became 
a manufacturing center. With each new in- 



dustry came a corresponding increase in pop- 
ulation, creating an increased demand for 
fruits, vegetables and garden products. Mar- 
ket gardening became a fixed industry. Per- 
haps the earliest to engage in gardening to 
any extent was Charles C. Miller and Foster 
A.'Tarbell of Copley, W. B. Storer and Sam- 
uel Bacon of Portage, and Charles H. Welch 
of Springfield. The business became so 
profitable that soon others followed. At 
present the business has grown to such an 
extent that frequently in the .summer months 
from eighty to 100 wagons loaded with fruit 
and garden products are on the Akron mar- 
ket on a morning. This demand for food 
supplies, with the diversity of the soil of the 
county, has been the means to enable the 
culture of many hitherto neglected products. 
The swamp lands near Greentown were 
drained and brought under culture, and Jo- 
seph A. Borst became the pioneer in celery 
growing. Soon after the Atwood Brothers of 
Akron commenced dn a large way the rais- 
ing of celery on the muck land of Copley 
swamp just west of Akron. Many acres of 
once-thought waste land have become drained 
and are now producing celery, onions, cab- 
bage and other hardy garden products in dif- 
ferent portions of the county. Matthew 
Crawford for more than forty years has been 
growing plants of small fruits and developing 
new varieties. Many of our choicest varieties 
of strawberries: are the result of his labors. 
Recently his attention has been given mostly 
to growing bulbs. With Rev. M. W. Dai- 
las, a few years ago he grew about nine acres 
of gladiolas. The market responded, the de- 
mand became so groat that the supply has not 
been suflicient. This season one dealer, we 
learn, has placed his order for 2,000,000 
gladiola bulbs, requiring at least 10 acres of 
land to produce them. Hyacinth and daff'o- 
dil bulbs are now grown .successfully, and the 
time will likely soon come when further im- 
portations from abroad will become unnec- 

The first effort at organization of the Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural interests, aside 
from the Summit County Agricultviral So- 

ciety, was made in the year 1878 by a call 
from Dr. M. Jewett, M. C. Read, L. V. Bierce 
and others to form a Farmers' Club. The 
meetings were held monthly in the Empire 
Hall in Akron, and continued for several 
years. The meetings were at first well at- 
tended and were usually of much interest and 
profit. Subjects relating to the home, prod- 
ucts of the farm, fi-uit growing, as well as 
those more intricate and scientific relating to 
how plants grow, how- to originate new varie- 
ties, were presented in well written papers 
and, in some instances, pointedly discussed 
The club became so heavily freighted, how- 
ever, with professional men, who spun out 
their paperse so fine and to such length that 
the interest began to lag. As an instance, 
one, a Dr. Smith, was asked to prepare a 
paper. He chose for his theme "Sexuality in 
Nature." He argued that in the mineral as 
well as in the animal and vegetable king- 
doms, distinct traces of sexuality exist. The 
article was highly scientific, and of sufficient 
length to fill a whole page in the Summit 
County Beacon, and required over an hour 
in reading. At the of the reading but 
a small audience remained to its 
merits. It became evident to the officers of 
the organization that to impart new life a 
radical change must take place. Hence a 
call was made to meet at the Friendly Inn, 
at the corner of Howard and Mill Streets in 
Akron, for con,sultation. The meeting was 
held on the 18th of January, 1882. There 
were 19 persons present. Dr. Jewett was 
chosen president, and Matthew Crawford sec- 
retary. The object of the meeting was stated 
by the chair, and enlarged upon by several 
others. At the suggestion of Mr. Crawford 
the matter of reorganization along the lines of 
horticulture was considered with much favor. 
An adjournment was made to meet with Mrs. 
E. 0. Knox (on her invitation), then editor- 
ess of the Cuvahoga Falls Reporter, on Feb- 
marv 8, 1882. At this meeting it was de- 
cided to organize the Summit County Horti- 
cultural Society. Dr. Mendall Jewett was 
chosen president and Matthew Crawford sec- 
retary. A committee was appointed to pre- 



pare a constitution and by-laws for the gov- 
ernment of the society, which were presented 
at a subsequent meeting and adopted. The 
meeting.-; of the society ai'e held monthly, on 
invitation, at the residences of its members, 
who regard it a privilege as well as a duty 
to entertain its membership. Reports are re- 
ceived on orchards, vineyards, small fruits, 
ornamental planting, ornithology, ento- 
mology, botany and forestry at each meeting 
from a standing committee in each depart- 
ment appointed for that purpose. Some com- 
petent person is selected in addition to pre- 
sent a paper or, which forms part of 
the program for each meeting. The discus- 
sions following the reports of the standing 
committee and the points presented in the 
esssij or address serve to make the meetings 
of much interest. The program for the year's 
work is prepared in advance by the executive 
committee of the society, giving place of 
meeting for each month,, and list of 
officers and standing committees for the year. 
Since the organization of the society a 
quarter of a century ago it has continued to 
grow and prosper. The influence exerted and 

the good work done by the organization is 
shown in its social greetings, the exhibits of 
choice flowers, and fine vegetables and fruits 
at its monthly gatherings. The incentive to 
its members is to make their homes more 
social, pleasant and attractive, that when in 
turn it is theirs to entertain, their guests may 
be delighted in the surroundings. Neighbors 
are influenced, and fine homes with choice 
lawms become, in a measure, contagious. 
The county fair in its exhibit in the horti- 
cultural department, is another example of 
its work. The monthly meetings are reported 
for the local press of the county, and in many 
instances are wholly or in part-, copied in 
many of the leading agricultural and horti- 
cultural journals of the country. 

A number of the membership are solicited 
to aid in Farmers' Institute work, either 
through the State Board of Agriculture or 
directly by county societies. 

The present board of officers is Charies N. 
Gaylord, of Stow, president; Capt. P. H. 
Young, of Tallmadge, vice president, and 
Miss Nellie Teeple, of Akron, secretary and 



Steam and Electric Railroads — The Ohio Canal — The Ohio and Pennsylvania Canal. 

At the present time the steam railroads of 
Summit County are subsidiary lines of the 
four great railroad systems of Eastern United 
States, viz: The Baltimore & Ohio, repre- 
sented by the Cleveland, Terminal & Valley, 
the Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling, the Akron 
& Chicago Junction, and the Pittsburgh & 
Western. Allied to the Baltimore & Ohio, is 
the Pennsylvania Company, represented by 
the Cleveland, Akron & Columbus, and the 
Cleveland & Pittsburgh. The Erie is now the 
successor to the historic New York, Pennsyl- 
vania & Ohio, while the great Lake Shore 
system finds expression in the solitary North- 
ern Ohio and the latest line, the Lake Erie 
& Pittsburgh. In addition to these is the 
Akron & Barberton Belt Line, now generally 
understood to be a Pennsylvania property, 
and sold in the open market only a few years 
ago for the sum of $1,000,000. 

To write of the sale of a road for a million 
tells why the history of any railroad in this 
day ceases to have any strictly personal side, 
for such a story is no longer the culmination 
of struggles and sacrifice on the part of hardy 
pioneers but is rather the result of a correct 
reading of the broker's tape. The many 
millions involved in railroads represent as 
many varied peoples and interests as the num- 
ber of dollars. Their owners live far from 
the line of their property, so that in Summit 
County to-day it is literally true that the 
profits from the above lines return to owners 
in every state of the country, and in countries 
as far distant as Holland and Belgium. 

First in point of time in this county is the 
Cleveland & Pittsburgh EaiLroad, running 
from Pittsburgh to Cleveland and entering 
Summit on the east at Hudson. Projected 
and started in 1836, retarded by the panic of 
1837, and finally completed in 1851, this 
road is one of the wonders of the financial 
world, in that it has never defaulted a pay- 
ment on the interest of its bonds and since 
1854 has paid a steady and unfailing income 
of 6 per cent on the investment to all stock- 
holders. It has been lately double tracked 
from Alliance to Hudson and over that 
stretch of territory is a model line in physical 

The road now known as the Cleveland, 
Akron & Columbus, also Pennsylvania prop- 
erty, possesses local interest, in that it started 
with "The Akron Branch Railroad," which 
in 1851 was planned as a feeder to the Cleve- 
land & Pittsburgh. At that time, through 
the enterprise of Simon Perkins, an amend- 
ment was made to the charter of the Cleve- 
land & Pittsburgh, extending that line from 
Hudson to Akron and by popular vote this 
county subscribed for stock in the Company 
to the amount of $100,000.00. By the middle 
of 1852, the road was completed to Orrville. 
Like all railroads it had its ups and downs, 
and after various litigation, in which the 
name was changed from the "Akron Branch" 
to Cleveland, Zanesville and Cincinnati, later 
to Cleveland, Mount Vernon & Delaware, 
and finally to the Cleveland, Akron & Co- 
lumbus, the road prospered till it was de- 



clared fcy McCrea of the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany in 1893, this road was the bright spot 
in that system. The casual reader will do 
well to observe that this road arose through 
the aid of the people of the communities 
through which it passed, and took its life and 
nurture from the legislature creating it, and 
the county which burdened itself with taxes 
to maintain it. Not a dollar was paid this 
county in dividends, but the county took its 
reward in the increased wealth incident to 
improved transportation facilities. 

The Akron and Barberton Belt Railroad, 
opened in 1892, extends in and around the city 
of Barberton and is thirteen miles in length. 
This line represents one of the most modern 
phases in railroads in that of itself it carries 
nothing to any distance, but is simply a 
feeder to the railroads centering in Akron 
and drawing its revenue from the factories 
which it touches, but carrying no passengers. 

The Baltimore and Ohio system, we speak 
of it as such, for it does not exist as a rail- 
road, comprises the roads of its system al- 
ready named. There is no Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad in Summit County, for that 
railroad does not own a mile of road in the 
state of Ohio, and does not operate a mile. 
That system, incorporated under the la^vs of 
We-st Virginia and Maryland, owns the stock 
by majority holding of the various roads set 
forth, and by such arrangement maintaiins 
uniformity in the general officers of the vari- 
ous constituent companies. To be specific, 
a passenger going from Cleveland to Wheel- 
ing, arrives in ^Vkron at Akron Junction over 
the Cleveland Terminal & Valley, from there 
he passes over the P. C. & T., also called the 
Pittsburgh and Western, to the Union Sta- 
tion, whence he passes over the Akron & Chi- 
cago Junction to Warwick, from which point 
he completes hi? journey to Wheeling over 
the Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling. All these 
roads are part of the Baltimore & Ohio sys- 

The Cleveland Terminal & Valley is the 
successor to the Valley Railroad Company, a 
railroad which will ever hold a pleasant place 
in the memorv of this countv, because of the 

many local people whose life and hopes were 
bound up in its completion. Starting in 1869 
as the Akron and Canton Railroad, under 
Mr. D. L. King, it became the "Valley" in 
1871. To raise the money, a public meeting 
was held at the Academy of Music in Akron, 
in January, 1872. Committeemen from 
every township were appointed to rouse sen- 
timent on the road. Sufficient money was 
raiser to start construction in March, 1873, 
and much work was done. But the panic of 
1873 tightened the money supply, and in 
1875 Mr. King sailed for England to inter- 
est the English capitalists. In this he failed, 
and returning to America the bonds of the 
company were finally disposed of, and the 
first train was run over the line from Cleve- 
land to Canton, January 28, 1880. The 
Cleveland, Terminal and Valley corporation 
was organized in 1895 and secured the A'al- 
ley property at foreclosure sale. The ma- 
jority of the stock of this corporation is owned 
by the Baltimore & Ohio. 

The Pittsburgh & Western was projected in 
1881, and in 1891 became part of the Balti- 
more & Ohio system by lease. The story of 
this road is bound up with that of the Akron 
& Chicago Junction. In 1890 two con- 
struction companies were building in Akron 
MeCracken & Semple were building the P. A. 
& W., while Ryan & McDonald were at work 
on the A. & C. J. Both claimed to be the 
builders of a Western and Eastern outlet to 
Chicago and Pittsburgh, but finally it devel- 
oped that the Akron & Chicago Junction was 
a Baltimore & Ohio proposition. The acquisi- 
tion of the Pittsburgh & Western with the 
Akron & Chicago Junction gave the Balti- 
more & Ohio a direct line from Chicago to 
Pittsburgh. The Akron & Chicago Junction 
is merely a right of way from Chicago Junc- 
tion to Warwick. Thence it proceeds to Ak- 
ron over the Cleveland. Akron & Columbus, 
and from Akron it terminates at Akron Junc- 
tion. The method of transfer to the Balti- 
more & Ohio is of some interest. In 1890 it 
was leased to The Baltimore and Ohio and 
Chicago Railroad, one of the Baltimore & 
Ohio stool pigeons, for 999 years renewable 



forever. Subsequently this lease was assigned 
to the Baltimore & Ohio. 

As to the Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling — 
this is the latest acquisition of the Baltimore 
& Ohio. The main line passes through the 
southern corner of the county and in 1902 
the Baltimore & Ohio secured a majority of 
its stock. On the books of the Cleveland, 
Lorain & Wheeling this stock appears in the 
name of a resident of Baltimore, Md., but 
it is voted as B. & O. stock. 

The history of the Erie now a continental 
road and a so-called "trunk line," starts with 
the secret plans of Hon. Marvin Kent of 
Kent, Ohio, to form a continental line from 
east to west. In the words of another, "he 
conceived the idea of forming a direct line 
from New York to St. Louis, nearly 1,200 
miles, by connecting with the Erie road at 
Salamanca, on the east, and by the Dayton 
& Hamilton with the Ohio and Mississippi 
at Cincinnati, on the west." A liberal charter 
was secured and he started in. Opposition 
developed in Pennsylvania, and instead of 
constructing a new road through Pennsylva- 
nia, he and his associates bought the Pitts- 
burgh and Erie road. This charter author- 
ized unlimited extension and subsequently 
the State of Pennsylvania and New York per- 
mitted the chartering of separate roads in 
each State, and finally there was developed 
the historic Atlantic and Great Western 
Railway Company. The road was completed 
in 1864, after eleven years of labor on the 
part of Mr. Kent. The road ran from Akron 
to Dayton, and after various litigation be- 
came known as the New York, Pennsylvania 
& Ohio Railroad Company. It was finally 
leased to the Erie Railroad under which it 
now operates. Probably no one road ever 
passed through the litigation of this road, for, 
from December, 1874, down to 1879, its law- 
suits were continuous and apparently unend- 
ing. Even at the present writing, litigation 
is pending as to the ownership of bonds of 
the road deposited in the county treasury 
to the credit of unknown English and Dutch 

The Lake Shore Railroad, or more prop- 

erly the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, 
is represented in Summit County by the ill- 
.starred Northern Ohio and the promising 
Lake Erie & Pittsburg. These two roads rep- 
resent the extremes of railroad construction; 
one is poverty-stricken and wretchedly 
equipped; the other with no trains running 
as yet, has abundant means and every facil- 
ity for rapid gro\\i:h. Originally the North- 
ern Ohio was called the Pittsburgh, Akron 
and Western, and was designed by the late 
Senator Brice to be a connecting link in his 
world-wide road from China to New York. 
The death of that eminent Democrat stopped 
its growth, and it is now a mere line running 
from Akron to Delphos, a distance of 165 
miles. It was incorporated in 1883 and trains 
began in 1891. It passed into the hands of 
the Lake Erie & Western, and that small sys- 
tem passed into those of the Lake Shore. The 
Lake Erie & Pittsburgh, now under construc- 
tion, is designed as an important feeder to its 
parent system. Originally it started at Lo- 
rain, and for a long time the exact owners 
of the road were unknown. Finally the Belt 
Line of Cleveland was made a part of tlie 
scheme, and it passed from the hands of the 
contractors who projected it into the posses- 
sion of the present owners. 

A^arious other roads have been planned in 
and through Summit County, where the im- 
mense shipping done by the various factories 
has inspired the avarice or the ambition of 
promoters. To recount them all in detail 
would only be calling the roll of failure, at no 
time an elevating task. Among them are the 
Clinton Line, the Clinton Line Extension, the 
Hudson & Painesville, and the New York and 
Ohio. The last unsuccessful project was ad- 
vanced by the versatile Charley French, who 
planned great things for the railroad maps 
of the country, and in his organization in- 
cluded the A.shland & Wooster, and finally 
the Lake & River Route. This scheme failed 
and at the present time no further changes 
are proposed in Summit County railroads. 

So far as concerns railroad stations, all the 
steam roads now center at the Union Passen- 
ger Station, and this is becoming inadequate 



to handle the steadily increiiaiiig traflie. 

This Union Station was originally the site 
of the Bates homestead and was opened for 
use in 1891. Before the Valley became part of 
the Baltimore & Ohio system, it had a sta- 
tion on West Market Street, now replaced by 
the packing-house at the corner of Canal and 
West Market. For a long time the Erie main- 
tained a separate station on the ground of the 
old Union Depot, but finally made peace with 
the Pennsylvania and occupied with it the 
present Union Station. 

The conclusion to be drawn from the rail- 
road situation in Summit County is the same 
conclusion to be drawn from the railroad sit- 
uation throughout the Nation. We have no 
pressing need of further transportation fa- 
cilities from steam roads. We have reached 
the intensive stage in their development, and 
that means that original grantors of the rights 
to these roads, the people of this county, 
look to the road for repayment. This repay- 
ment must take place in fair passenger and 
freight rates, in decent payment of taxes, and 
in equipment insuring safety both to pas- 
senger and highway traveler. The people of 
this county owe the railroads nothing; the 
railroads owe them the above moderate and 
honest returns. It is fair to say that any 
such organization as is now maintained by 
the Baltimore & Ohio in this County, as 
above detailed, is a menace to the fulfillment 
of any of the above conditions. For ex- 
ample, the Baltimore & Ohio as such, does 
not pay a dollar of taxes into the treasury 
of this county, and any attempt at competi- 
tion in freight rates is impossible under the 
present arrangement. The solution of these 
matters is no part of an historical article, but 
it is fair to say that the final determination 
of them will occur when honest County au- 
ditors and pro-secutors who are sufficiently in- 
telligent to grasp the situation occupy the 
offices. That means intelligence and effi- 
ciency on the part of the electorate, and so 
far at least individuals may meet the situa- 

At the present writing, the canals of Sum- 
mit County are in a transition state and the 
average resident looks on them as a doubtful 
luxury. This is due partly to the great out- 
lay of money required to maintain them, with 
.<o little result locally, and partly to the feel- 
ing that the day of the canal is past. Cer- 
tainly the present physical features of the 
canal are not inspiring, for in Summit they 
consist of a race running through Middle- 
bury, and along the southern border of the 
Fair Grounds, and terminating at Main 
Street, where the canal goes underground 
along Main Street, and finally flows into the 
main canal. The sole purpose of this muddy 
and dirty stream is to supply power to the 
mills of the Quaker Oats Company, and the 
.stream itself is owned by the Akron Hydrau- 
lic Company, a private corporation. The 
main canal, officially known as the Ohio and 
Erie Canal, passes through the townships of 
Northampton, Boston, Northfield, Portage, 
Coventry and Franklin. This canal is at 
present valuable to the owners of the various 
rubber factories in Akron, and aside from 
furnishing transportation for various canoe 
parties, has no other worth. What the fu- 
ture holds for this canal, and every canal in 
Ohio, is to be tested in the light of the re- 
sults to be seen from the plans now on foot. 
These plans embrace large expenditures of 
money and seem a part of a con-sistent effort 
to demonstrate the feasibility of canals as 
water transportation. This chapter will dis- 
cuss the story of the canals of Summit in 
the light of that plan. 

The history of Akron begins with the 
.story of the Canal projected by Dr. Cra«by, 
and as this canal brought biisiness and manu- 
facturing enterprises to the community, it 
would seem that the canal miist always stand 
forth as a blessing. Previous to that, how- 
ever, it may be profitable to look at the his- 
tory of these canals in the whole state. The 
desire for extensive internal improvements 
found expression in New York in the con- 
struction of the Erie Canal, and in the divi- 



sion of political parties on the need of further 
interniU improvements. In 1825, Ohio asked 
of the Federal government aid in the con- 
struction of the canals. The Government re- 
sponded by a grant aggregating 1,230,521 
acres. From the sale of these lands has been 
realized about two and one quarter anillion 
dollars, and there remains at this time of 
this imperial grant only land to the amount 
of $100,000.00. Wo have still many miles of 
canal in Ohio, and as bearing on their fu- 
ture, it may be instructive to bear in mind 
the decision of the United States Supreme 
Court, construing the terms of the above 
named federal grant. In Wakh vs. Railroad, 
etc., U. S. Supreme Court reports. Vol. 170. 
P. 469, the conclu.'iion was reached that the 
State of Ohio has the right to abandon its 
canals and to permit their use for a purpo.^e 
analogous to the canals; but the right to 
abandon the canals entirely and to permit 
the use of them other than that as common 
carriers is doubted. 

The Ohio and Erie canal, as above referred 
to, -was begun Julv 4, 1825, and completed in 
1833, and cost the sum of $7,904,971.89. 
The net results of this construction were 
beneficial, for it was said that the facilities 
of transportation from the interior of Ohio 
to the markets of New York were such "that 
wheat commanded a higher price at Massillon, 
one hundred miles west of Pittsburg, than at 
points sixty mil&s east of it." The building 
of this canal, with a summit near the pres- 
ent site of Akron, naturally brought many 
workers to this vicinity, and it became clear 
to Messrs. Perkins and King that it would 
be profitable to anticipate the founding of a 
city. But Mr. King was not content with an 
outlet to the Ohio; he desired one east and, 
accordingly, set on foot the Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania canal. To aid him in hLs project 
he first .secured a charter from the legislature, 
and to secure this there were raised funds to 
pay "expenses." A paper to raise such funds 
read as follows: "We, the subscribers, citi- 
zens of ]\Iiddlebury and Akron, aud their 
vicinity, confident that inestimable advan- 
tages Avould remit to our villages, and this 

section of our country generally, from a canal 
connecting the Ohio canal, at the Portage 
Summit, with the Pennsylvania canal at 
Pittsburg, and anxious that an act should 
pass the legislature of Ohio, at their present 
session authorizing the construction of such 
canal, will pay the sums annexed to our re- 
spective names, to John McMillen, Jr., and 
Peter Bowen, for the purpose of defraying 
the expenses of delegates from the aforesaid 
villages to the legislature to assist in procur- 
ing the passage of such act. Payment to be 
made at the time of .subscribing." 

It would seem from the foregoing that the 
"Third House" had an early history even, 
among the untutored forefathers. The canal 
was got uaider way, and it was originally de- 
signed that the course should be through the 
then rival village of Middlebury. However, 
wires were pulled and, instead, it pa.ssed 
through Akron. Dr. Crosby, in the mean- 
time had started a cross-cut below and to the 
North of Middlebury, and with this influx 
of water, additional power was secured for 
the mills at Akron, and the first step taken 
toward Akron's ascendancy over Middlebury. 

The completion of the Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania Canal was the call for a grand cele- 
bration all along the line from Pittsburg to 
Akron. The accounts of that carnival, a? 
taken from contemporary records, furnish an 
interesting sidelight on life in the '40's. At 
each town and village preparations w'ere 
made to receive the distinguished party on 
board the first boat. Both the Governor of 
Ohio and of Pennsylvania were invited, and 
at each landing place new visitors were taken 
on board till the terminus, Akron, where the 
preceding festi\'ities wound up with a ban- 
quet on the site where now stands the Claren- 
don Hotel. 

As a financial proposition, the state had 
invested in the canal $420,000.00 in stock, 
and there had been raised by other subscrip- 
tions from private sources $840,000.00. Divi- 
dends were declared for a time and the in- 
creased freight and passenger service from 
Cleveland to Pittsburg, via Akron, added to 
the pre-itige of the City of Akron. From 



1852 till 1856, the tolls collected at the port 
of Akron raii from six thousand to eight 
thousand dollars. But then, as now, the 
menace of the railroad was at hand, and this 
time it was not Mr. Harriman or Mr. Hill, 
but the forgotten Cleveland & Mahoning 
Railroad. By precise!}' the same means as 
has been pointed out in the case of the Balti- 
more & Ohio in the chapter on Railroads, this 
creature of the legislature proceeded to settle 
the career of the canal. The stock was bought 
in open market by this concern and a policy 
of jockeying began to depreciate the rest of 
the stock owned by the state. The whole 
block, amounting to $420,000.00, was sold 
to Charles L. Rhodes, of Cleveland, in 1862, 
for $35,000.00, and the ruin and debasement 
of the canal was complete. The canal, a 
queenly maiden among the commercial high- 
ways of the world, became a wanton and a 
by-word among the people, for Mr. Rhodes 
was vice-president of the railroad, and the 
stock was used to enrich the treasury- of his 
railroad. Improvements stopped, and finally 
a petition was sent to the legislature demand- 
ing that it be abandoned. Several times the 
canal bed was cut and the water permitted to 
escape. This local feeling arose largely be- 
cause of the stagnant condition of the water 
and the consequent endangering of the health 
of the community. 

Any article on the canal? of Summit 
County would be incomplete without men- 
tioning the ambitious attempt to found Sum- 
mit City along what is now the "Gorge." 
Dr. Eliakim Crosby conceived the idea that 
a great mill-race could be constructed alone; 
the site of the Gorge, and to that end de- 
signed the canal at that point. So great a 
man as Horace Greeley became deeply in- 
terested and wrote a glowing account of the 
propo.sed metropolis of the West. Interest 
was roused over the entire coimtry, and great 
quantities of money flowed in from the Ea.«t. 
A nominal capital "stock of $5,000,000.00 was 
proposed, and work was begun. So confi- 
dent were those interested that one of the 
Rochester shareholders offered to pledge his 
entire fortune on the ^supposition that the lots 

surrounding the city would shortly be as val- 
uable as the highest priced lot in Rochester. 
Below and around what is now the CTorge an 
immense city was laid out, and part of the 
labor was paid in scrip redeemable in these 
lots when the City should be complete. This 
scrip was sold all through the East and sup- 
plies of raw material were taken in exchange. 
At one time the promises were so great and 
the prospects so alluring that it was proposed 
to make this the County seat. The engineer- 
ing difficulties that beset the projectors were 
simply enormous. Great blocks of stone 
were to be hewn through, and fills and cuts 
that would daunt the best equipped engineer 
of to-day were to be met. Dr. Crosby rose 
to every occasion. On May 27, 1844, the first 
water was sent through the race, and the day 
of realization seemed at hand. But dissen- 
tions arose among the stockholders; money 
was hard to secure, and at last protracted liti- 
gation settled this project. Finally in June, 
1850, the entire property which had cost in 
the neighborhood of $300,000.00 was sold 
for some $35,000.00, and the dream of the 
"Lowell of the West" was over. 

At the present writing, the one tangible 
asset of value remaining of all the canals of 
Summit County, is the property of the Akron 
Hydraulic Company. This flows along the 
southern line of the Pair Grounds and fur- 
nishes the water-power indicated before. 

It would be vmprofitable to leave a discus- 
sion of water-ways without commenting 
,on the cause of the failure and indicating a 
safe line of future action. In his report to 
Governor Nash in 1903, Engineer Perkins 
discusses the causes of past failures and lays 
out the future. From this report it appears 
that from 1827 to 1860 inclusive, the latter 
date being just prior to leasing to a private 
corporation, gro.^s receipts amounted to. some 
$14,000,000.00. From that time on a steady 
decrease set in and, the war coming on, the 
interest of the State was diverted to other 
channels. Bearing in mind that the Legis- 
lature of the State bad leased the canals to 
private corporations, it is difficult to .see how 
thev came to the conclusion that to retain 



them would be bad business. Space will not 
allow a further discussion of that report. It 
is now proposed to rehabilitate the canal sys- 
tem, and to build new locks and widen the 
channel and increase the supply of water. 
To this end the reservoir in Summit County 
is being greatly enlarged and it is proposed 
to increase it so that there will be flooded 
166 acres of land, and that will contain in 
reserve about eighty million gallons of water. 
New conditions of transportation have arisen 
and among these is the celebrated electric 
mule, this being a kind of trolley car run 
along the tow path to draw the canal boat 
It is expected that the canal will form a con- 

venient means of carrying raw material and 
other merchandise, in which time is not a 
factor in the delivery. The sane conclusion 
of the matter is a confident reliance in the 
plans mapped out, and an ever constant re- 
minding of the career of the Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania canal, now abandoned beyond re- 
demption. The Federal government has 
shown interest in the project; of a ship canal 
from lake to river, and it is possible, if the 
present administration shows wisdom in its 
action, that once more the boats of Summit 
County may go from the town of Coventry 
to New Orleans. 

Harry S. Quine. 



The County's Chief Manufacturing Establishments of the Past and of the Present — Clay 
Products — Cereal Mills — Agricultural Implements — The Rubber Industry — Printing 
and Publishing, Etc. 

As premised in the introduction of this 
history, Akron's great distinction lies in its 
pre-eminence as a city of manufactures. Long 
before the traveler reaches the city he finds 
its position marked on the horizon by a cloud 
of smoke by day and a blaze of light by night. 
The smoke which hovers about the city is in- 
separable from any place doing manufactur- 
ing on a large scale, and, therefore, this is one 
of the discomforts which is borne by Akron's 
citizens with equanimity. The smoke means 
turning wheels, prosperity, and an inflow of 
golden wealth to enrich capitalist and work- 
ingman alike. This golden shower makes 
possible also the extensive mercantile life of 
the city. Great department stores, some of 
them as large as any in the State of Ohio, 
have been attracted here by the great demand 
for commoditi&s, which they supply in all 
the various lines of retail trade. Akron has 
stores which would be a credit to any city in 
the land. They are founded on a substantial 
basis and their success has been uniform. 

The year 1907 has marked the highest 
point in the commercial life of the city a- 
well as in the manufactories. The im- 
portance of Akron as a center of manufactur- 
ing makes it necessary to devote an entire 
chapter to a statement of its resources in that 
respect, and to present an historical outline 
of its industrial development. The earliest 
manufacturing in Akron was conducted in 

Middlebury, and was of a kind which 
was common to all pioneer settlements. 
The first requisite of such a settle- 
ment was a saw-mill and grist-mill and 
some sort of a smithy. In Middlebury these 
were operated by the extensive water-power 
which the Cuyahoga River affords at that 
place. The first industry of this kind was a 
grist-mill built in 1808 by Aaron Nori;on. 
This occupied the ground on Case Avenue, 
where the Akron Sewer Pipe Company now 
stands. Ten years after, Bagley's Woolen 
Mills was built in the same vicinity on the 
river bank. In 1817 the Cuyahoga Blast 
Furnace was erected by Aaron Norton and 
William Laird on the present site of the Great 
Western Cereal Company's mills. This fur- 
nace was established for the purpose of smelts 
ing the iron ore which was found in this vi- 
cinity. This ore consisted principally of bog 
iron, and the industry became unprofitable 
upon the introduction of the rich ore from the 
Lake Superior region, and for that reason was 
discontinued. About 1825 the furnace prop- 
erty was purchased of Ralph Plum, the then 
owner, by Dr. Eliakim Crosby, who com- 
menced the manufacturing of plows, hoes and 
other agricultural implements. In 1827 the 
furnace property was sold to Arnold, Daniel 
and Isaac Stewart. Dr. Crosby then built a 
large grist-mill farther east on the Cuj^ahoga 
River, which he operated for a year or two, 
and then sold to Increase Sumner. 




The clay deposits in the neighborhood 
soon attracted the attention of early settlers. 
The potter's clay found in this vicinity is un- 
surpassed in quality and has made Akron's 
stoneware famous throughout the length and 
breadth of the land. Before long Akron's 
sewer-pipe was the standard for the world. 
Both the stoneware and the sewer-pipe indus- 
try were established about the same time. The 
pioneer worker in both of these fields was Ed- 
win H. Merrill, assisted by his brother, Cal- 
vin J. Merrill. He commenced, in 1847, the 
manufacture of stone bottles, jugs, smoking 
pipes and various other articlas of stoneware 
on Bank Street, in the village of Middlebury. 
Enoch Rowley was a contemporary of these 
men and conducted a successful enterprise in 
clay working for many years in the same 

In 1849 Hill, Fo.ster & Co. commenced 
making sewer-pipe. The firm consisted of 
David E. Hill, Robert Foster and Reuben 
McMillen. In 1851 the Merrill Brothers and 
Hezekiah Camp purchased the inter&st of 
Robert Foster, and the company changed its 
name to Hill, Merrill and Company. Both 
Messrs. Hill and Merrill devoted themselves 
to perfecting the process of manufacture and 
invented many new methods. In 1855 this 
company became Merrill, Powers & Company, 
composed of Eldwin H. Merrill, Calvin J. Mer- 
rill, Frank Adams and Henry G. Powers. In 
1858 the Merrills withdrew. Mr. Hill re-en- 
tered the business and the firm name was 
changed to Hill, Powers & Company. In 1859 
Hill and Adams bought out the other parties 
and continued the business until 1868, when 
the Hill and Adams Sewer Pipe Company was 
formed. This company consisted of David 
E. Hill, David L. King, Ozias Barber, Lorenzo 
Aiistin and Frank Adams. At this time there 
was only one other factory of this kind in the 
United States. In 1871 the company was re- 
organized as the Akron Sewer Pipe Company, 
with a capital of $175,000. Mr. Frank Adams 
was president and David L. King secretary 
and treasurer of the company. In 1873 

David E. Hill founded the Hill Sewer Pipe 
Company, with a capital of $80,000. In 1872 
the Buckeye Sewer Pipe Company, with a 
capital of $100,000, was organized by Joseph 
A. Baldwin. In 1879 Robinson Brothers and 
Company, with a capital of $300,000, was or- 
ganized for the purpose of operating a sewer- 
pipe factory at the Old Forge. This company 
was formed by Henry Robinson and Thomas 
Robinson. It was a nucleus for the gi'eat Rob- 
inson Clay Product Company of the present 
time. In 1889 the Summit Sewer Pipe Com- 
pany was incorporated, with a capital of $100,- 
000. It comimenced the manufacture of 
sewer-pipe on Miller Avenue in South Akron. 
Joseph A. Baldwin was its president and 
George T. Whitmore was its general manager. 
In 1850 Enoch Rowley, Edward Baker and 
Herbert Baker commenced the manufacture 
of yellowware in Middlebury. About 1852 
Thomas Johnson associated himself with the.-e 
men. In 1857 Johnson Whitmore and Com- 
pany was organized, Mr. Richard AVhitmore 
and the Robinson Brothers having succeeded 
Mr. Rowley. In 1862 the firm changed to 
Whitmore, Robinsons and Company, wliich 
continued until September, 1887, when The 
Whitmore, Robinson and Company was in- 
corporated, with a capital stock of $200,000. 
The bu.siness was continued under this name 
until 1902, when the Robinson Clay Product 
Company was incorporated under the laws of 
the State of Maine, with a capital of $2,000,- 
000. In 1861 Edwin H. Merrill and his son, 
H. E. Merrill, established the Akron pottery 
on the corner of South Main and State 
Streets. In 1880 Fred W. Butler became in- 
terested with them. In 1887 these three men 
formed the corporation known as the E. H. 
Merrill Company, with a capital stock of $50,- 
000. The company continued until they 
merged with The Robinson Clay Product 
Company in 1902. Other stoneware compa- 
nies which have done a successful business in 
Akron are the Ohio Stoneware Company (G. 
A. Parker, president; F. S. Stelker, secretary; 
E. H. Gibbs, treasurer, 227-250 Front Street), 
The United States Stoneware Company, F. W. 
Rockwell and Company, The Akron Stone- 



5 s 

o ^ 



ware Company, Markle and Inman Company 
and Fred H. Weeks. 

In 1875 Joseph C. Ewart commenced in the 
southern part of the city the manufacture of 
vitrified roofing-tile. In 1902 this company 
was incorporated under the name of the Ak- 
ron Roofing Tile Company, S. A. White, 
president; Charles E. Rowland, secretary and 
treasurer and general manager; W. B. Col- 
lins,- assistant secretary. 

There have been a number of successful 
brick manufactories in the city, among which 
are the Diamond Fire Brick Works, estab- 
lished in 1866 by J. Park Alexander. The 
business is still carried on at the corner of 
Canal and Cherry Streets in this city. The 
Akron Fire Brick Company was established in 
1873 by Byron A. Allison and Delos Hart. 
Since 1877 Mr. Allison continued the busi- 
ness alone until the incorporation of the com- 
pany in 1882, with .a capital stock of $50,000. 


Reference has been made to the small grist- 
mills which were operated in the county in 
the eai-ly days. These were, of course, of a 
very limited capacity and were destined mere- 
ly to meet the needs of the farmers in the 
surrounding territory. They brought their 
grain to these primitive mills and sometimes 
waited until it was being ground to flour. On 
account of lack of transportation facilities, lit- 
tle or no attempt was made to find a market 
for dealer.* extending outside the county. In 
1832, just after the canal was opened from 
Cleveland to Portsmouth, milling on a large 
scale was begun. The first of these large mills 
was the Old Stone Mill, which was built in 
1832 by Dr. Eliakim Cro.sby, and inter- 
ested with him in his canal projects. This 
was budlt to use the waters of the race from 
the Old Forge through the center of Main 
Street to Lock Five. In 1838 the Et/na Mills, 
located on the canal, just north of West Mar- 
ket Street, was built by Samuel A. Wheeler 
and John B. Mitchell. A year later, Joseph 
A. Beebe and William E. Wright built the 
Center Mills, ako located on the canal at 

Cherry Street. In 1840 the Cascade Mills at 
the terminus of the races on North Howard 
Street, were built by AVilliam Mitchell. A year 
or two after, George W. McNeil built the 
City Mill on West Market Street between 
Canal Street and the canal. George Ayliffe 
about the same time commenced the manufac- 
ture of cereal goods on South Main Street. 
He sold out to Carter and Steward, who con- 
tinued the business of making oatmeal until 
their mills were destroyed by fire in 1881. In 
1856 Albert Allen established the Allen Mill 
on Canal Street, south of Cherry Street. 

In 1851 Ferdinand Schumacher came to 
Akron from Germany. He was born in Celle, 
Hanover, March, 30, 1822, and came to the 
United States in 1850. He worked one year 
on a farm near Cleveland and in 1851 opened 
up a fancy goods store in the Hall block on 
the corner of Market and Howard Streets. 
His partner in this was Theodore Weibezahn. 
Their store was a very small one and fronted 
on West Market Street. It did not offer the 
inducement for advancement that Mr. Schu- 
macher desired and, accordingly, in August, 
1852, he started a small grocery store in the 
room now occupied by the Dollar Savings 
Bank. His business growing rapidly, he 
imoved to a larger stand across the street, next 
to the Empire House. In 1859 he com- 
menced making oatmeal on a very small scale 
in a frame building on Howard Street. Loyal 
to his native country, he named it the Ger- 
man Mill. Oatmeal was a new thing in this 
locality and its sale was at first very slow. The 
early deliveries were ^made in a hand-cart, and 
a humbler l>eginning could not have been 

Mr. Schumacher in a few years added the 
making of pearl barley to his line. In 1863 
he built the first of his mills on South Sum- 
mit Street, between Mill and Quarry. In 
1872 a new German Mill was built there. In 
1879 a large grain elevator was built by Mr. 
Schumacher. Then came the Big Jumbo 
mill, an eight-.story structure, devoted entire- 
ly to the making of cereals. Then a fine, stone 
office building, co.sting $80,000, was built on 
the corner of Mill and Broadway. Mr. Schu- 



macher was now the foremost miller in the 
world. The company, of which he was the 
founder and head, had reached the climax of 
prosperity, when, on the night of March 6, 
1886, the entire plant was destroyed by fire, 
entailing a loss of over a million dollars to 
the company. 

In April, 1886, just a month after the de- 
struction of the big plant by fire, the Ferdi- 
nand Schumacher Milling Company was in- 
corporated, with a capital stock of two million 
dollars. The Old Stone Mill, which had been 
operated by Cummins and Allen, was con- 
solidated with the Schumacher interests. Mr. 
Ferdinand Schumacher was made president 
of the new company. In July, 1891, the 
American Cereal Company was incorporated, 
with a capital of $3,400,000. This was com- 
posed of all the principal oatmeal mills of the 
United States. It absorbed the Hower Mill- 
ing Company of Akron. In 1907 the Quaker 
Oats Company took the place of the Ameri- 
can Cereal Company. Just after the forma- 
tion of the American Cereal Company the 
principal office was established in Chicago 
and many of Akron's best citizens were taken 
to that city on account of the change. The 
representative of the officers of the company 
at Akron is J. H. Andrews, the local super- 

In 1870 Robert Turner commenced the 
manufacture of oatmed on the corner of 
Canal and Cherry Streets. He was succeeded 
in 1879 and 1880 by The Hower Company, of 
which John H. Hower was president; Har- 
vey Y. Hower, vice-pre.sident; M. Otiis Hower, 
secretary, and Charles H. Hower, treasurer. 
At the time of their consolidation with the 
American Cereal Company they were doing 
a very large and prosperous business. 

In 1883 John F. Seiberling organized the 
Seiberling Milling Company, and built a six- 
story brick flouring mill in east Akron, which 
is now the Akron plant of the Great Western 
Cereal Companv. It was organized with a 
capital of $200,000, and had a capacity of 100 
barrels a day. The first officers were J. F. 
Seiberling, president; Lucius C. Miles, secre- 
tuTV, and Frank A. Seiberling, treasurer. In 

1901 it became a part of the Great Western 
Cereal Company, with a capital of $3,000,000. 
The Allen Mills were founded about 1845 by 
Simon Perkins, Jedediali D. Commins, Alex- 
ander H. Commins, Jesse Allen, Hiram Al- 
len and Jacob Allen. The mills were after- 
wards converted into flouring mills by the 
Perkins Company and afterwards the Allye 
and Company was formed of F. H. Allen, 
Victor J. Allen and William A. Palmer. 


At one period of its existence Akron was 
known as the "Match Town." This was on 
account of the location here of the Barber 
Match Company, which afterwards became 
the Diamond Match Company. The most 
primitive form of the match was the small, 
pine stick, coated with certain chemicals, 
which were lighted by dipping the chemical 
end in a solution of aqua-fortis. Matches aft- 
erwards were made by using a chemical com^ 
position, which could be ignited by means of 
a piece of sand-paper. Late in the thirties came 
the Loco-Foco match. Samuel A. Lane and 
James R. Miltimore were the pioneer makers 
of matches in Akron. These Loco-Foco 
matches were of pine, dipped alternately into 
melted brimstone and a phosphonis composi- 
tion. S. A. Lane and Company began mak- 
ing them in 1838. They continued the busi- 
ness onlv about a vear, finding little profit in 

In 1845 George Barber commenced the 
manufacture of matches in a small barn in 
Middleburv. This was the humble beginning 
of the great Diamond Match Company of to- 
day, with its great factories and universal 
business. Mr. Barber found the business 
profitable and made several removals, finally 
occupying the entire woolen factory which 
stood on the site of the present Goodyear Tire 
and Rubber Works. In 1865 the Barber 
Match Company was formed, with George 
Barber, president; 0. C. Barber, secretary and 
treasurer, and J. K. Robinson, general agent. 
In 1871 the Barber Match Company moved 
to South Akron to where the Diamond Rubber 



works is now located. In 1881 the Barber 
Match Company, with twenty-eight other es- 
tablishments in the United States, were incor- 
porated under the name of the Diamond 
Match Company, with a capital stock of $6,- 
000,000. Mr. 0. C. Barber was made presi- 
dent of this company and John K. Robinson, 
treasurer. Today the Diamond Match Com- 
pany is one of the great industrial corpora- 
tions of the world, and the most credit for its 
success is due to the Akron man, Ohio Colum- 
bus Barber, who has been its president since 
its inception. 

In 1879 the Miller Match Company was 
formed for the manufacture of parlor matches 
in the building which formerly stood just 
west of the old plant oif the B. F. Goodrich 
Company. It wa^ organized bv Harvev F. 
Miller and S. S. Miller. Col. A. L. Conger 
was its president. In 1885 it was incorporated 
with a capital stock of $100,000. In 1888 it 
was sold to the Diamond Match Company. 


The Buckeye Mower and Reaper Works : In 
1864 a branch of the A. Aultman Company, 
of Canton, w^as established in Akron and th« 
manufacture of inowers and reapers was com- 
menced in the great plant along the railroad;? 
at the corner of Center Street. A separate 
company was then formed to conduct the 
business and was known as Aultman, Miller 
and Company. Lewis Miller was the general 
superintendent of the works from the begin- 
ning, and, under his able direction, the com- 
pany grew to be one of the largest institu- 
tions of its kind in the country. Much of 
the Buckeye machine was the invention of 
Mr. Miller himself. G. "W. Crouse was presi- 
dent; Ira Miller, .secretary, and R. H. Wright, 
treasurer. The company continued to do a 
prosperous business until about 1902, when 
the organization of the International Harves- 
ter Company deprived the local company of 
its opportunity to compete on equal groimds. 
In 1905 a receiver for the company was ap- 
pointed and the entire a.ssets were sold to the 
International Harvester Company, by order of 

the court. The litigation over the failure of 
the Aultman, Miller Company is still (in 
1907) pending. 

In 1865 John F. Seiberling organized the 
J. F. Seiberling Company and established the 
Empire Mower and Reaper Works on the 
railroad, near Mill Street. Mr. Seiberling 
had been a druggist in Akron and in 1858 
had invented the Excelsior mower and reaper, 
with a dropper attachment. In 1861 he com- 
menced the manufacture of them at Doyles- 
town. In 1864 he began the manufacture in 
Massillon, and in 1865 brought the industry 
to Akron. A large business was soon e.stab- 
lished and very extensive shops were erected. 
In the panic of 1873 the company was unable 
to weather the storm and an assigne in in- 
solvency took possession of the plant. When 
the Excelsior plant was sold, Mr. Seiberling 
purchased it and organized a new company, 
entitled the J. F. Seiberling Company, with 
himself as president; F. A. Seiberling, secre- 
tary and treasurer, and Charles W. Seiberling 
as superintendent. Capital stock was $160.- 
000, and the plant was known as the Empire 
Works. The business at first was successful, 
and Mr. Seiberling reaped a large fortune. In 
the year 1900 business began to fail and ul- 
timately an 'assignee was appointed by order 
of court and the business wound up. The old 
Empire plant was afterwards occupied by 
the India Rubber Company and still Later by 
the Fiebeger Heating Company. 

The Akron Iron Company was established 
by Lewis Miller and other parties intere.sted 
in the Aultman, Miller Company in 1866. 
Large rolling mills were built on the railroads 
south of Exchange Street. Upon its reorgani- 
zation in the year 1900 the company was 
known by the title of the Akron Iron and 
Steel Company, with a large part of its capital 
stock held in the East. Stress of competition 
overwhelmed it, and finally its business was 
wound up, and the plant sold to the railroad 
.companies. The old site is now a part of the 
Akron yards of the Erie railroad. 

In September, 1886, the Selle Gear Com- 
pany was incor{3orated with a capital stock of 
$100,000. George W. Crouse was its presi- 



dent; F. M. Atterholt, vice-president, and W. 
C. Parsons, secretary and treasurer. A large 
factory was built on Chestnut Street, corner 
of High, and the company began the manu- 
facture of the Selle patented platform gear 
for wagons. In 1906 it became the Akron- 
Selle Company, with M. Otis Hower as presi- 
dent and general manager ; H. Y. Ho\ter, vice- 
president; H. A. Paul, secretary, and E. R. 
Held, treasurer. Under the able manage- 
ment of M. Otis Hower, a very large busi- 
ness is being built up, and there are good 
reasons for believing that, in a very short 
time, this concern will be one of the largest 
maufacturing institutions of the city. 

The Akron Belting Company was incor- 
porated in 1885 by George W. Crouse, Alfred 
M. Barber and Sumner Nash. Its first plant 
was on North Main Street, where the Grand 
Opera Hou.'^e is now located. They are mak- 
ing a very superior quality of leather belting 
of all sizes. Upon the vacation of the Allen 
Mills on Canal Street, this company moved 
into them and ha.s continued to do busines.* at 
that stand since. The pra'^ent officers are : A. 
B. Rhinehart, president; Sumner, vice- 
president; George Wince, secretary and treas- 
urer, and Webster Thorpe, .-iuperintendent. 


In 1872 Thomas Phillips and Company 
commenced the manufacture of paper on the 
Ohio Canal at West Exchange Street. Their 
business consisted of making paper bags, flour 
sacks, wrapping paper, etc., and a very large 
business has been built up. In 1887 The 
Thomas Phillips Company was incorporated 
with a capital stock of $150,000. G. W. 
Crouse was its president and Clarence How- 
land, secretarj^ and general manager. The 
present officers are F. D. Howland, president ; 
F. A. Seiberling. vice-president; G. D. How- 
land, secretary, and F. A. Howland, treasurer 
and general manager. 

In 1885 the Akron Twine and Cordage 
Company was organized by the directors of 
the Aultman, Miller Company. G. W. Crouse 
was its president; Ira M. Miller, vice-president. 

and R. H. Wright, secretary and treasurer. A 
large factory was built on Hdll Street just east 
of the railroads. Rope and cordage of all 
kinds was manufactured. .V specialty was 
made of binder twine. When hard times fell 
upon the Buckeye Mower and Reaper Works, 
the Twine and Cordage Company became in- 
volved in the trouble and for a long time they 
did not run. But at the present time they are 
being operated under the direction of the In- 
ternational Harvester Company, which pur- 
chased the assets of the Aultman, Miller Com- 

In 1878 Edward George Kubler and John 
Martin Beck founded what has been known 
as the Akron Varnish Works. They are 
manufacturers of varnishes. Japans and other 
similar products. They commenced in a hu'm- 
ble way in a .small building on Bowery Street, 
and afterwards built a large brick factory on 
West State Street, where they still are engaged 
in the .same busin&ss. In 1882 David L. King 
organized the King Varnish Company, and 
built a large, six-story brick factory on Canal 
Street, just north of Market. The business 
■proved unprofitable and an assignment was 
made. In 1889 David R. Paige bought the 
business, associating John H. McCrum with 
him. Upon the destruction of the factory by 
fie, the company was merged with the Kubler 
and Beck Company, under the name of the 
Akron Varnish Company. The officers are: 
E. G. Kubler, president : J. M. Beck, vice-pres- 
ident and treasurer; E. M. Beck, secretary; F. 
W. Whitner, assistant treasurer; F. A. Fauver, 

In 1870 John W. Baker and John C. Mc- 
Millen established the Baker-McMillen Com- 
pany and commenced the manufacture of 
enameled knobs, handles, etc. In July, 1890, 
the Baker-McMillen Company was incorpo- 
rated with a capital of $120,000, and a very 
large busine&s was built up. The present of- 
ficers are: H. B. Sperr^^, president and treas- 
urer; W. H. Stoner, secretary and general 

The firs4. planing mill was e«tabli.shed in 
Akron in 1832 by Smith Burton in Middle- 
bury. In 1836 James Bangs started a shingle 



mill near the corner of Main and Federal 
Streets. Samuel G. AVilson bought him out, 
and a few years later established a shingle 
mill and lumber yard on Main Street, just 
south of Howard. A few years later Mr. Wil- 
son took in Justus Rockwell and they bought 
out the lumber yard of W. B. Storer, which 
had been established on North Main Street. 
Mr. Samuel G. Wilson was thus the pioneer 
lumber dealer of Akron. In 1865 he inter- 
ested himself with William B. Doyle, Samuel 
Farnum and John H. Dix, and they organ- 
ized the firm of W. B. Doyle and Company. 
In 1S67 Hon. John Johnson bought the in- 
terest of Mr. AVilson. In 1873 Mr. Johnson 
retired and the business was conducted by the 
other parties, until the death of Mr. Dix in 
1886, and the retirement of Mr. Farnum in 
1888, when the business was carried on by 
Mr. Doyle. Upon his death, August 6, 1890, 
this pioneer company ceased to exist. 

In 1845 David Miller established a na'^h, 
door and blind factory, which was purchased 
by D. G. Wilcox in 1866. In 1864 he formed 
a partnership with Samuel B. Weary, Jacob 
Snyder and Andrew Jackson, under the firm 
name of AVeary, Snyder and Company. In 
1867 the company was incorporated and con- 
tinued to do business until the destruction of 
the plant by fire about five years ago. 

In 1863 George Thomas established the 
Thomas Building and Lumber Company, 
with works on the west side of the canal, be- 
tween Bank and Cherry Streets. In 1877 
David AV. Thomas succeeded to the business. 
In 1888 he organized the corporation with a 
capital stock of $100,000. The new company 
also took possession of the lumber business 
thereftofore conducted by AVilliam Buchtel. 

In 1867 the business of Solon N. AVilson 
was established, and he is now doing a suc- 
cessful business in lumber and contracting. 
The Hankey Lumber Company was estab- 
lished in 1873 by Simon Hankey. 

The Enterprise Manufacturing Company 
is one of Akron's most successful manufactur- 
ing establishments. It was founded in 1881 
by Ernest F. Pflueger, and was incorporated 
in 1886 for the purpose of making fishing 

supplies, etc. It has grown from the start, un- 
til it now occupies the great factory of Ash 
Street. The present officers are: G. A. 
Pflueger, president; G. E. Pflueger, vice-presi- 
dent and superintendent; E. A. Pflueger, sec- 
retary and treasurer, and H. A. West, assist- 
ant secretary and treasurer. 

The Western Linoleum Company was in- 
corporated January 1, 1891, with a capital of 
$200,000. A. M. Cole was its first president; 
AA^. E. Hoover, secretary and treasurer, and 
Charles Templeton, general superintendent. 
They are now a part, of the Standard Table Oil 
Cloth Company. E. A. Oviatt is the local 

The Globe Sign and Poster Company began 
business as the Globe Sign Company, and 
was incorporated in 1890. John Grether, S. 
S. Miller, Frank Reefsnyder, AV. B. Gamble 
and H. G. Bender were its first organizers. 


The B. F. Goodrich Con>pany. Akron is 
best known today as the world's center for 
the rubber manufacturing industry. It is the 
chief of all our industries. It has more capi- 
tal inve,sted, more hands employed, larger fac- 
tories, and a larger value of output than any 
other line of manufacture in the city. Most 
of this growth has taken place in the last 
twelve years; all of it .since 1870. The origin 
of rubber-working in Akron goes back to the 
advent of Dr. B. F. Goodrich in our midst. 
The date is 1870. He was the original rubber 
mam of Akron, and without him there probab- 
ly would have been no rubber industry here. 
In 1870 Dr. B. F. Goodrich came from the 
East and a.ssooiated himself with Colonel 
George T. Perkins, George AA^. Crouse and 
others of this city, and started what was then 
known as B. F. Goodrich and Company — ^the 
Akron Rubber AA^orks. The business slowly 
grew and prospered until in 1880 a co-partner- 
ship was formed and the business incorpo- 
rated under the name of The B. F. Goodrich 
Company, with a capitalization of $100,000. 
The growth of the company was continuous 
from that time on and the capital was in- 



creased from time to time as the demands of 
the business required, until at present the 
capitalization of the company is $10,000,000. 

Dr. Goodrich remained president of tlie 
company until 1888, the time of his death, 
when Colonel George T. Perkins succeeded 
him, holding the position until January 15, 
1907. The present officer are: B. G. Work, 
president; F. H. Mason, vice-president; II. E. 
Raymond, second vice-president; C. B. Ray- 
mond, secretary; W. A. Folger, treasurer; AV. 
A. Means, assistant treasurer ; E. C. Shaw, gen- 
eral manager of works ; C. C. Goodrich, gen- 
eral superintendent, and H. E. Joy, assistant 
general superintendent. The directors are 
Colonel George T. Perkins, F. H. Mason, B. 
G. Work, H. E. Raymond, E. C. Shaw, George 
W. and C. C. Goodrich. 

The product oif the company consists of a 
full line of soft rubber goods, such a belting, 
hose, packings, druggists' sundry goods, golf 
balls,- tennis balls, automobile and bicycle 
tires, carriage tires, molded goods, mats, boots 
and shoes. The factory buildings cover an area 
of sixteen and one-half acres of floor space on 
fifteen and one-half acres of ground, and 
the buildings are lighted by over 8,000 incan- 
descent lamp.s and one hundred arc lights. 
The power plant has a generating capacitv of 
3,500 K. W., and a boiler -capacity of 6,Cm 
H. P., 4,500 H. P. of -motors being used to 
drive the machinery throughout the plant. 
The company has 3,300 people in its employ. 

Diamond Rubber Company. In 1898 the 
Diamond Rubber Company was unknown out- 
side of a limited circle of trade. With a oapi- 
talization of $50,000, it was manufacturing a 
modest line of mechanical rubber goods and 
tires — then, as now, in competition with con- 
cerns powerful in productive and brain ca- 
pacity. And ati that time, too, the majority 
of competing companies were rich with the 
prestige which long established business rela- 
tion? give. Still the Diamond Rubber Com- 
pany grew. 

The present canitalization of the concern is 
$5,000,000, but the real extent of its growth 
and the rapid increase of its strength are l>et- 
ter .shown by other comparisons. Two hun- 

dred and fifty was the number of the com- 
pany's employes in 1898. Twenty-!?even hun- 
dred and twenty is the number in 1907, with 
the quota of brains per capita also increased. 

Crude rubber was brought by cases of 500 
pounds each by this company seven years ago. 
Now single purchases amount to as much as 
200 tons. For four years the mill rooms of 
the Diamond Rubber Company have been in 
operation night and day the year around. 
Their equipment in 1898 included seven mills 
and two calenders. Today, with twenty-seven 
mills and seven calenders, it is only by keep- 
ing every wheel constantly turning that stocks 
can be made ready fast enough. 

An engine capacity of 250 horse-power, 
whicli was sufficient seven years ago, has 
steadily increased until today the capacity is 
2,050 horse-power and every ounce of pressure 

If every day for ten years, Sundays in- 
cluded, the factories of the Diamond Rubber 
Company had expanded 95 square feet, the 
total would still fall short of equaling the 
extensions in new buildings and additions the 
company has erected within that time. And 
the ground area used is now eighteen acres, 
as compared with less than six acres in 1898. 

Seven years ago the Diamond Rubber Com- 
pany had no branch establishments: they 
were not necessary. Today the company has 
its own branches in twelve principal cities, 
with three stores in New York and two in 
Chicago, besides exclusive agencies in many 
other business centers. 

Hose holds a conspicuous place in the prod- 
ucts of the company, and is a department hav- 
ing .several extensive sub-divisions. Air-brake 
hose is the most prominent in the line of its 
products for the railroad trade. From a small 
beginning their production of air-brake hose, 
made to Master Car Builders' Recommended 
Practice, or their own, or other specifications, 
has grown to an average of nearly 2.000 pieces 
per dav, made with such care and precision 
that the percentage of rejected goods has 
cea.sed to be a factor — a remarkable achieve- 

The steam hose problem is another whose 



solution, in a manner distinctlj' gratifying, 
not only to the company, but to the trade, con- 
tributed directly to the growth of the com- 
pany. And. furthermore, the mastery of the 
art of making steam hose was in itself the 
overcoming of the long-vexing car-heating 
hose problem as well. Both are now a notable 
part of their daily output, with an increase in 
these and allied lines, such as signal hose, cor- 
rugated tender hose, etc., steadily indicated 
from month to month. 

Another division of the hose department 
which has similarly expanded is that devoted 
to water hose, tank hose and kindred kinds. 
Hose for fire protection is a subject so impor- 
tant that they regularly divide it into three 
classifications — rubber fire ho.*e, cotton jacket 
rubber-lined fire hose, and cotton jacket rub- 
ber-lined mill hose. There is not a day in the 
year — Sundays always excepted — that their 
own looms are not roaring with industry in 
the weaving of fire and mill hose jackets from 
their own tested yarn. Their sales of garden, by the way, where formerly measured 
yearly by the thousands of feet, are now com- 
puted by the millions. 

Belting constitutes a large department in 
the Diamond factories, and in seven years the 
output has doubled and doubled again, one of 
the various additions erected within that pe- 
riod having been expressly to provide greater 
space and facilities for the belt department. 

Six hand used to keep up with the 
demand for moulded goods made by the com- 
pany. Today ten times six and all hydraulic 
presses are necessary. Hard rubber has been 
a part of the Diamond Rubber Company's 
product for only a few years, but today the 
department would make by itself a factory of 
creditable size. The output Is confined large- 
ly to battery jars, sheets, rods and tubing, re- 
insulating tape, etc. 

Tires — last, but by no means least. Dia- 
mond detachable clincher tires for automo- 
biles are the equipment on a very large per- 
centage of all motor cars used in this countr\'. 
Diamond .solid side wire motor truck tires and 
Diamond solid and cushion tires for lighter 
commercial vehicles and carriages are scarce- 

ly less well known. The annual business of 
this eompaey in its tire department mounts 
well into the millions of dollars and has made 
necessary the erection of one of the largest 
structures on earth devoted to rubber tire man- 

The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. 
Frank A. Seiberling purchased the Woolen 
and Felt Company plant in June, 1898, and 
immediately thereafter caused to be organized 
The Goodvear Tire & Rubber Company, with 
an authorized capital of $200,000, $90,000 
paid in, the officers being David E. Hill, pres- 
ident; George Hill, vice president: H. B. 
]\Ianton, treasurer; Charles W. Seiberling. sec- 
retary; F. A. Seiberling, general manager. 
The above, with Byron W. Robinson and L. 
C. Mills constituted the first board of direc- 
tors. The work of installation of machinery 
and equipping the plant was immediately un- 
dertaken and vigorously prosecute so that by 
December, 1898, the mill was put in opera- 
tion. The business was a success from the 
start, the company readily securing sufficient 
orders to keep them operating to their full 

The following year Mr. R. C. Pen field ac- 
quired the interests of the Hills, becoming 
president of the company. One hundred 
thousand dollars of new capital was put into 
the business at that time, wdiich, with a stock 
dividend declared out of profits, made the 
paid-up capital $200,000. The business stead- 
ily increased under the impiilse of additional 
capital, so that in 1902 the authorized capital 
was increased to one million dollars, $500,000 
of which was paid up, partly in ca^h and part- 
ly in stock dividends. 

Each year extensive additions were made to 
the plant until its capacity today is fully four 
times greater than w^hen first started, and the 
company is handling a business more than 
five times greater in volume. 

Its present officers are: F. A. Seiberling, 
president and general manager: L. C. Miles, 
vice-president; George M. Stadelman, secre- 
tarv ; Charles W. Seiberling, treasurer. 

The history of the company has been one 
of .steady progress and is marked by an im- 



portant patent litigation that affected the en- 
tire carriage tire industry of the United States. 
The Goodyear Company was operating under 
a patent owned by it for the mvanufacture of a 
certain type of solid carriage tire, which the 
owners of the Grant patent claimed was an in- 
fringement upon their rights. Up to the time 
that the Goodyear Company entered their field 
the Grant patent had had a complete monop- 
oly of the rubber tire industry of the United 
States. In a bitter contest involving a large 
expenditure on both sides, extending over a 
period of two years' time, the United States 
Court of Appeals decided the Grant patent in- 
valid, opening the market in this country to 
anyone who desired to make rubber tires of 
their type. As a result, twenty-five manufac- 
turers in this country are now making the 
Grant type of tire, though The Goodyear Tire 
& Rubber Company is probably making more 
solid rubber carriage tires than any other one 
concern in the United States, turning out as 
much as six tons per day in the height of the 

They are also large manufacturers of pneu- 
matic bicycle and automobile tires, and with- 
in the past two years have brought out a quick 
detachable tire upon their Universal rim, 
which promises to revolutionize the method 
of attaching and detaching tires in this coun- 
try. As a result of their initiative, all of the 
leading concerns are working and are bring- 
ing out devices for accomplishing the same 
ends. They now employ over a million dol- 
lars of capital, and 800 men, with a volume 
of business approximating $3,000,000 an- 


The Werner Company, book manufacturers, 
lithographerss, general printers and engravers, 
publishers of the new Werner edition of the 
Encyclopedia Britannica. Paul E. Werner 
started in the printing business as publisher 
of the Akron Germania in 1875 on the third 
floor of the building on Howard Street, ad- 
joining the southeast corner of Howard and 
Market Streets, then owned bv E. Steinbacher. 

In 1877 he removed his business to the sec- 
ond floor of the Kramer building, also on 
Howard Street. In 1879 he occupied a frame 
building on Howard Street, which stood where 
the Arcade building now stands, and added 
the publication of the Sunday Gazette. In 
1881 he removed to the southeast corner of 
Howard and Mill Streets and added to his 
business the publication of the Daily arid 
Weekly Tribune. In 1883 he removed his 
business to a three-story frame building spe- 
cially fitted up for him, which stood where the 
large mill of the American Cereal Company 
now stands on Howard Street. In 1885 James 
Christy erected a four-story brick bulling es- 
pecially for him on Howard Street, directly 
south of the big mill. By that time the com- 
mercial printing part of the business had 
grown to larger dimensions. 

Paul E. Werner realized that the field in 
the newspaper business in a town of the size 
of Akron was very limited, and disposed of 
his newspapers. About 100 people were em- 
ployed in that building. Very soon these 
quarters were too small for the continually 
growing business. In 1887 the Werner Print- 
ing and Lithographing Company was organ- 
ized, larger capital was procured, and a large 
tract of land, located at the corner of Perkins 
and Union Streets (the present location of 
the company's factory) was then purchased 
for the purpose of erecting buildings special- 
ly designed and equipped for the manufactur- 
ing of books on a large scale, and of printed, 
lithographed and engraved articles in gen- 
eral. The business continued to grow very 
rapidly and new buildings w^ere added every 
year for a number of years, until at the pres- 
ent time the Werner Company occupies the 
following buildings: Three buildings each 
300 feet long, forty feet wide; three buildings 
each 200 feet long, fifty feet wide ; three build- 
ings each 100 feet long, fifty feet wide; one 
building, seventy-five feet long, thirty feet 
wide; one building, eighty feet long, forty 
feet wide, and a number of other small build- 
ings, all equipped with the most modem ma- 
chinery required for the manufacturing of 
books and other printed, lithographed and en- 








I— I 








graved products. The capital invested in and 
required in the conduct of the business of The 
Werner Company is very large and amounts 
to over $3,000,000. 

In 1907 the officers of this company are as 
follows: P. E. Werner, president and gen- 
eral manager; R. M. Werner, vice-president 
and assistant treasurer; C. I. Bruner, treas- 
urer; Karl Kendig, secretary; H. M. Huddles- 
ton, assistant secretary; Edward P. Werner, 
general superintendent. 

The Werner Company is by far the largest 
and most complete book factory on the Ameri- 
can continent. It comprises under one roof, 
so to speak, and under one management, all 
the graphic arts and trades. 

It furnishes directly and indirectly material 
oneans of livelihood for four or five thousand 
Akron inhabitants. The great majority of the 
employees of the Werner Company are skilled 
in trades and arts and receive high compensa- 

During the year 1906 the works of The 
Werner Company were in uninterrupted oper- 
ation, and a great part of the time worked 
thirteen hours daily. During that year this 
company purchased and received raw mate- 
rials and shipped finished products rep- 
resenting the full capacity of one thousand 
two hundred railroad cars. The products in- 
cluded more than 3,000,000 large books; more 
than 15,000,000 large and finely illastrated 
catalogues made for the largest manufacturing 
concerns of this country, and millions of other 
printed, lithographed and engraved articles. 

If the books alone which were manufac- 
tured by The Werner Company last year were 
laid on a pile, one on the top of the other, this 
pile would reach ninety-.six miles into the air. 
If these books were laid side by side they 
would constitute a line 500 miles long. 

The raw materials consumed during the 
past year comprise 3,500 different kinds. The 
largest consumption is in paper, cloth, leather, 
gold and ink. If the paper consumed during 
the past year were laid in sheets side by side, 
they would reach around the world four times. 
The binders' cloth consumed measured 5.000,- 
000 square feet. The different kinds of 

leather consumed required the skins of 25,000 
cattle, 30,000 sheep and 36,000 Persian and 
Morocco goats. Over 3,000,000 leaves of gold 
were consumed. While the principle product 
of this factory is books. The Werner Com- 
pany has a world-wide reputation for furnish- 
ing fine commercial work, typographic as well 
as lithographic, catalogues of every descrip- 
tion. Of this particular kind of product it 
makes more than any other concern in the 
United States. 


The Whitman & Barnes Manufacturing 
Company, manufacturers of mowing and reap- 
ing machine knives, sickles, sections and parts 
of cutting apparatus, "Diamond" twist 
drills, reamers and collateral lines, wood 
handle and drop forged wrenches, lawn mow- 
ers, haying tools, such as hay carriers, forks, 
pulleys, etc., spring keys and cotters, rubber 
pad horse-shoes, hammers, planer knives and 
cutters for wood-working machinery. In 1848 
the predecessors and founders of the present 
corporation. The Whitman & Barnes Manu- 
facturing Company, commenced in a very 
small way to make knives and sickles for mow- 
ing and reaping machines. They were the 
first in this country to engage in the manufac- 
ture of these parts. From the small begin- 
ning in 1848 this firm has advanced and in- 
creased until now it has three factories — one 
at Akron, Ohio, occupied exclusively in the 
manufacture of Diamond twist drills and col- 
lateral lines; one at Chicago, 111., at which fac- 
tory they manufacture knives and sections, 
wrenches, lawn mowers, hay tools, spring keys 
and cotters, and rubber-pad horse shoes; one 
at St. Catharines, Ontario, where they manu- 
facture knives and sections, hammers, haying 
tools, planer knives and cutters for wood-work- 
ing machinery. Their factories are equipped 
with the most modem machinery, and they 
employ a very large number of skilled me- 
chanics, which enables them to produce goods 
equal to any upon the market, and at a price 
which allows them to compete successfully in 



the trade. Thedr brands are extensively 
known, not only in this country, but in all 
foreign countries, and their trademark, "Dia- 
mond W. & B.," is a trade name the world 
over and a guarantee of the quality of the 
goods manufactured. 

In the past two years they have materially 
changed their manner and way of handling 
their business with the trade, abolishing their 
branch-house system for the purpose of ally- 
ing themselves directly with the jobbing trade. 
This change meets with the hearty approval 
of the jobbere over the country, and thej' are 
fast associating themselves with this company 
in handling their large line of products. 

The Akron factory is managed by George 
A. Barnes, who has been long associated with 
the company. The Chicago factorv^ is man- 
aged by AV. H. Eager. The St. Catharines 
factory is managed by W. W. Cox, who has 
been for many years an officer of the company, 
and who stands very high, not only in the 
States, but in Canada. A. D. Armitage, who 
also has been connected with this company for 
many years, is general manager of manufac- 

The officers of the company are: C. E. Shel- 
don, president; W. W. Cox, vice-president; 
Prank H. Hiscock, second vice-president; 
Wm. Stone, treasurer; C. E. Caskey, assistant 
treasiirer: James Barnes, secretary; W. H. Gif- 
ford, chairman ; Frank Hiscock, general coun- 
sel. The directors are C. E. Sheldon, George 
T. Perkins, George C. Kohler, C. T. Bruner, 
George A. Barnes, all of Akron, Ohio; Frank 
H. Hiscock, William Stone, W. H. Gifford, 
Syracuse, New York; W. W. Cox, St. Cath- 

Milton Otis Howor was born in Doylestown, 
Wayne County, Ohio, November 25, 1859, and 
i? a son of John H. and Su.san Yongker 
Hower. He attended school in Doylestown 
and was subsequently a pupil in the Akron 
public schools and at Buchtel College. . He 
began his business career as secretary of The 
Hower Company, proprietors of the Akron 
Oatmeal Mills. These mills were afterward 
consolidated with the American Cereal Com- 
pany, of which Mr. Hower l)ecame director. 

vice-president and chairman of the Executive 
Committee. In 1894 he removed to Chicago, 
where the general office of the American 
Cereal Company is located, but after remain- 
ing there six years, he returned to Akron, He 
is president of The Akron-Selle Company, 
The Lombard-Replogle Engineering Com- 
pany, Akron Wood-Working Company, Ak- 
ron Hi-Potential Porcelain Company, San- 
dasky Grille and Manufacturing Company, 
Jahant Heating Company, The Bannock Coal 
Company, Hower Power-Building Company; 
vice-president, of The Central Savings and 
Trust Company ; director of the Akron Home 
Building and Loan Association, and director 
of the Akron Canal and Hydraulic Company. 
Mr. Hower was married November 16, 1880, 
to Blanche Eugenia Bruot, daughter of Jamies 
F. and Rosalie Bruot. They have two chil- 
dren, Grace Susan Rosalie Hower (now Mrs. 
Paul E. Findlay) and John Bruot Hower. 
The family residence is at No. 60 Fir Street. 


The Ab.stract, Title-Guarantee & Trust 
Companv, 124 South Mmn ; incorporated, 
1892 ; capital, $30,000. 

The Actual Business College Company, 616 
Hamilton Building; incorporated. 1905; cap- 
ital, $10,000. 

The Akron Belting Company, 74 South 
Canal; incorporated, 1895; capital, $100,000. 

The Akron Brewing Company, 865 South 
High; incorporated, 190-3; capital, $125,000. 
The Akron Building & Loan Association, 130 
South Main; organized, 1888; capital, $5,- 

The Carriage and Implement Company, 67- 
71 West Market; incorporated, 1904; capital, 

The Akron China Company, corner of Sec- 
ond Avenue and Baltimore & Ohio Railroad; 
incorporated, 1894; capital, $150,000. 

The Akron Clay Company, 1010 East Mar- 
ket: incorporated, 1904. 

The Akron Coal Company, 26 Central Of- 
fice Building: incorporated, 1891; capital, 



The Akron Cultivator Company, 214 North 
Union; incorporated, 1889; capital, $1,000,- 

The .Vkron Democrat Company, 92 East 
Mill; incorporated, 1892; capital, $25,000. 

Akron Electrical Manufacturing Company, 
Ira Avenue; incorporated, 1891; capital, 

The Akron Excelsior Laundry Company, 
62 South High; incorporated, 1903; capital, 

The Akron Extract and Chemical Com- 
pany, 184 South Main: incorporated, 1903; 
capital, $35,000. 

The Akron Fertilizer Company, ofRce 516- 
519 Everett Building; incorporated, 1900; 
capital, $25,000. 

Akron Fire Brick Company, 1057 Bank; 
incorporated, 1882; capital, $50,000. 

The Akron Fireproof Construction Com- 
pany, 285 Park; incorporated, 1901; capital, 

The Akron Foundry Company, 526 Wash- 
ington; incorporated, 1894; capital, $25,000. 

The Akron Gas Company, 59 Ea'it Market; 
incorporated (III). 1891 ;' capital, $400,000. 

The Akron Germania Company, 124 South 
Howard; established 1869: incorporated, 
1889; capital, $25,000. 

The Akron Glass and Machinery Company, 
12 East Market: incorporated, 1901; capital, 

The Akron Grocery- Company. 117 East 
Mill: incorporated, 1889; capital, $100,000. 

The Akron Laundry- Company, 77 South 
High; incorporated, 1900; capital, $30,000. 

The Akron Machine Company, 1069 Bank; 
incorporated, 1891: capital, $100,000. 

The Akron Manufacturing Company. 929 
South High: incorporated, 1898 and 1905; 
capital. $50,000. 

The Akron Odd Fellows Temple Company, 
80 South Main: incorporated, 1895: capital, 

Akron Oil Companv, Arcade Block; incor- 
porated fW. Va.), 1899: capital, $20,000. 

The Akron People'.? Telephone Company. 
232 Hamilton Building: incorporated, 1899: 
capital, $500,000. 

The Akron Press Publishing Company, foot 
of Mill; incorporated, 1900; capital, $10, 

The Akron Printing and Paper Company, 
128-132 South Howard: incorporated, 1904; 
Ciipital, $60,000. 

The Akron Provision Company, 135 South 
Main; incorporated, 1903; capital, $25,000. 
The Akron Pure Milk Company, 265 Bow- 
ery; incorporated, 1903; capital, $10,000. 

The Akron Reahy Company, 1120 South 
Main; incorporated. 1900; capital, $150,000. 

The Akron Roofing Company, 10 East Ex- 
change; incorporated, 1905; capital, $5,000. 

The Akron Roofing Tile Company, 754 
Brook; incorporated, 1902; capital, $105,000. 
. The Akron Rubber Company, Rubber 
Street; incorporated, 1890; capital,'$10,000. 

The Akron Rubber Shoe Company, Rubber 
Street; incorporated, 1905. 

The Akron-Selle Company, 455 South 
High; incorporated, 1903; capital, $100,000. 

The Akron Sewer Pipe Companv, 999 East 
Market ; established 1848 ; cai)ital, $300,000. 

The Akron Skating Rink Company, 268 
East Market: incorporated, 1905; capital, 

The Akron Soap Company, Cuyahoga 
Street Extension: incorporated, 1904: capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

The Akron Tent and Awning Company, 
163 South Main : incorporated, 1891 ; capital, 

The Akron "\^arni=h Company, 254 South 
Main : incorporated. 1897 ; capital, $250,000. 

The Akron Wall Plaster Company, 994 
and 996 EcTst Market: incorporated.' 1901; 
capital. $50,000. 

The Akron Water Works Company, comer 
Howard and Cherrv: organized 1880; capital, 

The Aladdin Rubber Company. 39 Arcade 
Block; incorporated. 1905; capital, $100,000. 

The Alkali Rubber Company, 115 Jack- 
.son ; incorporated, 1904 : capital, $10,000,000. 

The Aluminum Flake Company. 428 Ham- 
ilton Building: incorporated (Maine) 1903: 
capital, $500,000. 

The American Scrap Iron Company, 10 



West Buchtel Avenue; incorporated, 1904; 
capital, $50,000. 

The Angelo Andrew Paint and Vamish 
Company, 182 South Main; incorporated, 
1901 ; capital, $10,000. 

The Arcturus Lithia Springs Company, 
130 South Main; incorporated, 1904; capi- 
tal, $15,000. 

The Atlantic Foundry Company, 62 
Cherry; incorporated, 1905; capital, $10,000. 

The Automatic Clutch Company, Ira Ave- 
nue; incorporated, 1905; capital, $120,000. 

The Baker-McMillen Company, 17 Bow- 
ery; incorporated, 1890; capital, $120,000. 

The Beacon Journal Company, 145 South 
Main; established 1839; capital, $80,000. 

The Biggs Boiler Works Company, 1007 
Bank; incorporated, 1900; capital, $75,000 

The Brew.ster Coal Company, 444 South 
Main; organized 1876; capital, $50,000. 

The Braner-Goodhue-Cooke Company, 130 
South Main ; incorporated, 1897 ; capital, $50,- 

The Buckeye Chemical Company, Doyle 
Block; established 1882; incorporated, 1901. 

The Buckeye Loan Company, 429 Dobson 
Building ; incorporated, 1905 ; capital, $10,- 

Buckeye Rubber Company, corner Cook and 
Third Avenue; incorporated, 1900; capital, 

The Buckeye Sewer Pipe Company, 887 
East Exchange; organized 1872; capital, 

The Burger Iron Company, 42 East South; 
incorporated, 189G; capital, $25,000. 

The M. Burkbardt Brewing Company, 513 
Grant; incorporated, 1902. 

The Burt Manufacturing Company, 47 
Central Savings & Trust Building; incorpo- 
rated, 1902 ; capital, $50,000. 

The L. W. Camp Companv, 285 Park ; in- 
corporated, 1902; capital, $20,000. ' 

The Central Savings & Trust Company, 90 
South Main; incorporated. 1904; capital and 
.surplus, $200,000. 

The Chaiuite Cement & Clay Product Com- 
pany, 1004 Market; incorporated 
(Maine), 1904; capital, $4,500,000. 

Colonial Salt Company, Kenmore; incor- 
porated (New Jersey), 1901; capital, $350,- 

The Colonial Sign & Insulator Company, 
corner Grant and Morgan ; incorporated, 
1904; capital, $50,000. 

The Columbia Coal Company, 26 Central 
Office Building; incorporated, 1903; capital, 

The Columbia Insulator Company, 1007 
Bank ; incorporated, 1902 ; capital, $25,000. 

The Commercial Printing Company, 46- 
52 North Main ; incorporated, 1899 ; capital, 

The Crown Drilling Machine Company, 67 
East Thornton ; incorporated, 1904 ; capital, 

The M. T. Cutter Company, 10 South 
Howard; incorporated, 1905. 

The Day Drug Company, 10 South How- 
ard; incorporated, 1905; capital, $15,000. 

The Dentist Dental Rubber Company, 102 
Hamilton Building; incorporated, 1906; capi- 
tal, $100,000. 

The Diamond Rubber Company, Falor 
Street; established, 1894; incorporated, 1901; 
capital, $3,500,000. 

The Dickson Tran.sfer Companv, 24 North 
High; incorporated, 1892; capital, $100,000. 

The Dime Savings Bank Company, corner 
Howard and Mill; incorporated, 1890; capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

The Dobson Building Company, 330 Dob- 
son Building; incorporated, 1905. 

The Dollar Sa\"ings Bank Company, 12 
East Market ; incorporaited, 1903 ; capital, 

The Enterprise Manufacturing Company, 
217 Ash; established, 1881; incorporated, 
1886; capital, $50,000. 

The W. H. Evans Building and Loan As- 
sociation, con:ier Howard and Mill ; incorpo- 
rated, 1891: capital, $1,000,000, 

The Ewing Concrete Machinery Com- 
pany, 445 Ewing Court; incorporated, 1905; 
capital, $10,000.' 

The Faultless Broom and JLanufacturing 
Company, 54 CheiTy; incoi-porated, 1908; 
capital, $5,000, 



The Faultless Rubber Company, 281 Bluff; 
incorporated, 1900; capital, $325,000. 

The Fiebeger Heating Company, corner 
Lincoln and Forge; incorporated, 1904; capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

Firestone Tire & Rubber Company, 1081 
Sweitzer Avenue; incorporated, (West Vir- 
ginia), 1900; capital, $500,000. 

The First National Bank, 16 South Main; 
organized, 1862; capital, $100,000. 

The Flanagan Mining Company, 27 Ar- 
cade Block; incorporated, (Washington) 
1903; capital, $100,000. 

The George K. Foltz Company, 68 South 
Main; incorporated, 1897; capital, $10,000. 

The Frank Laubach & Clemmer Com- 
pany, 80 South Main; incorporated, 1892; 
capital, $30,000. 

The Frantz Body Manufacturing Company, 
corner Stanton Avenue and Getz; incorpo- 
rated, 1898 ; capital, $60,000. 

The U. G. Frederick Lumber Company, 57 
Cherry; incorporated, 1904; capital, $25,000 

The German-American Building & Loan 
Association, 148 South Howard; incorpo- 
rated, 1896; capital, $1,000,000. 

The German American Company, 148 
South Haword; incorporated, 1900; capital, 

The Gintz Upholstering Company, 14 Via- 
duct; incorporated, 1897. 

The Globe Sign & Poster Company, 48 
East Miller Avenue; incorporated, 1904; cap- 
ital, $75,000. 

The Glock-Korach Company, 82 South 
Main; incorporated, 1905; capital, $10,000. 

The Goehring Manufacturing Company, 
65 East Miller Avenue; incorporated, (West 
Virginia) 1899. 

The B. F. Goodrich Company Rubber 
Street; established, 1869; capital," $10,000,- 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, 
1144 Market; incorporated, 1898; capi- 
tal, $1,000,000. 

The Great Western Cereal Company, 1124 
East Market; incorporated, 1901. 

The Hall-Harter Insurance Agency Com- 
pany, 102 South Howard; capital, $50,000. 

The Hamilton Building Company, 244 
Hamilton Building; incorporated, 1899; cap- 
ital, $200,000. 

The Hankel Lumber Company, 570 South 
Main; incorporated, 1889; capital, $100,000. 

The Hardware & Supply Company, 50-52 
South Main; incorporated, 1905; capital 

The Harper Drug Company, 8 East Mar- 
ket; incorporated, 1903; capital, $25,000. 

The Hill Sewer Pipe Company, 999 East 
Market; organized, 1873; capital, $150,000. 

The Home Building & Loan Association, 
102 South Howard; incorporated, 1891; capi- 
tal, $10,000,000. 

The Hoover & Sell Company, 16 East 
Market; incorporated, 1905; capital, $25,000. 

The Hower Building Company, corner 
Market and Canal ; incorporated, 1905 ; capi- 
tal, $1,000,000. 

The Kasch Roofing Companv, 188 South 
Main; incorporated, i896; capital, $10,000. 

The Keller Brick Company, Cuvahoga 
Falls Road; incorporated, 1900; capital 
$25,000. ' 

The Kile Manufacturing Company, 1136 
Sweitzer Avenue; incorporated, 1903. 

The Kirk Company, 25-27 South Howard ; 
mcorporated, 1902; capital, $50,000. 

The Klagfts Coal & Ice Company, 165 Ea^^t 
Mill; established, 1879; incorporated, 1888- 
capital, $100,000. 

The Kraus-Kirn Company, 117 South 
Main; incorporated, 1903; capital, $25,000. 

The C. J. Lang Clothing Company, 18 
East Market; incorporated, 1905; capital 

The Limbert-Smith Plumbing Company, 
40 East Mill; incorporated, 1904; capital 

The Lodi Oil & Refining Company, 474 
Washington; incorporated, (West Virginia) 
1902; capital, $350,000. 

The Long & Taylor Company, corner Main 
and Howard; incorporated, 1903; capital, 

The Long & Taylor Candy Company, 22 
South Main; incorporated. 1902; capital 



The Loomis-Moss Coal Company, 2(j Cen- 
tral Office Building ; incorporated, 1898 ; capi- 
tal, $100,000. 

The LjMiian Lumber Company, 440 South 
Main; incorporated, 1897; capital, $10,000. 

The Mclntosh-Baum Company, 148 South 
Howard; incorporated, 1900; capital, $10,000 

The McNeil Boiler Company, 96 East Cro- 
sier; incorporated, (West Virginia) 1902; 
capital, $250,000. 

The Magnolia Coal Company, 444 South 
Main; incorporated, 1899; capital, $60,000. 

The Miller Rubber Company, corner Hia:h 
and Stanton Avenues; incorporated, 1904; 
capital, $25,000. 

The Miller Rubber Manufacturing Com- 
pany, corner High and Stanton Avenues; in- 
corporated, 1898 ; capital, $50,000. 

Motz Clincher Tire and Rubber Company, 
Everett Building, incorporated, 1905; capi- 
tal, $50,000. 

The I. S. Myers Company, 24 South 
Main; incorporated, 1904; capital, $55,000. 

The M. & M. Manufacturing Company, 
502 South Main; incorporated, 1905; capital, 

The National Blank Book and Supply 
Companv, 132 South Howard; incorporated, 
1904; capital, $12,000. 

The National City Bank, 8 South Howard; 
incorporated, 1903; capital, $100,000. 

The National Coal Company, 612 Hamil- 
ton Building; incorporated, 1892; capital, 

The National Water Wheel Governor Com- 
pany, 303 Everett Building; incorporated, 
1904; capital, $10,000. 

Niagara Fire Extinguisher Company, 430- 
438 Hamilton Building. 

The Northern Ohio Traction and Light 
Companv, 206 Hamilton Building; incorpo- 
rated, 1899; capital, $7,500,000. 

The Ohio Stoneware Company, 227 Foun- 
tain; organized, 1881; capital, $50,000. 

The M. O'Neil & Company, 38-48 South 
Main; established, 1877; incorporated, 1892; 
capital, $200,000. 

The Ornamental Iron Work Cornpany, 80 

Ea.'St South; incorporated, 1906; capital, 

The Peerle&s Stamp & Stencil Company, 
corner Howard and Market; incorporated, 
1906; capital, $10,000. 

The People Publishing Company, 37 
South Main; incorporated, 1903; capital, 

The People's Savings Bank, 337 South 
Main; incorporated, 1890; capital, $100,000. 

The Permanent Savings and Loan Com- 
panv, 124 South Main; incorporated, 1894; 
capital, $300,000. 

The Thomas Phillips Company, 23 West 
Exchange; incorporated, 1887; capital, $300,- 

The Pouchot-Hunsicker Company, 200 
South Main ; incorporated, 1903 : capital, 

The Prudential Heating Company, 526 
Washington ; incorporated, 1904. 

Realty Development Company, 392 Albert 
Place; incorporated, 1903; capital, $20,000. 

The Renner & Deibel Oil & Gas Company, 
275 North Forge ; incorporated, 1904 ; capi- 
tal, $20,000. 

The Geo. J. Renner Brewing Company, 
275 North Forge ; incorporated, 1900 ; capital, 

The G. J. Renner Property Company, 275 
North Forge; incorporated. 1904; capital, 

The Robinson Clay Product Company, 
1010 East Market: established, 1856; incor- 
porated, (Maine) 1902; capital, $2,000,000. 

The Safety Gas Burner Company, rear 103 
Kent; incorporated, 1904; capital, $10,000. 

The S. & 0. Engraving Company, 330 
South High ; incorporated. 1903 ; capital, 

The Second National Bank, 35 East Mar- 
ket; organized, 1863; capital, $350,000. 

The Security Savings Bank Company, 328 
South Main ; incorporated, 1901 ; capital, 

The South Akron Banlcing Company, 1092 
South Main; incorporated, 1906; capital, 

The Standard Rubber Company, 1144 



East Market; incorporated, 1901; capital, 

The Star Drilling Machine Company, 474 
Washington ; incorporated, 1889 ; capital, 

The Star Mop Wringer Company, 930 
South Ho^vard; incorporated. 1906; capital. 

The Star Planing Mill Company, 55 
Cherry; incorporated, 1903; capital, $25,000. 

Stein Double Cushion Tire Company, cor- 
ner River and Second Avenues; incorporated, 
1905; capital. $100,000. 

The Summit China Company, 1037 Bank ; 
incorporated, 1879; capital, $100,000. 

The Summit Lumber & Building Corn- 
pan v, 44 West State; incorporated, 1897; cap- 
ital, $15,000. 

The Summit Sewer Pipe Company, 887 
East Exchange; incorporated, 1889; capital, 

The Summit Real Estate Company, 148 
South Howard; incorporated, 1903; capital, 

The Sumner Company, 23 East Exchange; 
incorporated, 1903; capital, $10,000. 

The S\\-inehart Clincher Tire & Rubber 
Company, 218 North Howard; incorporated, 
1904; capital, $200,000. 

Tanner & Company. 10 East Market; in- 
corporated, 1903 ; capital, $20,000. 

Taplin, Rice & Company, 177 South 
Broadway ; organized 1866 ; capital, $150,000. 

The XXth Century Heating & Ventilating 

Company, 192 South Main; incorporated, 
1901 ; capital, $100,000. 

The Tyler Company, 990 Market; in- 
corporated, 1904; capital, $50,000. 

The U. S. Stoneware Company, Annadale 
Street; incorporated, 1885; capital, $25,000. 

The Union Printing Ink Company, 38 
Wesit State; incorporated, 1901; capital, $10,- 

The Union Rubber Company, 123 South 
Howard; incorporated, 1901. 

The Unique Theater Company, 115 South 
Main; incorporated, 1905; capital, $10,000. 

The Upham-Brouse Company, comer Mar- 
ket and Main; incorporated, 1896; capital, 

The Werner Company, 109 North Union; 
incorporated. 1903; capital, $1,300,000. 

The West Hill Land Company, 236 Ham- 
ilton Building: incorporated. 1902; capital, 

The Whitman & Barnes Manufacturing 
Companv, 114 East Buchtel Avenue; organ- 
ized 1864; capital, $2,372,500. 

The Williams Electric Machine Company, 
corner Grant and Morgan ; incorporated, 
1904 ; capital, $100,000. 

The Williams Foundry and Machine Com- 
pany, 56 Cherrv; established, 1885; incorpo- 
rated, 1901 ; capital, $50,000. 

The Windsor Brick Company. 1011 Grant; 
incorporated, 1904; capital, $40,000. 

The AA'ise Furnace Company, 508 Hamil- 
ton Building: incorporated, 1904; capital, 



History of the Banks of Sii^mmii County — Banks Inadequate — Akron's Financial Reputa- 
tion Akron a Large Borrower — Panic of 1904 — Clearing House Statement — Fu- 
ture Prosperity Certain. 


In 1845, when Akron -was a town of prob- 
ably 1,500 inhabitants, the Bank of Akron, a 
branch of the Ohio Safety Fund system, was 
organized with a capital of $50,000. This 
was Akron's pioneer bank and proved a very 
great convenience to the business men of the 
surrounding community. It survived until 
1857, when it went into liquidation, having 
become involved in the financial embarrass- 
ments of the Akron Branch Railroad. 

In 1855 George D. Bates, with Gen. Philo 
Chamberlain as a silent partner, opened a 
private bank on the west side of Howard 
Street near the present site of B. L. Dodge's 
furniture store, afterwards purchasing the old 
Bank of Akron's stand on the opposite side of 
the street, and where under the name of Bates 
& Co. the bu.siiness was continued until 1863, 
when it was merged into the Second National 

In 1863 the First National Bank, with a 
capital of $100,000, was organized with T. 
W. Cornell as president, M. W. Henry, vice 
president, and W. H. Huntington, cashier. 

In 1867 the City Bank, a private institu- 
tion owned by J. B. Woods, Milton Moore 
and Sylvester H. Thompson, was started, and 

this was organized in 1883 into the City Na- 
tional Bank. 

In 1870 the Bank of Akron, with George 
T. Perkins as president, Alden Gage as cash- 
ier, was started, which in 1888 was merged 
with the Second National Bank, taking that 
name, with a capital of $275,000, and a sur- 
plus of $22,000, and using the rooms of the 
Bank of Akron in the Academy of Music 
building, its present site. 

In 1872 the Citizens' Savings and Loan As- 
sociation was organized, which in the panic of 
1893 had to close its doors, but which was 
soon after reorganized into the Citizens' Na- 
tional Bank, which continued until 1903, 
when it was merged with the Second National 

In 1888 the Akron Savings Bank was 
started; in 1890 the People's Savings Bank 
Company; in 1897 the Central Savings Bank 
Company; in 1900 the Akron Trust Com- 
pany, and the Guardian Savings Bank Com- 
pany ; in 1901 the Dime Savings Bank Com- 
pany, and the Security Savings Bank Com- 
pany, and in 1902 the Dollar Savings Bank 

January 1, 1905, the Central Savings and 
Trust Company started business, it being a 
consolidation of the Akron Trust Company 



and the Central Savings Bank Company, 
which latter bank had some months before ac- 
quired the business of the Guardian Savings 
Bank Company, which went into liquidation. 
The new bank purchased the building of the 
Akron Savings Bank, which failed in April, 
1904, and refitted and remodeled it into its 
present shape. 

In 1905 was started the South Akron Bank- ' 
ing Company and in 1907 the Depositors' 
Savings Bank Company, the former locating 
in the extreme southern part of Akron, near 
the street car barns, and the latter purchasing 
the building and fixtures of the Security Sav- 
ings Bank Company, which in April, 1907, 
was merged with the People's Savings Bank 
Company, across the street. 

In 1903 Akron boasted of twelve banks, 
vfiih capitals of $1,22.5,000 and depasits of 
$7,300,000. Now, through two consolidations, 
two absorption and one failure, there are 
but nine, with a total capitalization of $950.- 
000, and total deposits of $8,200,000, a reduc- 
tion of capital of $275,000, with an increase of 
nearly $1,000,000 in deposits. 

Despite the sensitive feeling still rankling 
in the minds of many, Akron people really 
have cause to be proud of the record of her 
banks. In the sixty years of her banking 
history there has been but one failure, and 
that wholly through mismanagement. 

We have read from time to time of bank 
embezzlements, of defalcations and rascali- 
ties of officers, but Akron has had none of 
that and can say that the men who have been 
entrusted with the care of the wealth and 
sa\angs of her people are, and have been at 
all times, faithful and honest. The mistakes 
that have been made were made through lack 
of good judgment and incapacity only. It is 
indeed a remarkable fact, taking into con- 
sideration the length of time — over half a 
century — the and culpability of 
man. and the numerous panics through which 
they have pa.s,sed. that the experience which 
we in 1904 went through is the sole and only 
one to which hisrtory can point. 


Akron's banks, however, with all their $9,- 
000,000 and more of resources, are far from 
capable of taking care of the financial needs 
of its manufacturing and mercantile indus- 
tries. In fact we would warrant the assertion 
that 80 per cent of the money required by the 
large concerns of Akron is furnished by out- 
side banks. 

To the stranger to our local conditions and 
to the unthinking, such a statement seems ab- 
surd, but it is true, we believe. A simple ex- 
planation of this is as follows : 

The largest amount that any Akron bank 
can legally loan to any one concern is 10 per 
cent of its capital stock, which means the 
Second National Bank can loan $35,000. the 
Firet National Bank, $20,000; the National 
City and the Central Savings and Trust Com- 
pany, $10,000, and the others only $5,000. 
This being the case and very few of these 
concerns doing business at more than one 
bank in the city, they are compelled by ne- 
cessity to go outside, especially when at cer- 
tain periods of the vear some of them borrow 
individually from $100,000 to $1,000,000. 

This very apparent disproportion of the 
banking capital of Akron to the amount of 
business transacted through these same banks 
is well illustrated by the totals of its bank 
clearings as compared vnth those of Youngs- 
town. Canton and Springfield, its sister cities, 
and their relative banking capitals. 

Clearings for 

year ending 

Capital Re- July 1, 

Stock. sources. 1907 

Akron $ 950,000 $9,800,000 |34,700,000 

Youngstown 3,250,000 20,270,000 34,491,000 

Canton 1.055,000 12,287,500 27,386,000 

Springfield 1,100,000 7,523,500 22,400,000 

As is shown, Akron, with only $950,000 
banking capital, does business of $34,700,000, 
a larger volume than Youngstown. with $3,- 
250.000 capital, and more than twice her re- 
sources and wealth: while Canton, with lar- 
ger capital, and 25 per cent more of resources, 
does only $27,386,000, or 25 per cent less in 
actual volume of business. 



This unusual condition existing in a city 
the size of Akron is partly accounted for by 
the extraordinary growth and success of the 
larger industries that have grown up in our 
midst, far surpassing our native wealth and 
consequently our banking resources, and they 
have necessarily been forced by such condi- 
tions to seek financial aid in the large money 

Akron's financial reputation. 

These same concerns and their necessitias 
have indeed made Akron very prominent in 
financial circles. Go to New York, Chicago, 
Philadelphia, Boston, St. Louis, Detroit and 
inquire at the banks about Akron, what na- 
ture of a place it is and what is its reputa- 
tion. They will immediately reply that they 
do a great deal of business with Akron con- 
cerns, that it is a very enterprising, hustling, 
manufacturing city, and they will surprise 
you with the fund of accurate information 
they possess about it and many of its con- 

Akron today stands financially relatively 
stronger than it ever stood in its history. 
While its growth, which has averaged over 60 
per cent each decade, has, as has been said, 
outstripped its financial re^ourcas, still it has 
prospered, and that is the main thing. 

But these same New York, Chicago and 
other bankers, while praising Akron and its 
concerns now, do it with a more or less re- 
luctant grace, for not a few of them have had 
experiences which still rankle in their mem- 


For the reasons explained, Akron has been 
a large borrower. But during the period of 
1900 to 1903, when the boom was on and 
business of all kinds was at its height, Akron 
was no whit behind in its quota of promo- 
tions; new enterprises were started by the 
dozens; where one line of trade proved a suc- 
cess there was always plenty of over-zealous 
promoters to form new companies that were 
sure to make equal profits. The result was a 

number of mushroom concerns sprang up 
and began doing business, largely on bor- 
rowed capital. The local conditions with their 
lack of funds, excepting for established cred- 
its, were more or less of a handicap, however, 
but they "were not to be stopped. Times were 
too good and money too plentiful elsewhere. 
Everyone, even the banks, had the fever for 
speculative explorations and the fences of 
conservatism were down. 

Such conditions soon provided opportuni- 
ties for a number of persons who made it 
their basiness to furnish corporations having 
insufficient working capital or weakened cred- 
its with funds for their needs. For this they 
charged a commission varying with the finan- 
cial necessities of each individual concern; 
the one that needed it the worst was compelled 
to pay the highest commission. 

Banks in surrounding country communi- 
ties were flush with money and with no local 
opportunities to lend it, and they welcomed 
gladly anything that looked like a good loan. 

These Akron brokers, by assiduous writing 
and many rosy representations of the worth 
of the various concerns they were endeavoring 
to help, were thus able, spurred on by the 
large commissions in sight, for a number of 
years to bolster up their weak-kneed cus- 

But the day of reckoning arrived, as it must 
arrive for all such. 

PANIC OF 1904. 

When the financial depression of 1904 
struck us and conservatism became the rule, 
these countrv' banks began to ask and then 
demand their money. The result was the 
failure of all those who couldn't provide the 
capital which should have been put in when 
first needed, numbering among these unfor- 
tunately several old established concerns that 
had long been considered responsible, but who 
had gradually been dropping behind in the 
race with their younger and more ag.gressive 
competitors. Likewise it caused the putting 
out of business of all the money brokers. 

The harm accomplished was not the fail- 



lire of these concerns, nor yet in the loss of 
their business to Akron, but in the fact that 
their failures caused a large financial loss to 
many of those outside banks located all over 
the country, and who had for years been loan- 
ing to Akron concerns. These losses, all com- 
ing within a few months, so shook their con- 
fidence in Akron and Akron concerns that for 
two years afterward a borrower from Akron, 
no matter what his standing, was and even 
is now, regarded with suspicion and distrust 
by outside city and county banks. 

As was said these memories still rankle with 
them, but we are glad to state the unprece- 
dented success of a number of our present 
concerns has helped very materially to re- 
deem Akron's reputation and to restore it to 
its old position. 

No<w, in 1907, there are probably not more 
than two concerns in the city who are not 
able to stand solidly on their own financial 
basis, and these two are not in a position 
where they are dependent on brokers. They 
require a reorganization with larger capital, 
and this will probably be provided. Many 
local industries report the largest and most 
pro.^erous year of their existence, some stat- 
ing that the volume of business is 25 to 75 
per cent greater than any previous year. To 
these the outlook is bright, despite the pessi- 
mistic views of many. But the coaservatives, 
■which means every succ&ssful banker and fi- 
naaicier, regard the trend of business, which 
has shown unmistakable signs of reaction the 
past six months, as the best remedy that could 
possibly be given for an over^ervous and too 
prosperous condition. As in 1892 and in 
1903 prosperity has about reached the realms 
of fantastic earnings and values, and it be- 
hooves the careful man to husband all his re- 
sources, to prepare for a period when he may 
not do much more than half the business of 
this year, which means a great deal less profit 
and perhaps a loss. 

If such a period comes he is watching for 
it and is ready; if it does not come, then he 
is in just that much better shape to take ad- 
vantage of next year's opportunities. 


In the following statement of the clearings 
of Akron, since the organization of the clear- 
ing house, can be seen the effect of a panic or 
financial depression : 

March 1 to December 31, 1892, $11,056,- 
000; for the vear 1893, $9,896,000; 1904, $9,- 
717,000; 1895, $13,779,000; 1896, $13,074,- 
000; 1897, $3,274,000; 1898, $16,260,000; 
1899, $20,368,000; 1900, $23,794,000; 1901, 
$28,059,000: 1902, $34,578,000; 1903, $37,- 
310,000; 1904, $29,357,000; 1905, $27,630,- 
000; 1906, $30,615,000; January 1 to July 1, 
1907, $18,094,000; Januar\' 1 to Julv 1, 1906, 

It appears that the clearing house started 
its records March 1, 1892, so that in the year 
1892 only ten months' business is recorded. 
This amounted to over $11,000,000. But next 
year when the panic struck the country, and 
in 1894 business decreased — -figuring the year 
1892 as a possible $13,250,000— at^least $3,- 
300,000, nearly 25 per cent. 

'During the years 1895-6-7 business re- 
mained apparently at a standstill, with $13,- 
000,000 each year, but in 1898 it picked up 
and gained steadily until 1903, reaching a 
maximum of $37,000,000. a gain of nearly 30 
per cent in six years, which is surely a great 

But again in 1904 came a financial depres- 
i-iion which lasted two years, then a large gain 
in 1906, with a .still larger one in 1907, the 
first six months of 1907 showing $18,000,000, 
against $14,000,000 in the same period of 

The clearing house reports show the actual 
amount of bu.sine.s.s as represented by the 
checks of the customers of the various banks 
that pass through the clearing hoase. It 
does not represent the total amount of busi- 
ness done through the banks, as each does a 
large amount in currency over its own coun- 
tei^, but it serves as a record which show.? 
substantially and as near as can be obtained, 
the total amount of business transacted for 
purposes of comparison year by year or with 
other cities, and answers every purpose. 




Akron's prosperity is certain now. Slack 
times may come and even a panic, but her 
concerns and her banks have demonstrated 
their ability to stand the test and will live 
through them and com© out stronger than 

While working out this prosperity, however, 
Akron's business men of the last generation 
have developed a peculiarity which it behooves 
some of us to sit down and think over. In 
the huiry-skurry of an aggressive, competi- 
tive business life, in the fight for the profits 
that at first came so slowly, but later came 
pouring into their laps they became so en- 
grossed in the game that they forgot, or grew 
to care nothing for all other interests but their 
own. While, as before said, in benefiting 
themselvas they more or less helped to bene- 
fit their city, still what the city got was really 
nothing compared to the real results that 
might have been obtained had they given 
but a small part of their thoughts and ener- 
gies to helping the growth and prosperity of 

When approached to take a part in some 
public enterprise or matter important to the 
city, the excuse was always: "We are too 
busy; cannot get away. What is our city 
council and board of ptiblic service for? Let 
them look after such matters," etc. 

By all this is meant, Akron has been woe- 
fully lacking in public-spirited men — busi- 
ness men, successful bankers and manufac- 
turers who would take enough time and in- 
terest away from their own aff'airs to give to 
the welfare of their city. 

The result Ls we have no chamber of com- 
merce nor any kind of an association of busi- 
ness men, such as all progressive cities main- 
tain, to look after the financial and industrial 
interests of the community. Such matters for 
years have been left to take care of them- 
selves ; what comes our way, all well and good, 
if we get nothing or just miss something fine 
that we might have secured by a little per- 
sonal effort, it does not matter much — no one 
seems to care. 

Another thing Akron is lacking in is in- 
di\'idual wealth. We have very few million- 
aires. What wealth w^e can boast of is owned 
by our rich corporations. But these same cor- 
porations are fast making wealth for their 
stockholders, and there is growing up among 
us a number of young, aggressive, prosperous 
business men who are the main guiding hands 
of these concerns and who in a very few years 
will be millionaires. Let us hope when they 
do come into their wealth they will use it, 
not as their forefathers before them have 
done, selfishly and fooli-shly, but in a wise, 
public-spirited way, which is the way of the 
truly rich and truly great. 




Schools for the children has always been a 
matter of prime concern to the American peo- 
ple. Before state government was formed in 
the territory of which the preisent State of 
Ohio was a part, the Continental Congress 
provided, in the organic law for the govern- 
ment of this ten-itory, that "Schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encour- 
aged." The constitution formed in 1802, 
under which Ohio was admitted to the Union 
in 1803, contains the following provisions: 
"Religion, morality and knowledge, being es- 
sentially necessary to good government and 
the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encour- 
aged by legislative provision not inconsistent 
with the rights of conscience. ... No 
law shall be pa.ssed to prevent the poor in the 
several counties and townships within this 
State from an equal participation in the 
schools, academies, colleges and universities 
within this State, which are endowed in whole 
or in part from the revenue arising from do- 
nations made by the United States for the 
support of schools and colleges : and the doors 
of said schools, academies and universities 
shall be opened for the reception of scholars, 
students and teachers of every grade, without 
any distinction or preference whatever, con- 
trary to the intent for which said donations 
were made." 

In 1851. a new constitution was adopted, 
superseding that of 1802. In this, the main 
featiires of the first constitution on the sub- 
ject of education are reaffirmed, with the ad- 
dition of this explicit statement : 

"The General Assemblv shall make such 

provisions, by taxation or otherwise, as, with 
the income arising from the school trust fund, 
will secure a thorough and efficient system of 
common schools throughout the State ; but no 
religious or other sect or sects shall ever have 
any exclusive right to, or control of, any part 
of the school funds of the State." 

Thus in half a century there seems to have 
been an advance from encouragement of 
schools to a distinct demand for a thorough 
and efficient system of schools throughout the 

In the early survey and disposition of Ohio 
lands, liberal reservations were made for the 
support of common schools; and it has been 
thought that the tardiness of the legislature 
in caiTving out the requirements of the con- 
stitution regarding education was in large 
measure due to the prevalent expectation that 
the revenue arising from the lands donated 
by Congress would be adequate for the main- 
tenance of free schools. Legislative action in 
the earlier years of the State's history was 
confined mainly to the passage of acts pro- 
viding for the leasing of the school lands, 
and the incorporation of seminaries and other 
private institutions of learning. No action 
was had looking in the direction of the es- 
tabli.shment of a system of free schools by 
means of State or local taxation. It soon 
became apparent, however, that, in existing 
conditions, wild lands could not be made to 
produce large revenue. The trea.sury of a 
school district sometimes contained not more 
than ten dollars for the support of a school 
for an entire year. 

These conditions compelled a resort to pri- 



vate enterprise and private means in order 
that the pioneer j'outh of the State might 
enjoy the simplest rudiments of a common 
school education. Almost every community 
had its select school or private academy. And 
it is worthy of note that there was a differ- 
ence between these pioneer schools in north- 
eastern Ohio and those in the southwestern 
paii, of the State. The latter section was set- 
tled by people from Virginia, Kentucky and 
the Carolinas, whose appreciation of educa- 
tional privileges was far below that of the 
settlers of the Western Reserve, who were 
from the New England states, where common 
schools were at that time far in advance of 
those in any other part of the country. One 
historian says that educational sentiment in 
the southern section was at a low ebb. The 
few schools that were established were taught 
by cripples, worn out old men and women, 
physically unable or constitutionally too lazy 
to scotch hemp or spin flax : while on the 
Western Reserve at an early day schools were 
in a thriving condition. Many of the pioneers 
of this section were men of liberal culture in 
the best schools and colleges, and the status 
of the teacher was on an equal footing with 
that of the physician and the minister. 

The first general school law for Ohio was 
enacted by the legislature in 1S21. This was 
revised and improved in 1825. It provided 
for the division of every township into school 
districts, and for the levying of taxes to build 
school-houses and maintain schools. 

Taxation for the support of common 
schools met with determined opposition from 
the outset. The man whose ample means 
enabled him to pay for the education of his 
own children, saw no justice in his being 
compelled to assist in providing for the edu- 
cation of his neighbors' children. Hence it 
was that for many years legislative enact- 
ments providing school funds by taxation 
were hedged about with .«uch restrictions and 
limitations as to make the funds so provided 
wholly inadequate. It was not until after the 
adoption of the general law of lcS,5.'^ thfit tui- 
tion in all the common school* of the State 
was altogether free. Prior to that time, it was 

the connnon practice to pay the teacher a 
stipulated sum from the public fund of the 
district and authorize him to collect from the 
parents of his pupils one or two dollars per 
pupil for a term of three months. 

In 1835, Portage Township contained seven 
school districts and seven schools, including 
two in the village of Akron, the public schools 
of the village being then under the jurisdic- 
tion of the township and being conducted in 
all respects like country schools. Mr. S. A. 
Lane, in his history of Akron and Summit 
County, tells of teaching one of these schools 
in the winter of 1835-6. He received $11 
a month and "boarded around." Less than 
half the salary was paid from the public 
money of the district, the balance being raised 
by an assessment pro rata on those attending 
the school. 

In the decade following, there was consid- 
erable of school youth in the village, 
new buildings of moderate pretensions were 
erected, and additional teachers were em- 
ployed ; but the attendance at the public 
schools fell short of the expectations of their 
more ardent supporters. In 1845, the at- 
tendance was scarcely 350 out of a total 
enumeration of school youth of twice that 
number. Some were not kept in school be- 
cause of the rate bills by which the public 
funds had to be supplemented. Others gave 
preference to the more select private schools 
which flourished at that period. 

These private or select schools were, for the part, the result of individual enterprise. 
For example, on July 27. 1836. Mrs. Susan 
E. Dodge announces in a local paper that on 
the first day of August she will open a school 
at the corner of Main and Exchange Streets 
for young ladies and misses, in which read- 
ing, writing and spelling ^\^ll be taught for 
$2.50 a term of eleven weeks; grammar, 
geography and arithmetic, $3.50. In another 
paper is the announcement that "on .January 
3, 1838, a .select school will be opened at the 
corner of Middlebi;ry and High Streets, under 
the superintendence of Miss M. E. Hubble, 
of New York, where pupils will receive in- 
struction in all branches usuallv taught in 



our eastern female seminaries. Tuition per 
quarter, $3.00 to $5.00, according to studies 
pursued. Music, including use of piano, 

Besides such schools as these, dependent 
solely upon individual enterprise, there were 
others with more formal organization and 
backed by leading citizens. One called the 
Akron High School was under the manage- 
ment of a board of trustees consisting of lead- 
ing citizens of Akron and vicinity, with S. 
L. Sa^^'t•ell, a graduate of an eastern college, 
as principal instructor. This school flour- 
ished about 1838, but it was not long-lived. 
In 1845, a stock company was formed for 
the organization of a permanent high school 
to be known as "The Akron Institution." A 
charter was procured, which authorized the 
conferring of degrees, with Simon Perkins, 
Eliakim Crosby, Edwin Angel, Henry W. 
King, James R. Ford, Lucius V. Bierce and 
Samuel A. Wheeler as corporators. The 
stockholders affected an organization, and a 
board of trustees was elected; but it docs not 
appear that any measures were taken look- 
ing toward the founding of such a school as 
the charter contemplated. It is not improb- 
able that the enterprise was over-shadowed 
. by the approach of a popular movement in 
the interest of Akron's public school system 
■ — a movement which resulted in the enact- 
ment of what has ever since been known as 


This law not only gave form and substance 
to Akron's system of graded union schools, 
but it became the pattern after which the 
graded school system of the State of Ohio 
was in large mea.sure modeled. 

From the beginning, there had been those 
among Akron's leading citizens who main- 
tained that the wealth of the State should 
educate its children. Opposed to this doc- 
trine were most of the childless property 
owners and many of the larger tax-payers. 
The issue was joined and the discussion went 
on. At length, in May. 1846, a large and 
enthusiastic meeting of citizens was held, at 

which a committee was appointed to take into 
consideration our present educational pro- 
visions and the improvement, if any, which 
may be made therein. 

Rev. Isaac .Jennings, then pa.stor of the 
Congregational Church, was chairman of this 
committee. He took a deep interest in the 
movement, and gave much time and thought 
to collecting information, maturing plans and 
formulating and elaborating the report which 
was submitted to an adjourned meeting of 
citizens some months later. It has been 
claimed that Mr. Jennings was the father and 
founder of the Akron school system, and that 
"whatever credit and distinction Akron may 
have for being the first to adopt the principle 
of free graded schools in Ohio is due to him." 
The committee's report., submitted to an ad- 
journed meeting in November, 1846, was 
unanimously approved and adopted by the 
meeting, and a committee consisting of R. P. 
Spalding, H. W. King, H. B. Spellman and 
L."V. Bierce was appointed to secure the nec- 
essary legislation. This committee embodied 
the recommendations of the report in a bill 
which was enacted into a law by the Legisla- 
ture, February 8, 1847. The chief provisions 
of the law are as follows: 

1. All the school districts of the village 
are united into one, known as the "Akron 
School District." 

2. A board of education consisting of six 
members, two elected each year, is empowered 
to establish schools, build schoolhouses, em- 
ploy teachers, receive and disburse funds, 
make necessary rules and regulations for the 
government of the schools, etc. 

3. Sufficient primary schools are to be .so 
located within the district as best to accom- 
modate the pupils of that department: and 
one grammar school centrally located is to 
be open to all the school youth of the district 
who satisfactorily complete the work of the 
primary schools. 

4. The town council is charged with the 
duty of levying on the property of the dis- 
trict an annual tax of five mills on the dollar 
to .supplement the amount received from the 
State and other sources. This tax lew was 



subsequently reduced to four mills, in re- 
sponse to the clamor of the taxpayers. 

5. The town council is ako required to 
appoint three school examiners to examine 
teachers, grant certificates and maintain su- 
pei-\'isory oversight of the instruction and dis- 
cipline of the schools. 

6. Provision is made for the thorough 
classification of all the pupils, "as the best 
good of the schools may seem to require." 

The new plan was promptly inaugurated, 
and met with the approval of a majority of 
the people. The board was fortunate in se- 
curing the services of M. D. Leggett, late Com- 
missioner of Patents at Washington, as head 
teacher and siiperintendent, at an annual 
salary of $500. His two assistants in the 
upper department received $150 and $200 
respectively, and the primary schools were 
taught by young women, at $3.50 a week. 

In its first annual report, the board ex- 
pressed its satisfaction with the success of the 
new system. There were large increase of 
attendance and better instruction, at a cost 
considerably less than under the old regime. 
Nearly 200 pupils were enrolled in the gram- 
mar school and 880 in the primary schools, 
some of whom resided without the district. 

These gratifying results were not secured 
without strong opposition from some of the 
taxpayers. It was a sore grievance to them 
that their property should be taxed for the 
education of their neighbors' children. The 
clamor here and elsewhere was such as to 
lead the legislature to reduce the State levy 
for school purposes, and the local levy was 
kept at the minimum. The rapid growth of 
the schools made new schoolhouses and addi- 
tional teachers necessary. The state of the 
board's treasury compelled the exercise of an 
economy bordering on parsimony. The 
grammar school had to be suspended for a 
time, and the valuable services of Mr. Leg- 
get, the superintendent, were dispensed with 
for want of money to pay him an adequnte 

Despite the unfavorable conditions, the 
schools steadily increased numericallv and 
gained in popular regard. In 1849, Mr. and 

Mrs. C. H. Palmer took chai'ge of the gram- 
mar school, under an engagement for two 
years, at a joint annual salary of $600. Mr. 
Palmer's health failing before the expiration 
of his engagement, Mr. and Mrs. E. B. Olm- 
stead were employed at a joint salary of $50 
a month, to teach a high grade primary or 
secondary school, which took the place of the 
grammar school. 

Meantime, the board had purchased a lot 
containing about two and a half acres, front- 
ing on Mill Street between Summit and 
Prospect Streets. On this a two-story brick 
building 70 by 50 feet was erected, at a cost 
of $9,250. This building contained two 
ku-ge school-rooms, each with a seating ca- 
pacity of 150 pupils, and each having two 
recitation rooms attached. It was dedicated 
with appropriate ceremonies October 13, 
1853. The upper room with its recitation 
rooms was occupied by the high school, in 
charge of Mr. Samuel F. Cooper and two 
assistant teachers. The grammar school oc- 
cupied the lower room with its recitation 
rooms, under Miss Codding and two assist- 

In 1856-7, Mr. H. B. Fo.ster, of Hudson, 
a graduate of Western Reserve college, served 
for a short time as principal of the high 
school and superintendent of all the schools; 
but, declining a re-engagement, Mr. Olmstead 
was employed to take his place, and Mr. J. 
Park Alexander was put in charge of the 
grammar school at $35 a month. 

In a report about this time, the board de- 
plores the evils resulting from frequent 
changes of superintendents and teachers, ex- 
presses the conviction that the employment 
of the cheapest teachers is not the most eco- 
nomical, and maintains that such liberal com- 
pensation should be paid superintendent and 
teachers as to secure the highest ability and 
skill in every department. In the same re- 
port, the of running the schools for 
the ensiling year, "including incidentals," is 
estimated at $4,200. Manifestly, the board 
shows ^^^sdom in its efl^ort to prepare the pub- 
lic mind for the payment of better salaries. 
It shows wisdom, too. in its expressed deter- 



mination "to employ no teachers in the Akrou 
schools but those of ripe age, ample experi- 
ence, successful tact and good common sense." 

In 1857, a change was made in the organi- 
zation making permanent provision for a sec- 
ondary grade between the primary departr 
ment and the grammar school. A general 
scheme of studies was outlined for the differ- 
ent departments. Reading and spelling and 
general practical oral lessons were assigned 
to the primary department; to these writing 
was added for the secondary grade ; pupils 
in the grammar school must be taught to 
read and spell the fourth reader fluently, 
master the first half of Stoddard's Intellectual 
Arithmetic, Tracy's and Stoddard's "Practi- 
cal" as far as interest, the general definitions 
in grammar, Colton and Fitch's Modern 
School Geography with map-drawing, daily 
practice in writing, and declamation and 
composition one hour each week; for the 
high school, .practice dn intellectual arith- 
metic, the more advanced subjects of written 
arithmetic, English grammar, including pars- 
ing; geography and mapdrawing, philosophy, 
history, physiology, algebra, chemistry, as- 
tronomy, geometry, botany, declamation and 
composition, with practice in reading, spell- 
ing and wTiting. 

By resolution of the board, all the teachers 
were authorized but not required to read a 
short passage of Scripture and repeat the 
Lord's Prayer with the pupils, without note 
or comment, at the opening of school each 

Latin and Greek were taught in the high 
school spasmodically, the board sometimes 
approving and sometimes declaring that "a 
good practical English education is all that 
any one has a right to expect or exact at the 
hands of a generous public." 

In the first ten years of Akron'.* graded 
school system, the supervision of the schools 
was more nominal than real. Five or six 
different superintendents, so called, had been 
employed, but their time was so fully taken 
up with teaching in the department under 
their immediate charge that an occasional 
hurried visit to the other schools wa." all" that 

was possible, and this to little purpose. The 
necessity for more efficient supervision be- 
came more and more manifest. "The schools 
had not at all times maintained the prestige 
they at first enjoyed, nor the pre-eminence to 
which they were entitled as the pioneer free 
graded schools of Ohio." The idea of super- 
vision was a gradual growth. While the su- 
perintendent continued to act as principal 
of the high school, he was given an assistant 
capable of taking charge of the high school 
temporarily in his absence. A little later, a 
separate principal of the high school was em- 
ployed, the superintendent continuing to 
teach a portion of his time, conducting his 
recitations in a class-room. In 1870, the su- 
perintendent was relieved from all regular 
class-room work, and thereafter gave his en- 
tire time to the work of supervision. 

About 1854, and for some years following, 
a plan was operated for increasing interest 
and improving the teaching, which seems to 
merit mention. Observation schools or teach- 
ers' institutes were conducted every Saturday 
morning in term-time, in the presence of all 
the teachers, members of the board and others 
interested. One teacher, by previous ap- 
pointment, holds a session of her school, giv- 
ing lessons or conducting exercises in one or 
more subjects. After dismissal of the pupils, 
lectures and discussions follow. We find the 
board expressing approval, and saying that 
the plan "worked admirably." 

The next superintendent in order was Mr. 
T. C. Pooler, a teacher of experience, from 
the State of New York. He received a salary 
of $1,000. Besides acting as principal of the 
high school, it wa* required by the rules of 
the board to visit each school at least once 
in four weeks, and advise and direct 
the teachers in regard to classifying 
and disciplining their schools. After 
three years of service, he declined a re- 
engagement, and was succeeded in Septem- 
ber, 1860, by Mr. I. P. Hole. Like most of 
his predecessors, Mr. Hole sers'ed in the 
double capacity of superintendent and prin- 
cipal of the high school. His snlars"^ was 
fixed at $900 at first, but in the course of his 



eight years' term of service it was increased 
from time to time until it reached $1,500. 
This increase in salary was no doubt in large 
measure due to the increased cost of living 
which prevailed in the time of the Civil War ; 
but it seems fair to infer that there was in 
it also an expression of approval and endorse- 
ment of Mr. Hole's work. There is abundant 
evidence that he was a capable, industrious 
and efficient worker. His term was a period 
of growth. The village of Akron had become 
a prosperous little city of nearly 10,000 peo- 
ple The youth of school age had increased 
from less than 700 in 1846 to 3,000. The 
schools had become crowded. Enlarged school 
accommodations had become a necessity. To 
meet this need the board issued bonds to the 
amount of $15,000, and made an addition of 
four rooms to the high school building. Each 
of these rooms had a seating capacity of 80 
or 90 pupils and a recitation room attached 
These new rooms were occupied by the sec- 
ondary schools and the overflow from the 
grammar school. Each of these rooms had a 
principal teacher and one assistant, while the 
high school and grammar school had each a 
principal and two assistants. The primary 
schools were housed in small one-room build- 
ings, so located as to be most accessible to the 
little ones. 

Tardiness and irregularity of attendance 
constituted a source of annoyance and 
hindrance from the first organization of the 
schools. To correct these evils the board from 
time to time resorted to various devices. At 
one time the expedient was tried of closing 
the doors against tardy pupils, shutting them 
out until recess. This caused a good deal of 
irritation and dissatisfaction without curing 
the evil. In 1864 the board adopted a rule 
authorizing the suspension of pupils for three 
absences in one month, pupils so suspended 
being required to make application for resto- 
ration at a subsequent meeting of the board. 
This rule is said to have resulted in improved 
attendance. In 1847-8- the percentage of at- 
tendance was 55^4 in the primary schools and 
88 in the grammar schools, while in 1866 the 

attendance reached 90 per cent in all the 

The statute under which the free graded 
school system of Akron was organized con- 
tained a provision for the periodical visitation 
of the schools by persons appointed by the 
council and mayor. There seems to be in 
this provision some recognition of the neces- 
sity of supervision in a system of public 
schools An unpaid school visitor was a cheap 
•■substitute for an expert salaried superintend- 
ent. In its eleventh annual report the board 
calls attention of the council to this feature 
of the law, saying that "while exclusive con- 
trol of the schools is given to the board of 
education, the school visitor might be the 
means of bringing to the aid of the board the 
best light and the highest intelligence on the 
subject of education, with all improved 
methods of instruction, discipline and man- 
agement of schools" 

Some such visitors were appointed. The 
board's fifteenth annual report contains the 
report of R. 0. Hammond, Esq., as school 
visitor, in which he commends warmly and 
censures sharply. Among other I'ecommenda- 
tions, he urges regular and thorough instruc- 
tion in vocal music. "This, in my judgment," 
he says, "should be taught in our schools as 
a component part of daily instruction. I mean 
that the principles of music should be taught 
— taught as a science. In this way. at a 
small expense, singers with well cultivated 
voices, able to read music readily, may be 
fitted for the choir, the concert and the par- 

The tables accompanying the reports of Mr. 
Hole as superintendent show that the at- 
tendance in the grades below the high school 
steadily increased, while the attendance at the 
high .'school steadily diminished. This fall- 
ing off in the attendance at the high school 
arrests our attention, and we naturally inquire 
for the cause. We discover that early in Mr. 
Hole's administration the course of study for 
the high school was expanded into a four- 
years' course, and was made to include nearly 
all the studies of a college course save the 



classics. Among the requirements were such 
studies as political economy, logic, moral 
science, mental philosophy, evidences of 
Christianity, astronomy, domestic economy 
and geology. The first graduation from the 
high school occurred in 1864. There was at- 
that time but one graduate. Miss Pamela H. 
Goodwin, and up to and including 1868, 
there had been but fifteen graduates. 

The high school at that time may have 
been ideal in its organization and appoint- 
ments, but manifestly it was not meeting the 
popular demand. The records for one term 
show an average attendance of four males and 
twenty-one females. A complaint not unfre- 
quently heard was to the effect that after 
spending so long a time in completing the 
high school course of study, those who wished 
to go to college were compelled then to seek 
admission to a preparatory school to secure fit- 
ness for college entrance This touches the 
important question of the harmonizing and 
adaptation of high school and college courses 
of study — a question much discussed in re- 
cent years, with profit to both high schools 
and colleges. 

About the time we are now considering, a 
great deal of diflSculty was experienced in the 
management of the grammar school. The 
room occupied was large and often much 
crowded, sometimes containing two hundred 
or more pupils, and it was not easy to secure 
either man or woman equal to the task of 
handling such a school. Of this department 
we find the president of the board saying in 
a printed report: "Its fortunes have been as 
checkered as those of some of the many who 
have taught or kept it, being by turns a 
small success and a great failure." Fortu- 
nately, school authorities have grown wiser 
than to attempt to conduct schools in that 

In 1868, after a term of service of eight 
years, Mr. Hole declined re-election, and in 
June of that year he and all the teachere asso- 
ciated with him in both the high and gram- 
mar departments retired. 


The school year opening in September, 
1868, was the beginning of a new period in 
the history of the Akron schools. It was a 
period of change, revival, progress. Akron 
was now a city. Its growth and promise had 
brought in new men, and with new business 
prosperity and success, larger and more lib- 
eral views prevailed. In order to have a full 
understanding of this period, it seems desir- 
able to notice some things not primarily con- 
nected with Akron schools. 

In the summer of 1867, an educational re- 
vival started in Cleveland, which soon spread 
throughout and beyond Ohio. While it is 
probable that the work done in the Cleveland 
schools in that day was not below the preva- 
lent standard of the time, the impression pre- 
vailed that something better was attainable. 
It was under the impulse of this impression 
that, in June, 1867, two of Cleveland's prin- 
cipals, Henry M. James and Samuel Find- 
ley, with the approval of the board of educa- 
tion, made a pilgrimage to the normal school 
at Oswego, New York, in search of new light. 
As a result of this pilgrimage, a corps of in- 
structors from the Oswego Normal School 
came to Cleveland in the following August 
and held a teachers' institute for one week. 
Those compasing this body of educational 
missionaries were Professors Krusi and 
Poucher, Mrs. Mary Howe Smith, and Misses 
Lathrop, Cooper and Seaver. The fame of 
this movement having reached Cincinnati, 
the president of the Cincinnati school board 
came to Cleveland and persuaded the same 
corps of instnictors to do missionary work in 
Cincinnati the following \feek. 

It was about this time that that stalwart 
educational reformer. Andrew J. Rickoff. was 
called to succeed Dr.- Anson Smyth in the 
superintendency of the Cleveland schools, and 
it was in the midst of the session of this in- 
.stitute that he entered upon the duties of the 
po!5ition. These two events, the coming of 
the Oswego missionaries, and the coming of 
.Andrew J. RickofT, mark the beginnings of 
an educational revival which extended bevond 



the limits of the city of Cleveland, and be- 
yond the limits of Ohio, and which, we may 
not doubt, is still a living educational force. 

Something of the bearing of these events 
upon the educational interests of Akron may 
be understood when it is known that, a year 
later, Samuel Findley, one of the two Cleve- 
land principals who made the pilgrimage to 
Oswego, was called to the superintendency of 
the Akron schools at a salary of $2,500. Prior 
to his engagement in Cleveland, he had been 
engaged in the schools of Xenia and Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and during his last year in Cleve- 
land he had some part in the work of recon- 
struction undertaken by Superintendent 
Rickoff in the Cleveland schools. The period 
of his superintendency of the Akron schools 
was fifteen years. 

At the time^of Superintendent Findley's 
call to Akron several specially strong teach- 
ers were also employed. Of these, Mrs. N. A. 
Stone, a woman of strong cliaracter and lib- 
eral culture, was made principal of the high 
school, and Miss E. A. Herdman, a graduate 
of Monmouth College (111.), was made prin- 
cipal of the grammar department. Great 
credit is due to these two ladies for the high 
degree of success attained by their respective 
departments. Mrs. Stone's salary, at first 
$1,200, was afterwards increased to $1,400; 
Miss Herdman's sakry start-ed at $900, and 
was soon after increa.sed to $1,000. 

The school syst&m at this time consisted of 
eleven primary schools hou.sed in eleven small 
one-room buildings, and the high school, 
grammar school and secondary schools in the 
one central brick building. 

The school-; opened in September, 1868, 
with twenty-three teachers besides the sup?!"- 
intendent, who, for the time being, heard 
two or three daily recitations in the high 
school. It is to be noted in this connection 
that in this year there were but forty-one pu- 
pils pursuing high school studies. As a mat- 
ter of expediency, the pupils of the A gram- 
mar grade occupied the upper room with the 
high school pupils, and were taught by high 
school teachers. 

No radical changes in cla.ssification, course 

of study, or methods of instruction, were made 
at the opening. The schools were started in 
their accustomed grooves, and changes were 
made from time to time as occasion seemed to 

The fii'st matter of importance to which the 
superintendent directed his attention was the 
classification of the primary schools. A loose 
classification had prevailed in these schools, 
so that in most of them there were six or 
seven diff'erent grades or classes of pupils, 
ranging from beginners to third reader classes. 
Of course, it was impossible for the teachers 
to secure the best results under such condi- 
tions. There were obstacles in the way of 
remedying the evils, chief of which were the 
extended territory and scattered population of 
some portions of the city. Proper classifica- 
tion would necessitate the separation of chil- 
dren of the same family who had hitherto at- 
tended the same school, and in many eases 
would require them to go a greater distance 
to school. But it was believed that the ad- 
vantages to be gained would far more than 
counterbalance these inconveniences, and 
the city was divided into six primary-school 
districts instead of eleven, giving to each dis- 
trict two schools, with one exception. In one 
of two schools was placed all the more 
advanced pupils of both, and in the other all 
the le.«s advanced of both, reducing each 
school to half its former number of grades, 
and nearly or quite doubling the teaching 
force without any increase in the number of 
teachers or any additional expense. 

From this time (1868) onward, the fol- 
lowing general classification has prevailed in 
the Akron schools: 

Primary grades, four years. 

Grammar grades, four years. 

High school grades, three or fonr yemrs. 


In the autumn of 1868 the course of study 
for all grades below the high school was thor- 
oughly revised. The course was divided into 
yearly steps or grades, and the work for 



each grade was prescribed in detail, thus set- 
ting up a standard of attainment for teach- 
ers and pupils. 


Four or five years later the course of study 
was broken into semi-annual steps, and pro- 
motions were made semi-annually instead of 
once a year. This made the classification 
much moi-e flexible. Because of the shorter 
steps, .strong, bright and industrious pupils 
could and often did overtake the next grade 
ahead, and pupils who failed of promotion 
found the fall to the next grade below much 
more endurable than when they were com- 
pelled to fall back an entire year. 

When the semi-annual plan was firet 
adopted, there was some apprehension that it 
might work mischief when it came to the 
high school. It would double the number 
of classes, and necessitate the employment of 
more teachers. But the problem solved itself. 
As population grew, high school attendance 
increased, until ere long it would have been 
necessarj' to break the annual classes into sec- 
tions for purposes of recitation alone. Thus, 
almost of necessity, came to pass semi-annual 
promotions and graduation in the high 
school, and so the practice is unto this day, 


The revised course of study provided, al- 
most exclusively, for oral teaching in the pri- 
mary grades, or first four years of the course. 
The reader was about the only book used in 
these gi'ades. The spelling book was dis- 
carded in all grades. Instead of wasting time 
over long columns of words without moaning 
to the pupils, the plan was to secure thorough 
drill in the spelling of words within the pu- 
pils' vocabulary, each being held accountable 
for the correct spelling of all the words he 

There were daily oral lessons in number 
from the start, but no text-book in arithme- 
tic was used until the fourth or fifth vear. 

Fii"st lessons in geography were also oral, a 
primary text-book being introduced about the 
fifth year. 


On the recommendation of the superintend- 
ent, the daily sessions of the schools were 
shortened. The school day for all gi-ades had 
been six hours. With the adoption of oral 
and objective methods of instruction, came a 
necessity for shorter hours, for the sake both 
of pupils and teachers. For the children 
of the first and second years there were pro- 
vided two daily sessions of two hours each. 
For all other grades there was a morning ses- 
sion of three hours and an afternoon session 
of two hours. There was no perceptible 
diminution in the amount of work accom- 
plished, and both teachers and pupils mani- 
fested greater vigor and interest in the work. 


We have seen that for considerable time 
the high school, with its protracted and heavy 
course of study, did not seem to meet the 
popular demand. Few pupils seemed disposed 
to remain long enough to complete the course 
and graduate. With a view to popularizing 
the school and securing larger attendance, the 
course of study was revised, the more ad- 
vanced studies were eliminated, and the whole 
was reduced to a three-years' course. The ef- 
fect of this was immediate. Seventeen pupils 
graduated in 1872, whereas the largest num- 
ber of graduates in any previous year was 
five. And in the six years ending in 1875, 
the number attending the high school in- 
creased 234 per cent, while the increase in all 
the .schools for the same period was only 50 
per cent. 

Another measure which added considerably 
to the interest of the high school and proved 
of permanent value, was the organization of 
tm^o literary societies, one for each sex, known 
as the Academic and Philomathean societies. 
Friday afternoons were devoted to the ses- 
sions of these societies, under the general 



oversight of the principal and teachers. Each 
society adopted a constitution, elected its own 
officers and prepared and carried out its own 
program. The program usually consisted of 
essays, declamations, debates, reports of crit- 
ics, miscellaneous; etc. Many of the members 
gained considerable facility in extempore 
speaking, and most gained more or less 
familiarity with parliamentary usage. Some 
have testified in after years that the best 
part of their high school training came from 
the Friday afternoons in the literary society. 
These societies have existed for almost forty 
years, and are still successfully operated. 


A feature of the school management at 
this period was the almost exclusive employ- 
ment of women. At one time no man was 
employed in the department of instruction, 
except the superintendent. In the annual re- 
port for 1874-5 are found these statements: 
"The testimony of all familiar with the 
schools is that the discipline has been uni- 
formly better under the management of 
women than formerly when under masculine 
rule. . . . The experiment we have made 
for several years of employing none- but 
women as teachers has been eminently suc- 

Whatever may have seemed to be the teach- 
ing of this experiment, it is noticeable that 
as the system has grown in size and become 
more stable in its appointments, men and 
women have been employed as principals and 
high school teachers in about equal numbers, 
with little, if any, discrimination in salaries, 
as between the sexes. 


It was about the year 1870 that vocal music 
was made a part of the regular course of in- 
struction in the schools of Akron. No doubt, 
there had been from the beginning more or 
less of practice in singing school songs. But 
after the subject was given its place in the 
list of required branches, thoroughly graded 

music lessons were given daily, beginning in 
the lowest primary grades with the simplest 
exercises in distinguishing and making musi- 
cal sounds, and advancing by regular grada- 
tion to the practice of classic music in the 
high school. Opposition arose. A good many 
people, among them some membere of the 
board, looked upon the movement as a waste 
of time and effort. They believed musical 
talent a special gift, possessed only by the 
favored few in sufficient degree to make its 
cultivation desirable. Opposed to this view 
was that of those who maintained that the 
Creator has distributed musical talent among 
men about as generally as he has mathe- 
matical talent, and that any pei-son who has 
the ordinary vocal organs, with power to use 
them so as to make the varying tones used in 
common conversation, may learn to sing with 
as much facility as he learns to read. We find 
the superintendent saying, after the experi- 
ment had been continued four or five years, 
that among the pupils of the lower grades, 
who have been carefully trained from the 
time of their entrance at school, we find none 
unable to learn to sing. 

In view of the agitation of the subject and 
the opposition developed in some quarters, it 
w'as deemed desirable to know what rank the 
subject of vocal music held in the school sys- 
tems of other cities, and the estimation in 
which it was held by leading educators of the 
country. Accordingly, a list of questions was 
mailed to the superintendents of leading cities 
throughout the country, to which over a hun- 
dred replies were received. About four-fifths 
of the cities and towns responding reported 
that vocal music was inchided among the re- 
quired branches of the regular course of in- 
struction, and that the results in music were 
about equal to those attained in other 
branches. There was great imanimity of sen- 
timent among the superintendents as to the 
value of music as a branch of .study in public 
schools. From such responses as these there 
was no dissent: H. P. Wilson, Superintend- 
ent Public Instruction, State of Minnesota: 
"It should be taught in every grade of schools, 
as it is in Pnis.sia." John B. Peaslee. Cincin- 



nati: "It is almost indispensable." Daniel 
Worley, Canton, Ohio: "For discipline, cul- 
ture and general influence upon pupils, I 
place a very high estimate upon it." J. L. 
Pickard, Chicago: "Its value cannot be over- 
estimated." Edward Smith, Syracuse, New 
York : "I would as soon recommend the dis- 
continuance of any other branch." William 
T. Harris, St. Louis, now National Commis- 
sioner of Education, AVashington, D. C. : "I 
consider it of great importance for its moral 
effect in softening the dLsposition and render- 
ing it teachable, and in cultivating the higher 
sentiments." A. M. Gow, Evansville, In- 
diana: "It is invaluable to the individual, 
to the school and to society." 

The board was very fortunate, at the out- 
set, in securing Mr. W. L. Glover as music 
master. Besides high attainment in his 
specialty and great skill in the work of in- 
struction, he has everywhere and always ex- 
hibited true manliness and strength of char- 
acter. No other person has had so long a 
term of service in connection with the Akron 


The question of German in public schools 
has received more or less consideration in the 
board and in the community from time to 
time. In 1877 the question came before the 
board in the form of a petition from citizens, 
asking that the German language be given a 
regular place in the course of study. The 
matter was referred to a committee consist- 
ing of three members of the board, two citi- 
zens outside of the board and the superin- 
tendent of instruction. Deepl)^ sensible of the 
importance and delicacy of the subject, the 
committee entered upon its investigation in 
the spirit of candor, and with the determina- 
tion to reach, if po.«sible, a conclusion based 
solely upon the merits of the case. By means 
of personal conference with leading citizens, 
by visiting neighboring cities which have 
.made provision for instruction in the German 
language, by correspondence with college 

presidents and with superintendents of in- 
struction in all the more important cities and 
towns of this State, by examination of various 
.school reports, and by full and free discus- 
sion of the subject in its various phases, the 
committee sought to gain a comprehensive 
and correct -view of the whole question. 

As was to be expected, the investigations re- 
vealed great diversity of sentiment on the sub- 
ject, ranging all the way from strong opposi- 
tion to the introduction of German into any 
grade of our public schools, to a strong desire 
to see it introduced into every grade. And 
this divei^ity of sentiment was found no less 
among educators and others who have made 
the subject a special study, than among those 
who have bestowed but little thought on the 

After many meetings and much discussion, 
majority and minority reports were submitted. 
The majority report, signed by four mem- 
bers of the committee, may be thus sum- 
marized : The study of the German language 
should be pursued in the schools of this coun- 
try for purposas of higher culture, by those 
who seek a liberal education, rather than for 
purpases of practical utility, by those whose 
means and opportunities can afford them only 
a limited education. We conclude: 

I. The German language may. with pro- 
priety, be made an elective study in the 
higher grades of our public schools. 

II. It is inexpedient to provide instruc- 
tion in German for the piipils in the lower 

These conclusions were well sustained in 
the report by terse and cogent reasoning. 

The minority reported to the effect that it 
is inexpedient and impracticable to introduce 
the study of the German language into any 
of the grades of our public schools. 

These reports were received and printed in 
full in the thirty-first annual report of the 
board of education. No formal action was 
taken at once, but the policy advocated in the 
majority report, has prevailed in the schools 
ever since. 




This subject has received considerable at- 
tention from time to time. The following 
was on© of the standing mles of the board 
for a good many years: "It shall be a duty 
of the first importance, on the part of teach- 
ers, to exercise constant supervision and care 
over the general conduct of their scholars, 
and they are specially enjoined to avail them- 
selves of every opportunity to inculate the 
observance of correct manners, habits and 

The syllabus of instruction at one time 
made this provision, under the head of 
morals and manners: "Inculate reverance 
and love for God as the father of all, obe- 
dience to parents and teachers, and a kind and 
forgiving spirit toward brothers and sisters 
and schoolmates. Memorize verses and max- 
ims. Use Bible and other stories to illustrate 
principles in morals and manners." 

We find frequent allusions to the subject 
in the printed reports of boards and super- 
intendents. In the twenty-fourth annual re- 
port, issued in 1871, occurs this passage: 
"Moral and intellectual culture are insepar- 
able. ... Of the two, the former has the 
higher claim to a place in any system of pop- 
ular education, since it is far more important 
to society that its members po.ssess hearts of 
love to God and man than that they be giants 
in intellect. But it is idle to talk about mak- 
ing the in.'^truction in the schools purely secu- 
lar. We could not do it if we would. Ten- 
der and impressible as are the hearts of the 
young, every teacher cannot but exert over 
the moral nature of his pupils an influence 
either good or bad. A silent unconscious in- 
fluence goes out from the inner life and char- 
acter of the teacher which cannot be meas- 

"It remains for us to .see that a healthy, 
moral influence permeates all the instruction 
and all the discipline of the schools. And 
this can be done without any infringement or 
violation of the principle of religious liberty. 
It does not require the teaching of creeds or 
catechisms, nor the inculcation of the pecu- 

liar dogmas of any sect. Nor do I believe it 
requires the enforced reading of the Bible in 
schools. Better than the Bible in schools is 
its spirit in the heai-ts of the teachers. Bible 
reading in public schools should not, in my 
opinion, be enforced, neither should it be pro- 
hibited by either State or local enactment." 
The question of prohibiting the use of the 
Bible in the schools was once before the board. 
After considerable discussion, it was laid on 
the table, where it still rests. 


In the twenty-fourth annual report (year 
1870-71), the superintendent makes mention 
of this subject. It had been the practice for 
some time to conduct monthly examinations 
in all the grades. This had become burden- 
some to the teachers, and the number of ex- 
aminations was reduced to two each term. 
This seemed sufficient to keep up the pupils' 
interest, and to test the thoroughness of the 
instruction. About 85 per cent of all the pu- 
pils examined were promoted. 

The same subject receives attention in the 
thirty-first annual report, as follows: 

Regular examinations were held every tenth 
week, making four in the year, and two gen- 
eral promotions were made, namely, at the 
middle and at the close of the year. There 
are thus two examinations for each promotion. 
Before commencing the examination imme- 
diately preceding each promotion of pupils, 
the teachers have been required to report a 
list of the names of their pupils, together with 
an estimate of the attainments and capabili- 
ties of each. The promotion of a pupil is 
thus made to depend on the result of two ex- 
aminations, taken in connection with his 
teachers' estimate of his fitness. 

The plan of semi-annual promotion in our 
schools has been productive of good results. 
It affords better classification, and more fully 
adapts the instruction to the wants of all 
classes of pupils. The shorter intervals be- 
tween grades afford better facilities for the 
brighter and stronger pupils to advance ac- . 
cording to their attainments and abilities, and, 



at the same time, it is better for those who fail 
of promotion, permitting them to go over 
again the work of a half year only, instead 
of throwing them back an entire year. 

At the middle of the school year promo- 
tions were made as follows, high school not 
included : 

Whole number examined 1924 

Number ^ot promoted 245 

Per cent of promotions 86.3 

Number advanced two grades 44 

Number withdrawn because not promoted. 4 

At the close of the year the promotions in 
all grades below the high school were as fol- 

Whole number examined 1840 

Number not promoted 147 

Per cent of promotions 92 

Number withdrawn because not promoted 2 

It is a noticeable fact that the average age 
of pupils not promoted exceeds that of thase 
of same grade promoted. 


The village of Middlebury became a part 
of the city of Akron by annexation in 1872, 
adding four schools and four teachers to 
Akron's system, besides a considerable addi- 
tion to the high school. About the same time, 
the statute was so altered as to enlarge the 
board of education to twelve members. From 
its first organization under the Akron school 
law to this time, the board consisted of six 
members, two elected at large each year. Un- 
der the later statute the board consisted of two 
members from each ward, one elected each 
year. The city having six wards, the board 
consisted of twelve members. When, a few 
years later, the number of wards was increased 
to eight, the board had sixteen members. 

This was a gain in quantity, but a loss in 
quality. TVTien two men were chosen each 
year from the city at large, representative 
men were usually chosen — men of enlarged 
views, but when each ward chose its man to 
represent it, it seemed to be the small poli- 
tician's opportunity. Men of small caliber 
and little fitness were often able to push them- 

selves in. A change in the spirit and policy 
of the board was soon apparent. Personal and 
local interests often prevailed against the gen- 
eral good. Fortunately, a recent revision of 
the statute has virtually restored former con- 


The necessity of well qualified teachers for 
the schools was the burden of nearly every re- 
port in the period now under consideration. 
It is declared to be the most important of all 
.subjects connected with public education. 
"The selection of teachers is the vital point in 
our common school system. . . . The neces- 
sity of employing untrained and inexperienced 
teachers is the greatest evil with which we 
have to contend. . . . The loss of time to 
the pupils, to say nothing of the idle and 
vicious habits formed, during the apprentice- 
ship of our young girl teachers, is a serious 
evil, and I often wonder at the patience of the 
pupils and their parents under it. . . . 
T have little hope of further progre.«s until 
some decided steps are taken in this matter." 

Measures were considered from time to 
time in mitigation of the evil complained of. 
At one time we find the superintendent sug- 
gesting, "as the least that we should do under 
our present circumstances, that our young 
graduates, who desire to teach, be required, 
before receiving appointments, to spend at 
least one year in the study of pedagogy, in- 
cluding the human powers and the means 
and methods of their development and train- 
ing, in the more minute and thorough study 
of the common branches with reference to 
teachig them, and in such observation of the 
best methods of teaching and such practice 
under experienced teachers as our own schools 
might afford." This seems like groping in 
the right direction — groping which, a few 
years later, resulted in a well-equipped nor- 
mal school. Meanwhile, so great seemed the 
need, resort was had to a temporary expedient, 
which had the merit of originality and sim- 
plicity, and which gave promise of good re- 
sults. A new building of eight rooms was 
converted into a quasi-training school. Sev- 



eral young ladies, graduates of the high 
school, without experience in teaching, were 
employed at a nominal salai-y, and set to teacli- 
ing. Over them was placed a teacher of expe- 
rience and approved skill and ability to direct 
their work day by day . The plan was inexpen- 
sive and met with favor to the extent that it 
was subsequently adopted in another build- 
ing. It was with the same end in view that a 
little later a woman of marked ability and 
success in teaching was employed as super- 
visor of primary instruction. All these efforts 
to secure better teachers and improve the 
teaching tended in the same direction, name- 
ly, the establishing of a normal department as 
a permanent part of the city school system. 


A characteristic of the period of Akron 
school history now under consideration was 
an improved and improving moral tone. 
There was a general toning up all along the 
line. Citizens spoke of the improved bearing 
of the pupils on the street. There was more 
prompt and regular attendance. For exam- 
ple, with 1,541 pupils enrolled in the school 
j^ear ending in June, 1869, there were 6,006 
case? of tardiness reported; with 3.005 pupils 
enrolled for year ending June, 1880, there 
were 1,223 cases of tardiness. There was less 
of severity and more of gentleness in the gov- 
ernment of the schools. It became a rare 
thing for any case of discipline to be brought 
before the board of education. These gains 
were largely due to the high character of the 
teachers employed. It is a rare thing to find 
so much strength and goodness of character 
in a corps of public school teachers. 

Mrs. N. A. Stone, already mentioned, con- 
tinued in charge of the high school, with 
marked ability and success, until 1873, a pe- 
riod of five years. Of her a leading member 
of the Akron bar .«aid that she had the intel- 
lect of a great, strong man, and the heart 
of a refined, gentle woman. 

Mrs. Stone retired for a year of rest and 
travel, and was succeeded by Miss Maria Par- 
sons, who was eminently faithful and emi- 

nently successful. Too much cannot be said 
in her praise. Under her management the 
high school continued to grow in interest as 
well as in numbers. After seven yeare of very 
exhausting labor, she declined re-election, and 
was succeeded by Wilbur V. Rood, the first 
man called to the position since Superintend- 
ent I. P. Hole. Mr. Rood was not a man of 
great physical strength, but he conducted the 
school with a good degree of success for eigh- 
teen yeai's. Just as he was completing the 
work of his eighteenth year, only two or three 
days before commencement, he was suddenly 
called home. His years of service in the 
Akron high school were characterized by 
great faithfulness. Well done, good and 
faithful servant, is the verdict in his case. 

Miss E. A. Herdman, who became prin- 
cipal of the senior grammar school in the au- 
tumn of 1868, and managed it with phenome- 
nal success, continued in chai'ge of that de- 
partment, with the same eminent success that 
marked her first year, until the spring of 
1874, when she retired on account of ill 
health, and died in November following. Her 
strength of character, combined with fervent 
affection and genial humor, gave her great 
power over her pupils. She governed by the 
strength of her own personality, rather than 
by the infliction of pains and penalties. Miss 
Herdman was succeeded by Miss Kate Ur- 
ner, and she by Miss Josephine A. Newberry. 
These two last named were strong and suc- 
cessful teachers. 


It was about 1874 that four lads from the 
Akron high .school pa.ssed the entrance exam- 
ination and were admitted to Western Reserve 
College at Hudson, Ohio. These are proba- 
bly the first students prepared for college in 
the Akron high school. They prepared in 
Greek under Miss Oburn, one of the assist- 
ants in the high school, in part out of regular 
school hours. Three of the four completed 
the college course and were graduated with 

Sub-sequently, an advantageous arrange- 



ment was effected with Buchtel College, 
whereby high school students wishing to pre- 
pare for college were admitted to the regu- 
lai- preparatory Greek classes in the college 
■nathout cost, the Greek thus acquired being 
accepted as an equivalent for such part of the 
high school course as might be agreed upon. 
This arrangement continued in force for a 
good many years and proved mutually advan- 
tageous to high school and college, as well as 
to those students who availed themselves of 
the privilege. 

After fifteen years of continuous service, 
Superintendent Findley declined a re-elec- 
tion and retired. His term began in 1868 
and ended in 1883, starting with twenty- 
two teachers and ending with sixty-two. 
Within this period, two hundred and eighty- 
nine pupils were graduated from the high 
school, making a total of three hundred and 
four, including fifteen graduated prior to 1869 
The following named two-story brick build- 
ings were erected, nearly all the small, frame 
buildings previously used having been aban- 
doned: Bowen, Crosby, Perkins, Howe, Al- 
len, Spicer, Kent, Henry. These buildings 
contained at first from four to eight rooms 
each. They have .since been enlarged by ad- 
ditions, one containing eighteen rooms; sev- 
eral others, twelve rooms. 

PROF, fraunfelter's superintendency. 

Elias Fraunfelter entered upon the super- 
intendency of the Akron schools in Septem- 
ber, 1883. After three years of service in the 
Union army, he taught in Vermillion Insti- 
tute and Savannah Academy, subsequently 
filling the chair of mathematic in Buchtel 
College for ten years. He filled the office of 
superintendent very acceptably for fourteen 
years, being compelled to retire on account 
of failing health, and dying soon after. 

Owing to the fact that no report, in form 
to be pre.ser\'ed, was published in the time of 
his term of service, no very full nor detailed 
account of Superintendent Fraunfelter's ad- 
ministration can be here given. No radical 
changes were inaugurated at the outset nor. 

indeed, at any time. The same general or- 
ganization of the schools, the same classifi- 
cation and the same principles and methods 
of instruction in vogue in recent years were 
continued. There was no disposition to make 
changes, merely for the sake of change. The 
period, as a whole, was one of harmony and 
success. The school system grew rapidly 
amd maintained a high place in public esti- 

new high school and other new 

The need of more school rooms had been 
frequently brought to the attention of the 
board. Many of the schools w^ere over- 
crowded. It had been shown that to as.sign 
to each teacher only a suitable number of 
pupils w^ould require the employment of 
twenty additional teachers, and the providing 
of a corresponding number of additional 
school rooms. And besides, the unsuitable- 
ness of the rooms occupied by the high school, 
the very defective heating and ventilation of 
the entire high ,«chool building, and its close 
proximity to railroads, mills, depot, etc., ren- 
dered it very unfit for school purposes. 

The location and construction of a new 
high school building had been under consid- 
eration for some time, but the matter was 
taken up in earnest in 1883. Conflicting in- 
terests, and diversity of opinion, both as to 
location and character and style of .stnicture. 
caused considerable delay. A lot was selected 
and puroha.sed at a cost of $19,000. A con- 
tract for the erection of the building was en- 
tered into in 1885, and the whole was com- 
pleted and ready to occupy in September. 
1886. The entire cost, including heating ap- 
paratus and • furniture, was about $135,000. 
Besides twelve commodious school rooms \A'ith 
their appurtenances, there were a large as- 
sembly room, offices for the board of educa- 
tion, the superintendent of instruction, the 
high school principal, clerk of the board, 
truant officer, etc., teachers' parlor and rooms 
for literary societies, library, museum, etc. 

When first occupied the new building con- 



tained, besides the high school, a consider- 
able number of upper grade grammar school 
pupils, but it was not long until the entire 
building was required for the high school, and 
provision had to be made elsewhere for the 
grammar school pupils. At the present time 
(1907) the high school has outgrown the 
building, and a large addition is almost com- 

Other new buildings erected in this period 
are those known as the Grace, the Leggett 
and the Bryan. 


Near the end of the old century the course 
of study in the high school was restored to 
a four-years' course. This was done in re- 
sponse to the requirements of the Ohio Col- 
lege Association. A committee of college men 
had visited the high schools of the State, and 
proposed to admit to college, without exami- 
nation, students from those high schools 
whose course of study and teaching were 
found to be of sufficiently high grade. The 
Akron high school was thus placed in the 
list of accredited schools. It w^as felt that 
the reduction to a three-years' course had ac- 
complished its purpose of popularizing the 
school and building it up in numbers. 


About the same time steps were taken in 
the direction of manual training. Special 
teachers were employed, and the girls received 
lessons in cooking and sewing, and the boys, 
in wood-working. The work a.lo'ng these 
lines was conducted with considerable inter- 
est for a time, but the interest waned, and the 
work was discontinued, with a view to being 
resumed later with better equipment. 


Various remedies had been proposed from 
time to time for the evils growing out of the 
adoption of text-books for use in the schools. 
It was even propped that the State should 

secm'e copyrights and jjublish all the books 
necessary to supply the schools. A law was 
enacted requiring boards of education to pur- 
chase the books at wholesale and sell them 
to the pupils at cost. This plan was followed 
in the Akron schools for a time, but it had 
many drawbacks, and was, on the whole, un- 
satisfactory. At length, a law was passed 
granting to boards of education the option of 
adopting the free text-book plan. Akron was 
among the first to adopt the plan : First, as 
applicable to all grades below the high school. 
This proving satisfactory, the high school was 
subsequently included, so that, at this writ- 
ing, the text-books used in all grades of the 
schools are purchased and held as the prop- 
erty of the board and furnished for free use 
by the pupils. The plan has decided advan- 
tages, and gives general satisfaction. 


There seems to be an ebb and flow in the 
management of schools as in most human af- 
fairs. There was a time when it seemed that 
writtcin examinations might prove the specific 
for most of the ailments of school manage- 
ment. At one time the president of the 
Akron board of education suggested the sub- 
stitution of written examinations for the 
daily recitation in all grades above the pri- 
mary. But in the period now under consid- 
eration, about 1890, we find it announced a^ 
a "valuable advance," that "formal examina- 
tions for promotion" have been dispensed 
with, that promotions are made on the rec- 
ommendation of the teachers and principals 
of the several schools, and that "the plan has 
so far worked most admirably." The pendu- 
lum has since swung back. Examinations 
.still have a place in the Akron schools. 


The supply of qualified teachers for the 
schools has continued to engage the attention 
of school officials through all the years. Al- 
most every conceivable expedient has been 
tried for providing the necessary training 



without undue expense. One of the latest ex- 
periments was the employment of one student 
teacher for each building to be in daily at- 
tendance, and to act as substitute in ca.«e of the 
absence of a regular teacher, from sickness or 
other cause. At length, in 1896, a normal 
training department of the city schools was 
established. A two-years' course of study was 
prescribed, with practice under a critic 
teacher. The school was a success from the 
start. It wa.s not long after the opening of 
the school, when twenty-five of its graduates 
were emploj'ed as teachers in the schools 
within a single year. This is undoubtedly 
a wise measure — one having in it much of 
promise to the schools of the city. 


About this time a law was passed requir- 
ing compulsory attendance at school. The 
taxpayers' money was forcibly taken to main- 
tain schools for the education of the children. 
It is right to see that the end sought be not 
defeated by the indifference or waywardness 
of the children, or the negligence or cupidity 
of their parents. Of necessity there must be 
a tniant officer to enforce the law. Perhaps 
the following report of that officer for a year 
will give a fair idea of the working of the 
law : 

Visits made at schools 473 

Visits made at homes 1450 

Pupils sent for 1323 

Absentees brought to school 170 

Truants apprehended and brought to 

school 54 

Pupils under 14 caused to attend school . 162 
Pupils between 14 and 16 caused to at- 
tend school 33 

Notices served on parents 223 

Pupils excused on physician's certificate. 39 

Pupils moved from the city 101 

Reported to poor director for shoes 231 

Reported to poor director for clothing. . 54 
Pupils withdrawn and engaged at regu- 
lar employment 169 

Pupils under 14 caused to be discharged 
from shops and sent to school 64 

Pupils brought before the mayor 24 

Parents prosecuted 21 

Pupils sent to reform school 4 

Notices served on truants 79 

Dealers prosecuted and fined for selling 

cigarettes and tobacco to minors. ... 3 
Children placed in charitable institu- 
tions 37 


About 1895 a law was passed authorizing 
women to vote at school elections and to hold 
any school office, except that of State Com- 
missioner of Common Schools. At the first 
election following this enactment a consid- 
erable number of Akron women registered as 
voters and their ballots, and two women 
were regularly nominated and elected mem- 
bers of the board of education, namely, Mrs. 
Miner Allen and Mrs. 0. L. Sadler. They 
were representative women, well qualified for 
the duties of the office. Mrs. Allen had 
taught in the schools for several years quite 
successfully. Both women served faithfully 
and efficiently for the full term of two years, 
at the end of which time, Mrs. Sadler declined 
to be a candidate for re-election. Mrs. Allen 
was renominated, but lacked a few votes of 
re-election. Since that time, no woman's 
name has been presented as a candidate for 
the office, and few women have claimed the 
privilege of voting. Interest in the move- 
ment seems to have died a natural death. 


In this period, pupils were graduated from 
the high school as follows: 

1884 35 1891 69 

1885 49 1892 74 

1886 56 1893 72 

1887 59 1894 85 

1888 62 1895 107 

1889 48 1896 75 

1890 65 1897 62 



Total in Superintendent Fraunfelter's 

term 918 

Total from the beginning 1222 

Total number of teachers employed in 
all the schools in 1897, including 
principals and special teachers 137 

Total number of pupils enrolled in all 
departments for year 1890-1901 .... 5283 

Total expenditures for year 1890-1901, 
including $25,000 for a new 
building $11 1,581 


A feature of Superintendent Fraunfelter's 
administration deserving of .special mention 
was the supplying of every grade below the 
high school and above the lower primary 
grades, with suitable reading matter, in addi- 
tion to the regular reader of the grade ; .-o 
that each pupil in every half-year grade had 
from two to four good books to be read in 
class, under the teacher's direction and in- 
struction — books of story, travel, biography, 
general literature, etc. This was a great 
gain. Something in this direction had been 
attempted in previous years, by inducing pu- 
pils to subscribe for children's and youth's 
magazines. But this was only partially suc- 
cessful. There was great gain when the board 
purchased well diosen books in quantity, and 
lent them to the pupils without cost. 

Through the stimulus of interest and infor- 
mation, the pupils more readily gained the 
ability to read independently and fluently. 
They acquired much useful information. But 
above all, by being introduced to good au- 
thors, many learned to love good reading and 
laid the foundation of a taste for the best in 


On the retirement of Dr. Fraunfelter, Mr. 
R. S. Thomas was called from the superin- 
tendency of the public schools of Warren. 
Ohio, to take charge of the Akron schools. 

He took up the work in September, 1897, and 
held the position for three years. 


It was about this time that night schools 
were established for the benefit of youth of 
school age whose circumstances would not al- 
low their attendance at the regular daily ses- 
sions of the schools, but who yet desired to 
gain some education. In some cases, foreign- 
ers embraced this opportunity of gaining a 
knowledge and use of our language. Me- 
chanical drawing was sometimes taught in 
these .schools, but students usually paid for 
their tuition in this subject. 


A movement looking in the direction of 
kindergartens was started under Mr. Thomas' 
superintendency. Schools known as "transi- 
tion schools" were organized in some of the 
buildings. Into these were admitted children 
between the ages of five and six years, for 
whom instruction was provided which par- 
took more or less of the nature of kindergar- 
ten exercises, designed to mark the transition 
between the home and the school. These 
seemed to serve a good purpose, and, in a 
short time, very naturally grew into fully 
equipped kindergartens. 


A feature of this period was an effort to 
do things in another way, to avoid monotony. 
to keep out of the ruts. There was also a 
slaekening of the tension, a le.<s rigid adher- 
ence to classification and course of study, and 
an attempt at greater lil>erty and originality 
in the teaching. There was .seeming good in 
the end sought, but the inevitable tendency 
was to confusion and slackne.=s. The suc- 
ceeding administration found readjustment, 
and the restoration of former conditions in 
large measure, essential to the best interests 
of the schools. 




There seems to have been a considerable 
falling off in the number of graduates in the 
three yeare of Mr. Thomas' administration. 
It is noticeable, too, that the records contain 
no mention of mid-year graduation. A good 
class was graduated at the end of each half- 
yeafl', from 1886 to 1897. Why the practice 
of mid-year graduation was intermitted in 
these three years, does not appear. The rec- 
ords show the following graduations: 

In June, 1898 30 

In June, 1899 24 

In June. 1900 18 

The falling off may be accounted for in 
part by the change from a three-year to a 
four-year course of study. 

Mr. E. H. Birney succeeded Mr. Rood in 
the principalship of the high school, and held 
the position for two years. 


It was in the last year of the old century 
that Dr. H. V. Hotchki-ss was called from 
the superintendency of the schools of Mead- 
ville, Pennsylvania, to take charge of the 
Akron schools. His work in Akron began in 
September of that year. This work, for con- 
siderable time, consisted, in large measure, of 
reconstniction and reorganization. Many va- 
cancies in the teaching force had to be filled, 
among them the principalship of the high 
school and one other principalship. Territory 
recently annexed to the city had to be dis- 
tricted, and the pupils a-s-^igned and classified. 
An elaborate syllabus of instruction had been 
prepared and printed in 1897; but ver>^ little 
attempt was made at any time to follow it, 
and at length it was wholly ignored. Confu- 
sion reigned in all the grades, but espe- 
cially in the high school. The labor involved 
in bringing order out of this confusion ^\-as 
very perplexing and very great. But it was 
soon manifest that the new superintendent 

and his helpers understood their business. 
Order was at length restored, and the schools, 
in every department, have ever since contin- 
ued to run smoothly and prosperously. 

STATUS IN 1901. 

These statistics, gleaned from the annual 
report for the year ending August 31, 1901, 
give a fair view of conditions then existing: 

Total expenditures (including 
building and grounds, and 
bonds redeemed, $83,643.97) $249,471.68 

Enumeration of school youth 11,877 

Average monthly enrollment 7,361 

Average monthly enrollment in high 

school 698 

Whole number teachers employed . . . 190 
High school teachers — 'men 9, women 

13, total 22 

Teachers in elementary schools — men 

13, women 155, total 168 

High School graduates — boys 19, girls 

21, total 40 

Number of Kindergartens 8 

Kindergarten children enrolled 240 


A large share of space in the report is 
devoted to the course of study — a discussion 
of the advantages in a large system of schools, 
of a clearly defined published course, and its 
underlying principles. Four courses of study 
are prescribed for the high school, namely, 
the Latin course, the Gennan course, the 
business course, and the manual training 
course. These courses are printed side by 
side, with directions and suggestions to aid 
parents and pupils in making choice of the 
course to be pursued. 

The same subject is continued in the report 
for the next year, more especially with refer- 
ence to the schools below the high school. 
The "course of study and manuals of instruc- 
tion" provided "outlines the work to be done, 
and enumerates many of the principles, laws 



and methods by which it is to be accom- 
plished." In the weekly teachers' meetings, 
conducted by the principals in the several 
buildings, a considerable portion of the time 
is spent in a critical study of the provisions 
of the course of study. Grade meetings are 
also conducted by the superintendent, in 
which the aim is to make clear and familiar 
to the teachers the prescribed work grade by 
grade — the aim and purpose of all which is 
to make txue artists of the teachers. 


From the annual report for the year ending 
August 31, 1902, it is learned that the su- 
perintendent gave much consideration to the 
perfecting of the organization of the schools 
in every department, to the end that the 
highest efficiency may be attained with the 
least expenditure of money and effort. With 
a million dollars invested in school buildings 
and their furnishing and equipment, and the 
annual expenditure of one-fourth of a mil- 
lion dollars on account of the schools, or 
thirteen hundred dollars for every school day, 
or more than two hundred and twenty-five 
dollars for every hour of every school day, 
the necessity for the best organization of all 
the forces is apparent from a financial stand- 
point. The superintendent thus presents the 
moral phase: 

"The element of organization is a miglity factor 
In rendering school management effective for the 
moral training of the pupils who come under its 
influence. A system of schools which insists that 
pupils attend school every session; that they he 
punctual at all exercises; that they conduct them- 
selves in an orderly and quiet manner in coming 
and going; that they restrain themselves from 
whispering, and thereby disturbing others; that 
they be considerate of the rights and privileges of 
others; that they be respectful, not only toward 
teacher, but toward fellow-pupils as well; that 'they 
be industrious, accurate, neat and painstaking — 
such a system, it thoroughly organized and strictly 
administered during the six to twelve years of 
the school life of the child, when habits are 
formed, will go a long way toward the develop- 
ment of those habits of conduct which constitute 
the basis of good citizenship in the republic." 

As examples of this organization for effi- 

ciency the following are given in the report: 
"Upon the last day of the school year, every 
teacher in the city knows just where she will 
Work during the next school year; what grade or 
grades of pupils she will teach; the number of 
pupils in her room, barring transfers and with- 
drawals, and the names of those pupils. Every 
pupil is told just what his work will be next term. 
In every school room are placed the books and 
supplies necessary for the use of the teacher and 
pupils at the opening of the term in September. 
The course of study tells each teacher what her 
class has done, and what they are expected to 
do within the term that they are to be under 
her instruction. ' She will be able, therefore, to 
plan her work so that within ten minutes from 
the opening of school upon the first day every 
pupil shall be at work upon lessons that are to 
be learned by him within the term." 

"The present system of ordering and distribut- 
ing stationery supplies is also a great saver 
of time, money and labor. Early in June, the su- 
perintendent makes a sheet, stating in tabular 
form the quantity of each kind of supplies needed 
for each building in the city. These aggregates 
are combined in a circular letter asking for bids. 
These letters are sent to manufacturers, jobbers, 
and dealers all over the eastern part of our coun- 
try. Early in June the bids which have been re- 
ceived, are opened and tabulated, and the contracts 
for furnishing the several kinds of supplies are 
let to the lowest and best bidders. The result is 
that we are buying our stationery supplies as 
cheaply, probably, as any dealer in the country, 
and very much more cheaply than most school dis- 
tricts can buy them. When the contracts have been 
let, the orders are placed In such a way that the 
shipper packs the goods in separate bundles, mark- 
ing each bundle to the building to which it Is to 
be delivered. In this way, the supplies are de- 
livered directly from the factory to the school 
buildings where they are to be consumed; there- 
by saving the labor, time and expense of much 


Reference is made elsewhere to the sub- 
ject of free text-books. In January, 1901, 
the Board of Education entered completely 
upon the plan of furnishing all textrbooks 
and school supplies free to the children in ele- 
mentary schools. Beginning with the school 
year 1905-06, the free text-book system was 
extended to the high school. Thereafter, 
everything needed by the child to pursue his 
siudies in any of the public schools of the city 
was furnished free. 




Under the superintendency of Dr. Hotch- 
kiss, all the principals were relieved from 
the duty of supervising and teaching separate 
school rooms as regular teachers. It did not 
seem wise, as a business enterprise, to employ 
men and women as principals at principals' 
salaries, and then confine them to separate, 
single school rooms and require them to per- 
form the work of the grade teacher, which 
ought to be performed for the salary of such 
a teacher. Principals are expected to teach 
almost constantly. Their work, however, is 
to be with teachers, with small groups of 
pupils, and occasionally with schools. Each 
principal is held responsible for the progress, 
not only of his schools as a whole, but of 
the individuals in them. If there is a single 
pupil, or a small group of pupils in any 
grade, especially strong and capable of mov- 
ing forward into the next grade with a little 
wise help, it is the principal's business to give 
such help and to make such promotion. If 
there are individual pupils, or small groups 
of pupils, who find the work a little too diffi- 
cult, but who might, with some individual 
help of the right kind, at the right time, 
maintain their positions in the several grades, 
it is the principal's business to ascertain that 
fact and to .give the help needed. 


The kindergartens, fifteen in number, are 
now as much a part of the city school system 
as any other school. They constitute the con- 
necting link between the home and the pri- 
mary school. It has been the fault of many 
advocates of the kindergarten to seek to pre- 
serve the mysticism and symbolism of its 
founders and early exponents, and to claim 
for it a special and mysterious merit. The 
later tendency is to modernize and American- 
ize the kindergarten, bringing it into closer 
touch with the work of the primary school. 
The Akron kindergartens have been consider- 
ably modified since thev were first made a 

part of the city school system; and the ten- 
dency is in the direction of still further modi- 
fication, to bring them more completely into 
harmony with the school system of which 
they are a part. 


The course of study and training extends 
through two years. "In the first year the 
students study educational psychology with 
special reference to the science and art of 
teaching; the general principles, laws and 
methods of teaching, or those principles, laws 
and methods which govern all teaching pro- 
cesses; special methods of teaching all the 
several common English branches; the his- 
tory of education. During the second year 
of the course the .student teachers continue 
their study of methods and principles of 
teaching and apply them in actual teaching. 
Four schools of four different grades are 
taught by the student teachers, under the 
constant direction, aid and criticism of two 
expert teachers known as critic teachers. By 
this arrangement of the normal course, one 
year is given to the theory of teaching and 
one year to the practice of that theory in 
actual teaching under expert direction and 
criticism. The results of the training given 
young women in the normal school have been 
satisfactory in a high degree. Young women, 
after completing the course in the normaJ 
school, know not only what it is to teach 
school, but how to teach school. In short, 
most of them are good teachers. 

"The normal school is a blessing to those 
young women of the city who -uash to be- 
come teachers; for by it any graduate of the 
high school, without expense, is enabled to 
get as good professional training as is given 
in the first class normal schools of the 

The normal school is maintained and op- 
erated without additional expense to the city. 
It is true that two critic teachers are em- 
ployed at a higher salary than that paid to 
the regular teachers in the grades, but with 



these two critic teachers and the student 
teachers in training, the city is able to care 
for four schools, for which it would be nec- 
essary to employ four teachers at the salaries 
provided for by the schedule of salaries. 

The superintendent maintains that there is 
no course of study of two years' duration that 
any young woman who has graduated from 
the high school could take that would do her 
more good as a means of broad culture than 
the normal school course, even though she 
were never to teach a day after graduation 
from the normal school. 


The High School, some time since, out- 
grew its building. In 1906, the Board pro- 
vided for the erection of an annex. This 
annex is expected to afford additional room 
for the accommodation of the increased at- 
tendance in the high school, as well as facili- 
ties for physical training in the gymna.sium ; 
manual training for the boys; domestic 
science and ai"t for the girls, and shorthand 
and typewriting for those pupils taking the 
commercial coui-se. 

The courses of study in the high school 
were changed in April, 1907, to conform to 
the provisions in the new annex. The new 
courses are four — the Latin, the German, the 
commercial and the manual training. Ac- 
cording to the revi.?ed courses, all boys, as a 
part of their first year's work, will take car- 
pentry three double periods per week, and 
drawing two double periods per week; all 
girls will take cooking and sewing three dou- 
ble periods per week, and drawing two double 
periods per week. At the end of the first 
year, all boys in the courses offering the Ger- 
man language, will have an opportunity to 
decide whether they will take the manual 
training course, or one of the other two 

The manual training course is planned to 
give the boys who take it a thorough high 
school education in the German language and 
literature, natural sciences, mathematics and 

history, and, in addition, to give them the 
elements of all of a half-dozen different 
trades. It is believed that at the completion 
of the manual training course, boys will have 
sufficient skill to secure credit for from two to 
three yeai"s upon an apprenticeship in any 
one of a half<lozen trades. 


Since 1900, new schoolhouses have been 
completed as follows: The Perkins normal 
school building, in 1901 ; the Miller school, 
in 1901 ; the Lane school, in 1903 ; the 
Fraunfelter school, in January, 1905; the 
Samuel Findley school, in 1906 ; the high 
.school annex, in 1907. 

Present Status (1907). 

Board of Education consists of seven mem- 

Number of school buildings 17 

Total enrollment of pupils 9425 

Number of teachers employed 235 

High school enrollment 961 

Teachers in high school 25 

Total number of high school graduates 

(including class of June, 1907) 1790 



Zion's Evangelical Lutheran Church, sit- 
uated on South High Street, has maintained 
its own palish school almost from its organi- 
zation. When the congregation was small, 
the pastor was also the parish teacher. At 
the present time, there is an enrollment of 
200 pupils in three departments, taught by 
three male teachers, whose salai'ies range 
from $500 to $600. The expense is borne by 
the parish. A small tuition fee is charged, 
the amount thus raised being .supplemented 
by suliscriptions as for other parish expenses. 
The branches taught are: Religion (cate- 
chism and Bible lessons in German) ; Read- 
ing (German and English) ; Vocal Music; 
Grammar (German and English) ; Arithme- 



tic (mostly in English) ; Composition (Ger- 
man and English) ; Penmanship; Geography 
and U. S. History (in English). The chil- 
dren of the congregation attend the parish 
school from their sixth or seventh year until 
the age of fourteen, when they are given a 
certificate of scholarship, and may then enter 
the public schools for a higher education. In 
their fourteenth year, they are confirmed and 
become full members of the church. 

German Lutherans believe in an education 
for their children that will train not only 
the mind, but the heart and conscience as 
well. The public school deals with the minds 
of the children, inculcates patriotism, and 
prepares for American citizenship, and, for 
these ends, may be sufficient ; but it is outside 
the sphere of the State to inculcate the teach- 
ings of scripture pertaining to the soul's sal- 
vation. It is not the function of the public 
school to teach the Christian creed, the ten 
commandments, the rites of baptism and the 
Lord's supper. To do these things is the 
sacred duty of Christian parents and the 
Christian church. And German Lutherans 
believe these obligations are best fulfilled by 
the parochial school, and they are ready to 
make any sacrifice to maintain it. They ask 
and expect no aid from the public school 
fund. It is not the duty of the State to sup- 
port parochial schools. That sacred obliga- 
tion devolves upon Christian parents and the 
Christian church. 


The parish school of St. Vincent De Paul's 
Catholic Church was established in 1853, in a 
small frame building on Green Street. It was 
removed to the fine two-story brick building 
on Maple Street in 1893. This building con- 
tains seven school rooms, in which are en- 
rolled about 300 pupils. Besides religious in- 
struction in all the grades, the course of study 
includes the branches usually taught in the 
public schools, the course for the highest 
grade including the usual high school 
branches, such as algebra, geometry. Latin, 
rhetoric, etc. 

St. Mary's branch of this church erected 70 
buildings on South Main Street and organized 
pai'ish schools in 1887. There are now about 
300 pupils in attendance, and a corps of six 
teachers. The course of study is identical 
with that pursued at St. Vincent's school. 

St. Bernard's Parochial School, situated on 
the corner of Broadway and Center Streets, 
was built in 1887. Prior to this period school 
was taught for some years in a small house 
adjoining the old St. Bernard's Church, and 
later four large rooms in the basement of said 
church were used for school purposes. 

The present building is a brick structure 
and contains eight large classrooms and a 
spacious auditorium. "The cost of building, 
equipments, etc., is estimated at $50,000. Un- 
til 1893, St. Bernard's School was taught by 
the Sistere of Notre Dame. Since then the 
school is in charge of the Sisters of St. Domi- 
nic. There are 475 pupils in attendance, 
ranging in age from 6 to 15 years. The 
school is divided into primarj' and grammar 
departments and a senior grade. The 
branches taught are: Reading, arithmetic, 
orthography, penmanship, composition, lan- 
guage, English grammar, geography, United 
States history, Bible and church history, 
physiology, algebra, civil government, ele- 
ments of geometry, elementary bookkeeping, 
business correspondence. 

German reading and writing is taught in 
all the grades. All pupils are required to 
study the Catechism of Christian doctrine, 
though they are at liberty to choose to take 
this branch in either language. 

No tuition is required from pupils belong- 
ing to the parish ; but parents are expected to 
furnish the books. 

All pupils who have completed the Senior 
grade are awarded a diploma of graduation. 
This school aims at the Christian training of 
youth, not only offering them every opportu- 
nity for obtaining a good and solid educa- 
tion in all the common English branches, but 
endeavoring mainly to develop those nobis 
traits of Chri.stian manhood and womanhood 



which constitute the high distinction of the 
lionored Catholic citizen. 

The Sacred Heart Academy, on South 
Broadway, conducted by the Sisters of St. 
Dominic, was began in 1904. The Academy 
has four departments: Primary, Grammar, 
Commercial and Academic. depart- 
ments embrace all the branches of a thorough 
practical education. The commercial course, 
coveiing two years, includes reading and 
spelling, commercial arithmetic, commercial 
law, penmanship, business correspondence, 
bookkeeping, stenography, typewriting and 
English grammar. 

Tuition includes Latin, German, needle 
work and embroidery. The Academy affords 
ample facilities to students who desire to de- 
vote particular attention to the study of mu- 
sic, drai\'ing and painting. Special attention 
is given to drawing, crayon and pastel, oil 
painting, china decoration, and tapestry 

Difference in creed or religious belief is no 
bar to the admission of any pupil who is will- 
ing to conform to the lailcs of the institution. 


At the time of tbe adoption of the "Articles 
of Confederation," when the States ceded their 
lands northwest of the Ohio River to the gen- 
eral government, Connecticut reserved that 
portion of her territory lying next west of 
Pennsylvania, forty leagues in length. This 
tract has since been known as the Connecticut 
Western Reserve. On this tract. Western Re- 
serve College was established by its early set- 
tlers for the promotion of sound learning and 
religion in their midst, and to extend their 
good influences over the new country to the 
south and west. 

The first movement toward the founding 
of a college on the Western Reserve was made 
in 1801, when a petition for a charter was 
.sent to the territorial legislature, numerously 
signed by the settlers and by many of the 
landowners residing in Connecticut. The 
prayer of the petitioners was not granted at 

that time. In 1803, after the admission of 
Ohio into the Union as a State, the petition 
was renewed and a charter was granted to the 
"Erie Literary Society" with full college 
powers. Under this charter, an academy was 
opened at Burton in 1806, with the expecta- 
tion that it should be expanded into a college 
as fast as circumstances would warrant. 

In 1822, the Grand River and Portage 
presbyteries undertook to raise a fund to aid 
young men in preparing for the Christian 
ministry, and placed this fund in the hands 
of a board of managers. These managers, 
under direction of their presbyteries, entered 
into a compact with the trustees of the Erie 
Literary Society, whereby a theological de- 
partment was to be added to the academy at 
Burton. This arrangement, after trial, prov- 
ing unsatisfactory, the connection was dis- 
solved in 1824, and the managers at once 
began efforts to establish a college elsewhere. 
The academy at Burton continued under its 
charter until 1834, when it ceased to exist as 
a chartered school. Eleven hundred and 
thirty a(?res of land donated to the Literary 
Society by William Law, of Connecticut, in 
1806, on condition that the college be estab- 
lished and continue at Burton, reverted to 
his heirs in 1841. 

The pi'esbyteries, reinforced by the addition 
of the new presbytery of Hui"on, appointed 
four commi.s.sioners each, to locate the new 
college, directing them to "take into view all 
circumstances of situation, moral character, 
facility of communication, donations, health, 
etc." The town of Hudson was selected as 
combining the greatest advantages, the peo- 
ple of the town subscribing $7,1 nO to secure 
the location, besides the donation by Mr. 
David Hudson of 160 acres of land for a 

The date borne by the charter is Febniary 
7, 1826. The corporators were George Swift 
and Zalmon Fitch, of Tnimbull County; 
Caleb Pitkin, Elizur Wright, John Seward, 
jr., Benjamin Fenn, .Joshua B. Sherwood and 
David Hudson, of Portage Countv; Stephen 
T. Bradstreet and Simeon Woodruff, of Cuva- 



hoga County; Henry Brown and Harmon 
Kingsbury, of Lorain County — all ministers 
own members of the Presbyterian or the Con- 
gregational Church. These twelve men con- 
stituted the Board of Trustees, a close cor- 
poration with full power. 

The objects proposed by the founders were 
"to educate pious young men as pa.stors for 
our destitute churches," "to preserve the pres- 
ent literary and religious character of the 
State and redeem' it from future decline," "to 
prepare competent men to fill the cabinet, the 
bench, the bar, and the pulpit." 

The clergymen among the founders were, 
most of them, graduates of Yale College, the 
others, of Williams and Dartmouth ; the lay- 
men were from Connecticut, reared under the 
shadow of Yale. It thus came about that 
these famous colleges were the models upon 
which Western Reserve College was con- 

The trustees held their first meeting in the 
township of Hudson, on the fii-st Wednesday 
of March, 1S26, as provided in the charter, 
took immediate steps for the erection of a 
college building, and before the close of the 
year, organized a freshman class. 

When the college started, its entire re- 
sources were only about $10,000, contributed 
mostly in small sums, by numerous donors. 
Its sole dependence for the means of support 
and growth was the liberality and devotion of 
the friends of religion and learning in the 
new settlements, and in the older States from 
which the people here had come. 

The college received no aid at any time 
from the government, either State or na- 
tional, in any form, except a partial release 
from taxation. With the exception of $13,000 
received in the years 1845 to 1848, from "The 
Society for the Promotion of Collegiate and 
Theological Education at the West," its funds 
all came from private individuals interested 
in the advance of "religion, morality and 
knowledge," The largest single donation 
ever received is $10,000, The whole number 
of .«iingle donations is nearly five thousand, 
and the total amount of donations, up to 

1876, is $387,040, Much of this was con- 
tributed for current expenses, when the col- 
lege income was insufficient. The estimated 
value of property and endowment before the 
removal to Cleveland was $300,000. 

The first president of the college was Rev. 
Charles Backus Storrs. He became president 
in 1830, at the age of thirty-six. He died 
September 15, 1833. Rev. George Edmund 
Pierce, D. D., succeeded to the presidency in 
1834, and retired from that office in 1855. 
"Under his administration the college took 
its place for thoroughness and completeness 
among the best in the land. . . , He 
gathered about him a wise and able faculty. 
He enlarged and beautified the grounds, 
erected an observatory and three college build- 
ings, and gathered a valuable apparatus for 
instruction." Rev. Henry Lawrence Hitch- 
cock, D. D., became president in 1855, re- 
signed in 1871, but remained as professor in 
the college until his death, which occurred 
July 6, 1873. "He removed all the encum- 
brances of the college, and added to its perma- 
nent fund more than $175,000." On the re- 
tirement of Dr. Hitchcock in 1871, the va- 
cancy was filled by the promotion of Rev. 
Carroll Cutler, D. D. The college was re- 
moved to Cleveland in 1882. Dr. Cutler re- 
signed the presidency in 1886. 

A system of manual labor in connection 
•with the college was advocated by the founders 
as early as 1823. In 1829, the trustees pro- 
vided a farm, a cooper shop, carpenter shop, 
wagon shop, and cabinet shop, and estab- 
lished a system of labor. The whole scheme 
was unpopular with the students and proved 
a failure. Some lingering remnants of the 
enterprise remained until 1852. 

Under an amendment of the charter, a 
medical department was established in Cleve- 
land, in 1844. Twelve hundred and fifty-five 
students in this department received the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine prior to 1876. 

A theological department was a part of the 
original plan of the founders, and a com- 
plete course of theological instruction was 
given from 1831 to 1852. It was suspended 



on account of financial embarrassment, and 
not resumed. One hundred and one theo- 
logical students pursued their professional 
studies here. 

From 1838 onward, facilities were provided 
for post-graduate work on the part of any 
graduate desiring to pursue special studies in 
any of the departments included in the col- 
lege course. The number availing them- 
selves of these opportunities was never large. 

A preparatory department was connected 
with the college from the first. This was 
designed to be only temporary, but it was 
found necessary to 'maintain it. After the 
college was removed to Cleveland, the pre- 
paratory department was maintained at Hud- 
son for several years, under the name of The 
Western Reserve Academy. 

Western Reserve College was for a time a 
oo-educational institution. In his inaugural 
address in 1872, President Cutler announced 
that the doors of the college were open to 
women as well as men. Thereafter, a num- 
ber of young women attended the regular 
college classes, both before and after the re- 
moval to Cleveland. Al the annual com- 
mencement in 1888, the trustees formally 
decided against co-education ; and "the girls 
were unceremoniously turned out." Provi- 
sion 'was made for them, however, in a sep- 
arate department, known as the Woman's 
College. The number of students in attend- 
ance was never large, the number in all de- 
partments, including preparatory, rarely ex- 
ceeding 120. The highest number in the 
college department in any one year was 78, 
in 1869. The firet gi-aduating class (1830) 
contained four young men. The largest num- 
ber of graduates from the college in any one 
year was eighteen, in 1872. These statistics 
apply only to the period prior to the removal 
to Cleveland. 


Rev. Samuel Bissel, founder and proprie- 
tor of Twinsburgh Institute, was graduated 
at. Yale College in 1823. He studied theol- 

ogy, and in 1825 was licensed in Connecticut 
to preach the gospel. In the spring of 1828. 
he came to Twinsburgh to take charge of the 
Presb}4erian Church, to which he had been 
called. In the autumn of that year, he fitted 
up with seats a rude log house, which had 
been built for a shoe shop, and invited all 
youth of suitable age to attend school, those 
able and willing being expected to pay tui- 
tion at the rate of two dollars per quarter. 
About forty young people responded, and the 
little room was packed. In 1831, a house 
was built for the two-fold purpose of a church 
on Sabbath and a school on week days. In 
1837, Mr. Bissell erected a house 20 by 35 
feet, in which he held school forty weeks in 
the year, divided into three regular terms. 
Additions were made from time to time to 
this building and to the dwelling hard by, 
a two-story building used for a tavern was 
purchased, and two other buildings three 
stories high were erected. The number of stu- 
dents increased to 300, with at least fifty 
boarders, requiring seven teachers to give in- 
structions in the cla.ssics, mathematics, Ger- 
man, French and musdc, besides all the usual 
branches of an English education. No char- 
ter was ever obtained, no appropriations of 
public money were ever received. Board and 
tuition were low at best, and many students 
attended who paid little or nothing. None 
were turned away for want of means. In 
the course of time, receipts fell short of ex- 
penditures. A debt of $6,000 accunnilated. 
A portion of the buildings were sold to pay 
the indebtedness, leaving a balance in hand 
of only $300. 

These embarrassments, the general im- 
provement of the public schools, and the 
breaking out of the Civil War, conspired to- 
gether to reduce the attendance and diminish 
the income. 

In 1868, Mr. Bissell, at the age of seventy, 
found himself without means and with very 
scanty income, but with indomitable will and 
tenacity of purpose. He resolved to erect a 
new stone building, two stories high, 77 feet 


by 33. He borrowed $1,500 and received went on slowly, but in the course of time 

some aid from former pupils and other it was sufficiently advanced to provide for 100 

friends. Mr. Bissell did most of the work students. Mr. BLssell's own estimate was that 

with his own hands, save cutting and laying not less than 6,000 students received in- 

the stone and the plastering. Without any struction in Twinburgh Institute, among 

previous knowledge of carpentry, he framed them more than 200 Indian youth, from sev- 

and erected a self-supporting roof; he made eral different tribes, east and west. This re- 

and put up doors, ceiling and casing; he markable man died in 1895, at the age of 

laid floors and built stairways. The work ninety-eight. 




For majiy years the need of an institution 
of learning had been recognized by the pro- 
gressive ministers and laymen of the Univer- 
salist Church. During 1865, and the early 
months of 1866, Ohio was canvassed for Lom- 
bard University at Galesburg, 111., and the 
Buckeye State contributed $20,000 toward an 
endowment of $100,000. That canvass in- 
tensified the desire for a school in Ohio under 
the management of the Universalist denomi- 

At the Ohio convention, held at Mt. Gilead, 
in June, 1867, as chairman of the Committee 
on Education, Rev. Andrew Willson prepared 
and presented a report urging the establish- 
ment of an academy for both sexes. The re- 
port was unanimously adopted. The Com- 
mittee on Education, of which Mr. Willson 
was again chairman, was instructed to prepare 
a plan for a state school and report the same 
at the next annual convention to be held in 
Dayton in June of 1868. After corresponding 
with the leading ministers and prominent lay- 
men in the state, Mr. Willson prepared and 
presented a somewhat elaborate plan and made 
$50,000 the minimum sum to be pledged be- 
fore the beginning of the work. Mr. Will- 
son rather surprised the convention by stat- 
ing that no place could secure the school for 
less than $1 0.000. He wa? finally assured that 
Kent would give that amount. 

The report was unanimously adopted. Dur- 
ing that year several towns seriously consid- 
ered the question of obtaining the school. The 
principal competitors were Kent. Mt. Gilead 
and Oxford. 

By June, 1869, when the Ohio convention 
met at McConnellsville, the thought of a col- 
lege had found favor with many of the most 
interested. The trustees, Eevs. Andrew Will- 
son, H. L. Canfield, J. S. Cantwell, J. W. 
Henly and 0. F. Haymaker, and the Commit- 
tee on Education, Revs. B. F. Eaton and E. 
L. Rexford, were intsructed "to proceed to -es- 
tablish a denominational school in the state, 
whenever a suitable location may be secured 
and requisite funds pledged." 

In November, 1869, at a joint meeting of 
the Board of Trustees and Committee on Edu- 
cation held at Springboro, Rev. H. F. Miller, 
then financial secretary' of Smithson College, 
Indiana, was invited to become general finan- 
cial secretary of the Board and Committee. 
He accepted the office and began work the 
first of the following January. 

At this time Kent and Mt. Gilead were 
earnest com])etitors for the college. The lat- 
ter place was centrally located, but not finan- 
cially as strong as Kent. Against the latter 
there was a strong prejudice on account of its 
reputation of unhealthfulness. When Mr. 
Willson found that Kent, where he was then 
pastor, was not likely to win, he threw his in- 
fluence in favor of Akron. He was the first 
to call the attention of the citizens of this 
city to the proposed institution, and urge the 
importance and advantages to the place in 
which it might be located. 

In September of 1867 the Western Reserve 
A.ssociation of Universalists was held in Ak- 
ron. A special car conveyed the Kent peo- 
ple, and Brimfield, Windsor and other places 



sent large delegations. The enthusiasm of 
that meeting quickened much interest and 
touched John R. Buchtel. Although he had 
made his will, when he clearly sa-w the op- 
portunity of founding a college, he was not 
slow in grasping its meaning and its impor- 
tance to the cause of education. 

However, to him the opportunity did not 
fully a appear until early in 1870. Mr. Willson 
and Mr. Miller had investigated the condition 
in Akron, interviewed prominent citizens, in- 
cluding Mr. Buohtel, without satisfactory re- 
sults. They did not succeed in arousing suffi- 
cient interest to justify large expectations of 
locating the college in that city. After visit- 
ing several places and investigating their of- 
fers, Mr. Miller decided in favor of Mt. 
Gilead, a centrallv located town in Morrow 
County. January 9, 1870, Rev. H. L. Can- 
field preached in .\kron and on the evening 
of that day several friends met at the residence 
of Avery Spicer and earnestly discussed the 
question of the location of the college. All 
present felt that Akron was the place. The 
next day Mr. Canfield wrote the financial sec- 
retary to again visit Akron before finally de- 
ciding the question of location. Mr. Miller 
replied that he had already called a meeting 
of the truste&s of the convention and its Edu- 
cational Committee to meet at Columbus to 
decide the important question. The meeting 
was held but no decision was reached. A com- 
mittee fwas appointed to accompany Mr. Mil- 
ler to Akron and reinvestigate the situation. 
Rev. Geo. Messenger, an old friend of Mr. 
Buchtel's, gave his strong influence and the 
committee was satisfied that Akron was the 
right place for the institution. This was of- 
fered the city on the condition that the sum 
of $60,000 should be pledged. The offer was 
promptly accepted, Mr. Buchtel pledging 
$6,000 for a building fund and $2.5.000 as nn 
endowment when the college should be estab- 

As the records were burned when the col- 
lege building was destroyed, it is impossible 
to recall the names of all of the original sub- 
.«!cribers. On the list were the following: J. 
H. Pendleton, Ferd Schumacher, Aver\' 

Spicer, Geo. Steese, S. M. Burnham, J. T. 
Trowbridge, M. W. Henry, E. P. Green, Geo. 
T. Perkins, Geo. W. Grouse, N. D. Tibbals, 
A. C. Voris, J. Park Alexander, Geo. Cogg- 
shell, Talmon Beardsley, Lewis Miller, L. V. 
Bierce, J. Sumner, Wm. Buchtel, Dr. Childs, 
Jerry Long, W. B. Doyle, Brewster Bros., M. 
J. Atwood, Frank Adams, James Christy, 
John Christy, John Burton, John Wolf, Thos. 
Willey, C. Howe, Richard Howe, J. B. Lane, 
S. A. Lane, M. T. Cutter, J. B. Woods, Chas. 
Bonstead, John Seiberling. 

Having decided in favor of Akron, the next 
important question was where to erect the 
building. The trustees of the Ohio conven- 
tion, accompanied by citizens of the city, spent 
some time visiting diff^erent sections and con- 
sidering offers from various parties. The re- 
sult was the selection of the old cemetery 
grounds. The decision has never been re- 

On the 31st day of May, 1870, the Board 
of Trustees and Committee on Education met 
at the Court House in Akron at 10 a. m. 
Trustees present: Rev. J. S. Cantwell, H. L. 
Canfield, J. W. Henley and Andrew Willson 
and Mr. 0. F. Haymaker; Committee on Edu- 
cation, Revs. B. F. Eaton and E. L. Rexford. 
Rev. H. F. Miller, financial secretary, stated 
that the citizens of Summit County had com- 
plied with the terms of the Trustees and Com- 
mittee on Education. On motion of Rev. B. 
F. Eaton, it was unanimously voted to locate 
the college in Akron and to authorize Rev, H. 
F. Miller, W. Spaulding, Geo. Messenger, 
Henry Blandy, J. R. Buchtel. Hon. N. D. 
Tibbals, E. P.' Green. Col. George T. Perkins, 
.Tames Lantz and George Steese, together with 
the Trustees and Committee on Education to 
act as corporators. 

By what name shall the college be known? 
This was a deeply interesting and important 
question and was earnestly discussed by the 
Trustees and Committee on Education. Some 
favored naming it Murray Centennial Col- 
lege, others Buchtel UniversaH«t College. Mr. 
Buchtel was invited to attend the meeting and 
express his opinion. Honestly and frankly 
he said "name it what you like. The college 



is yours, not mine. It shall have my hearty 
support. If prospered, I expect to give it one 
hundred thou.sand dollai's." Then it was 
unanimously voted to name the child of the 
Ohio Universalist convention Buchtel College, 
in honor of the man who financially most loy- 
ally aided it in its infancy. 

All necessary legal measures were taken, the 
corporation adopted articles of association, 
also a seal ; elected a board of trustees, became 
a "Body Corporate" and then delivered all the 
propert}' into the hands of the trustees. This 
board then organized by electing Hon. John 
R. Buchtel, president; Hon. Sanford M. 
Burnham, secretary, and Hon. George W. 
Grouse, tre^asurer. The services of Rev. H. F. 
Miller as financial secretary were secured, to 
date from January 1, 1870. 

During the first week in June the Ohio 
Universalist Convention was held at Kent. 
The attendance was unusually large. In this 
centennial year of the Universalist Church in 
America, the college occupied a prominent 
place in the thoughts of all delegates and vis- 
itors. The action of the Trustees and the 
Committee on Education was earnestly in- 
dorsed amid great enthusiasm. The follow- 
ing resolutions were' unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That this convention joyfully rec- 
ognize the succass of the friends of Universal- 
ism in their efforts to establish a denomina- 
tional institution of learning in this State; 
that we appreciate the magnificent gift of our 
friend and brother, Hon. John R. Buchtel, 
of Akron, for this object and pledge to him 
our cordial co-operation to make the enter- 
prise so generously aided a complete suc- 

Resolved, that, haA'ing confidence in tihe 
man, in his honor, rectitude, integrity, in his 
disinterestedness in this friendly gift, in the 
positive manly virtues of his life and the ex- 
ample which his history affords to the stnig- 
gling youths of our country, we gratefully 
recognize the wisdom which gives the institu- 
tion his name, and that will hereafter enable 
us to rank Buchtel College among the proud- 
est monuments of our centennial year. 

Under the able management of Rev. H. F. 

Miller, efliciently aided by Revs. J. S. Cant- 
well, editor of the Star in the West, Andrew 
Willson, H. L. Canfield, B. F. Eaton, R. T. 
Polk and many others, the canvass for funds 
Avas successfully pushed. The people had a 
mind to give, and preparations for erecting 
a suitable building were speedily commenced. 
T. W. Silloway, of Boston, was employed a^ 
architect and in due time Noah Carter, of 
Akron, was engaged to superintend the work 
of the building. 

On the 4th of July, 1871, was laid the cor- 
ner stone bearing the inscription, "Centenary 
of Universalism in Americ'a, 1870." In the 
presence of a great multitude, Horace Greeley 
gave an address on "Human Conceptions of 
God as They Affect the Moral Education of 
Our Race." In the evening a reception in 
honor of Mr. Greeley was held at the home of 
Hon. John R. Buchtel. 

The trustees^ of the college appointed a com- 
mittee, of which Hon. Henry Blandy was a 
member, to select a president for the institu- 
tion. As Mr. Blandy had business engage- 
ments in New England, he was instructed to 
confer with leading scholars in the denomina- 
tion and if possible report the name of some 
well-qualified man for that responsible posi- 
tion. On his return he reported that Rev. S. 
H. McCoUester, D. D., had been highly rec- 
ommended and that he would visit Akron in 
March of 1872. The promi.?ed visit was made 
and resulted in the engagement of Dr. McCol- 
lester, who moved to Akron the first of June 
of that year. 

By this time the chapel was nearly finished 
and in it was held the Ohio Universali.'st Con- 
vention. This was a memorable session for 
the college. There were present delegates 
from nearly all the churches in the State and 
great interest was manifested in the new insti- 
tution. Early in the year Rev. H. F. Miller 
resigned his position as financial secretary and 
retired the first of April. Rev. D. C. Tom- 
linson was then employed to fill the vacancy, 
and, under his leadership, assisted by Rev. J. 
S. CantwcU and others, about $17,000 was 
pledged for the college. Subscriptions varied 
in amount from $1,000 to $1.50 by a little 



girl, Lillie Snell, of Dayton. The cost of fur- 
nishing each room was estimated at $60, and 
the person or church paying that sum had the 
privilege of naming the room. Pledges for 
furnishing nearly all the rooms were made be- 
fore the close of the convention. To furnish 
a room in the name of Rev. I. D. William- 
son, D. D., one of the ablest and most exten- 
sively known of the pioneer ministers, a hat 
collection was successfully taken. 

On the building and furni.shings between 
$160,000 and $200,000 had been expended. 
The following description was given in the 
first catalog i.ssued. "The college building is 
two hundred and forty feet long, fifty-four 
feet wide and five stories high. Its style of 
architecture combines the Doric, Gothic and 
Norman. It is a grand structure of symmetri- 
cal and harmonious proportions. Its rooms for 
lectures, apparatus, cabinets, music and stu- 
dents, including the dining room and gymna- 
sium, are light, airy and amply furnished 
with modern and most improved conven- 
ience. The building is w^armed by steam. 
st*am, lighted by gas and supplied by water. 
The site of the college is high, affording from 
its obser\'atory one of the most extensive and 
delightful prospects in Ohio." Under the su- 
pervision of Julius Sumner the spacious 
grounds had been laid out artLstically and re- 
ceived the admiration of all visitors. 

There was great rejoicing when, on the 
11th day of September, 1872, the college doors 
were open for students. On the first day ninety 
were enrolled. The next day the number 
reached 127, and during the year a total of 
217. The faculty consisted of Rev. S. H. Mc- 
Collester, D. D., 'president; N. White, A. M., 
professor of ancient languages; S. F. Peck- 
ham, .profes.sor of natural sciencas ; Miss H. F. 
Spaulding, professor of English literature; 
Carl P. Kolbe, professor of modern languages ; 
A'lfreid WeLsh, A. B., professor of mathe- 
matics; H. D. Person, professor in normal 

The Akron Beacon said: "A more auspi- 
cious beginning or a better augury of the com- 
mencement of a grand and pro.^perous career 

was not expected even by the most sanguine 
of the friends." 

The college was dedicated September 20, 
1872. On this memorable occasion President 
McCollester was assisted by home talent and 
by Rev. Paul Kendcll of Lombard University; 
Rev. J. E. Forraster, D. D., of Chicago ; Rev. 
L. J. Fletcher, of New York, who represented 
the Universalist Gencra.l Convention, and by 
Mrs. Caroline A. Soule, author of the Dedica- 
tion hymn. The architect, T. W. Silloway, 
made a brief address and delivered the keys 
to the trustee. On behalf of the trustees, Hon. 
Henry Blandy expressed satisfaction with the 
w"ork and accepted the keys. The congrega- 
tion then sang the following Dedication 
hymn, written by Mrs. Caroline A. Soule: 


A hundred years of our story- 
Had garnered their heavy sheaves, 

Harvests of valor and glory, 
As brilliant as Autumn leaves! 

And tenderly then the reapers 
Of this golden, precious grain, 

Chanted the dirge of the sleepers 
In a soft and solemn strain. 

The dirge was only for sleepers, 

As its music died away, 
There rose from the voice of reapers 

The song of an op'ning day. 
Like martyrs crowding the altar. 

All pledging themselves anew 
In work of love ne'er to falter 

Which their hands may find to do. 

And now we review the story. 

As we gather in our sheaves! 
Harvests of valor and glory. 

And crown them with laurel leaves! 
Father Almighty! we pray Thee 

To bless this work of our hands. 
And may it shed unceasingly 

Bright radiance o'er all lands! 

Whei'e error bindeth its tetters, 

Where sloth holdeth prey in chain. 
May soldiers of science and letters 

Their triumph and honors gain! 
From North and South we will call them — 

The sons of our sainted sires; 
From East and West we will draw them 

To kindle these sacred fires! 



As the years shall tell their story. 

And reapers harvest the grain. 
In the flush of each year's glory 

Our loved will meet here again I 
Blessing Founder of this College, 

Praising our Father above 
For his bestowals of knowledge, 

And treasures of Infinite Love! 

Rev. S. H. McCollester, D. D., was then in- 
stalled president. Hon. John R. Buchtel, 
president of the Board of Trustees, conduct- 
ing the service. Hon. Henry Blandy then 
presented the keys to President McCollester 
who gave his inaugural address on "The Edu- 
cational Demand of the Nation." 

On the first Sunday after the college was 
opened. Rev. James H. Herron, of the Erie 
M. E. Conference, preached in the chapel, and 
froim that time regular Sunday services were 
held by Dr. McCollester, or substitutes. To 
him belongs the'credit of the organization of 
the Universalist Church that was intended to 
furnish a religious home for all who desired a 
denominational place of worship. He also or- 
ganized the educational work and placed it 
upon a solid foundation.. Day and night he 
labored for the succass of the institution and 
gave generously of his means for its support,. 

For some time the attendance was encour- 
aging. Money was generously contributed 
and the institution seemed on the highway to 
great prosperity, when a dark cloud settled 
over the financial affairs of our country and 
threatened many enterprises with speedy de- 
struction. This cloud is known as the panic 
of 1873. lis full force was not felt by the 
college until a year or so later. It was this 
trying ordeal that tested the loyalty of the 
professed friends. It was then demonstrated 
that John R. Buchtel was truly reliable. 

In the spring of 1875 Rev.' D. C. Tomlin- 
son resigned the office of financial secretary. 
Soon the Executive Committee sought the 
services of Rev. Andrew Willson, then pastor 
of the churches at. Kent and Brimfield. After 
being persistently urged, in the following De- 
cember Mr. Willson accepted the responsible 
position, which he held till June. 1878. Dur- 
ing thi.s period the college passed through its 
most tr^nng financial experience. Only John 

R. Buchtel and the financial secretary knew 
how nearly it came to olosing ifc doors. In 
debt nearly $50,000, a large portion to banks 
at 10 per cent interest, it was no easy tiisk to 
prevent notes going to protest. All the bank- 
ers were as patient as their rules would per- 
mit, and no note was ever protested. While 
money for the debt was earnestly sought, 
special attention had to be given to securing 
funds for the payment of interest and regu- 
lar current expenses. By 1878 financial confi- 
dence was measurably restored, and the col- 
lege having passed safely through its severe 
ordeal, began to .plan for more aggre-sive 
work to meet the indebtedness and increase 
the endow^ment. 

In the time of pressing need many besides 
John R. Buchtel and wife had a mind to 
work and give. Rev. and Mrs. George Mes- 
senger had endowed the mental and moral 
philosophy professorship; Mr. and Mrs. 
John Hilton, the chair of modern language,*; 
Mrs. Chloe Pierce, of Sharpsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, had given $10,000 for the chair of Eng- 
lish literature, and the balance of $10,000 
had been nearly all subscribed by many don- 
ors. Twenty-five scholarships of $1,000 each, 
fifteen of them drawing interest, had been es- 
tablished by the following donors: James 
Pierce, Elijah Drury, Mrs. Mary C, 
Roosa, James F. Davidson, Betsey Thomas. 
John Perdue, Eli M. Kennedv, John K. 
Smith,. N. S. Olin, John B. Smith, Candia 
Palmer, George W. Steele, Mrs. George W. 
Steele, Mrs. Betsy Dodge, Brice Hilton, John 
Loudenback, John Espv, Joseph Hidv, Sr,, 
Rev, H. P. and Mrs. D". E. Sage, Mrs.' E. V. 
Stedraan, Mrs. Henry Boszar, E. F. Louden- 
back, IT. D. Loudenback, Thomas Kirby, Mr. 
and Mrs. Isaac Kelly. 

To help meet interest and current expenses 
generous contributions were made by Rev. S. 
H. McCollester, D. D., Joy H. Pendleton, 
Ferd. Schumacher, Avery Spicer, J. T. Trow- 
bridge, .ludge N. D. Tibbals. M. W. Henry, 
S. M. Burnham, Col. George T. Perkins, Gen. 
A. C. Voris. E. P. Green, Esq., George Steese, 
Hon. George W, Crouse, I, Park Alexander, 
.Tonas and Frank Pierce, of Sharp«ville, Penn- 




iP" : 


JF i 




, \ 

wi \ 






sylvania; Thomas Espy, of Kenton, Ohio; W. 
H. Slade, Columbus, Ohio; Rev. C. L. Ship- 
man, Girard, Pennsylvania; 0. F. Haymaker, 
Kent, Ohio; Edmunt Stearns, Olmstead, 
Ohio; E. L. Litchfield, Conneautville, Penn- 
sylvania; Rev. H. L. Canfield, Rev. Andrew 
Willson and many others. Nearly all the 
professors and teachers voluntarily donated a 
part of their salaries. 

In June, 1878, Rev. Andrew Willson re- 
signed as secretary and ex-officio financial 
secretary. Rev. H. F. Miller succeeded him 
for a few months. In June, 1879, A. B. 
Tinker, M. S., LL. B., was elected and con- 
tinued in that position until 1891, when he 
was succeeded by C. R. Olin, B. S. During 
the early work of the college, Rev. S. P. Carl- 
ton acted for a few months as canvassing 
agent, and at a later period Rev. W. P. Bur- 
oell devoted a few months to that business. 
Financial and general agents were employed 
as follows: William F. Crispin, from 1880 to 
1885; Rev. H. L. Canfield, D. D., 1885 to 
1886; Arthur A. Stearns, A. M., 1887 to 
1889 ; Julius Simmons, a part of 1891 ; Rev. 
E. W. Preble and H. H. Hollinbeck, in 189R 
and 1894. 

For many years the college did not have 
any very unu-sual financial experiences. Like 
all similar institutions, at was always hungry 
for money and thankfiil for the donations of 
friends. The panic of 1893 limited its re- 
sources, but did not seriously affect its finan- 
cial conditions. The trAnng ordeal came De- 
cember 20, 1899, when the building that wa> 
sacred in the estimation of the founders and 
early teachers and students, was totally de- 
stroyed by fire. With the building went val- 
uable natural science collections, the gifts of 
Dr. McCollester, Prof. E. W. Claypole and 
others. Many articles cannot be duplicated. 
The fire was a great calamity. It shocked and 
saddened, but did not discourage the friends 
of the institution. Arrangements were speed- 
ily made to continue the regular work of the 
college in Crouse Gymnasium and other build- 
ings, until a new stmcture could be erected. 
The calamity deeply stirred the citizens of 
Akron and vicinity, and the friends of liberal 

education throughout a large territory, and 
general sympathy was embodied in generous 
donations. New buildings were speedily 
planned. It was not deemed wise to erect one 
large structure, but to have .several separated 
from each other. The college received from 
insurance, $63,986.12. From donations, $38,- 
233.95, a total of $102,220.07. Exclusive of 
furnishings, the ■ new buildings cost $95,- 
269.28, viz. : Buchtel Hall, $47,466.67 : Acad- 
emy Building, $25,559.73; Heating Plant, 
$10,591.73; Curtis Cottage, $11,674.15. 

The donations came from individuals and 
churches in various sums, varying from a few- 
cents by children up to several thousand dol- 
lars. The largest sum donated by any Uni- 
versalist Church, outside of Akron, was $500 
from Brimfield. The next was All Souls 
Church, Cleveland, $207. Unity Church, 
Cleveland, included a handsome individual 
subscription of $610. 

For trustees the college has had the follow- 
ing named persons: 
Entered. Retired 

1S72 John R. Buchtel, Akron 1892 

1872 Gen. A. C. Voris, Akron 1889 

1872 Rev. Geo. Messenger, Akron 1872 

1872 Judge N. D. Tibbals, Akron 

1872 Rev. Andrew Willson, D. D., Ravenna. . 
1872 Rev. H. L. Canfield, D. D.. Pasadena, 

Cal 1890 

1872 Judge E. P. Green, Akron 1894 

1872 Col. Geo. T. Perkins, Akron 1896 

1872 Avery Spicer, Akron 1881 

1872 Rev. J. S. Cantwell, D. D., Chicago 1881 

1872 Milton W. Henry, Akron 1880 

1872 Rev. E. L. Rexford, Columbus, 1878 

1872 Philip Wieland. Mt. Gilead 1878 

1872 Hon. James Pierce, Sharpsville, Pa.... 1875 

1872 J. L. Grandin, Tidioute, Pa 1874 

1872 S. K. Shedd, Youngstown 1874 

1872 Henry Blandy, Zanesville 1873 

1872 John F. Sieberling, Akron 1873 

1872 J. Dorsey Angler, Titusville, Pa 1873 

1873 Hon. Geo. W. Crouse, Akron 1875 

1873 Isaac Eberly. Columbus 1875 

1873 Geo. M. Hord, Cincinnati. 1875 

1874 Joy H. Pendleton, Akron 1891 

1874 William A. Mack, Norwalk 1875 

1875 Ferdinand Schumacher, Akron 1899 

1875 Henry Boszar. Brimfield 1891 

1875 Jonas J. Pierce. Sharpsville, Pa 1894 

1875 James T. Trowbridge. Akron 1881 

1875 John A. Garver, Bryan 1877 

1877 James S. Birkey, Newark 1878 

1878 Rev. J. F. Rice, Olmsted 1881 

1878 William A. Mack, Norwalk 1881 

1878 Hon. S. M. Burnham, Akron 1899 



Entered. Retired 

1880 Wm. H. Slade, Columbus 1898 

1881 Horace Y. Beebe, Ravenna 1883 

1881 Col. A. L. Conger, Akron 1883 

1881 Chas. J. Robinson, Akron 1886 

1881 A. W. Wright, Saginaw City, Mich 1882 

1881 Austin A. Spicer, Akron 1883 

1882 Joseph Hidy, Jr., Ph. B., Wash. C. H..!l8S3 

1883 Rev. Wm. H. Ryder, D. D., Chicago, 111.. 1884 
1883 Hon. H. L. Morey, Hamilton 1886 

1883 Arthur A. Stearns, A. M.. Cleveland. .. !l9ff4 

1884 Judge Selwyn N. Owen, Bryan. 1886 
1886 Rev. C. E. Nash, A. B., D. D., Pasadena, 

^■1' 1S89 

1886 Chas. H. Stephens, Cincinnati O 1889 

1886 Jacob A. Motz, Akron.. igsg 

1889 Dayton A. Doyle, A. B.. LL. B., Akron! :i895 

]lll i"*"" J- ^•^'^^' ^^^ City, Mich 1896 

1889 Hon. Geo. W. Crouse, Akron 

1889 Rev. J. F. Rice, Coe Ridge 1x95 

1890 Judge A. C. Voris, Akron. igog 

1892 r"''! "'n'"'"'^''' ^- «•■ L^- B.: Akron:: 896 

1892 Geo. L. Case, Cleveland... iqnq 

]lll ^''- ^"by Schumacher, Ph. b:,' Akron: : 1896 

1894 FrTn;, p"'""'"'' 2u ^°°''^' Springfield. . . . 1900 

1894 Prank Pierce, Sharpsville, Pa. isqv 

w't"^. ^^^"-' b- s.. Akron::::::::i9 3 

1S9& w. T. Sawyer, Akron... jq/,., 

1895 D. Irving Badger, Akron 1002 

CoT A 1- "p^''^"^^' ^^^^'^°°- ■'■'■■■■■ : 1' 

i«95 Col. A. L. Conger, Akron... isqr 

18 6 Rev. C. F. Henry, Cleveland.:::: S 

1896 Judge U. L. Marvin, Akron.. 1900 

Eberly D. Smith, Blanchester. :::::::' ' 

1896 Samuel L. Thompson, A B LL B 

Brink Haven ' ' " -.c^.a 

1898 Johnson A. Arbogast, Akron : : 

1900 Wallace L. Carlton, Akron. ^ 

1900 uT- 1 ""r ''^"'"''^- ^- ^- D- D.; Akron: : 

00 Frank «• m^"'""' °- ^- Bellville. . . . 1903 

1900 Frank H. Mason, Akron... lonK 

W^'^n "" ^"^^^' ^- S- Cleveland::: 

1901 Wm. Buchtel, Akron.. \aaK 

1901 Robt. Tucker, Ph. B.. Toledo: :::::: 905 

1902 Supt. Henry V. Hotchkiss, Ph D Akron 90^ 

1902 Rev. Lee S. McCoIlester, D. a, DettoU 


1903 Chas. C. Goodrich, a: B. :ikron 

1903 E. T. Binns, Bryan iqnfi 

1903 Prank T. Fisher, New York City 1906 

1904 James Ford. B. S., Washington C H 

1905 John R. Smith, A. B., Akron. 

1905 Frank M. Cook, A. B., Akron 

1905 Albert A. Kohler, A. B., M. D., A:kron 

1906 Hon. Joseph Hidy. Ph. B., LL. B., 


1906 A. V. Cannon, B. S.. Cleveland 

1906 Oscar F. Haymaker, Kent 1907 

1907 A. E. Roach, Akron 

1907 R. A. Clark, Pittsburgh. Pa 


President of Board — 

Entered. Retired 

1872 John R. Buchtel 1892 

1892 Ferd Schumacher 1894 

1894 Geo. W. Crouse ; 1905 

1905 Rev. A. B. Church, D. D 

Secretary — 
1872 Hon. S. M. Burnham 1877 

1877 Rev. Andrew Willson, D. D 1878 

1878 Hon. S. M. Burnham 1879 

1879 Albert Tinker, M. S., LL. B 1892 

1892 C. R. Olin 

Treasurer — 

1872 Hon. G. W. Crouse 1875 

1875 James T. Trowbridge 1879 

1879 Joy H. Pendleton 1891 

1891 Albert B. Tinker 1897 

1897 Charles R. Olin, Sec'y and Treasurer. . . . 

Executive Committee — 

1872 Hon. John R. Buchtel 1892 

1872 Henry Blandy 1873 

1872 Rev. J. S. Cantwell, D. D 1873 

1872 Hon. S. M. Burnham 1877 

1872 Gen. A. C. Voris 1873 

1873 Col. Geo. T. Perkins...: 1877 

1873 Judge E. P. Green 1880 

1873 Rev. Andrew Willson, D. D 1876 

1876 Milton W. Henry 1877 

1877 Joy H. Pendleton 1881 

1877 James T. Trowbridge 1880 

1877 Rev. Andrew Willson, D. D 1878 

1878 Hon. S. M. Burnham 1879 

1879 Albert B. Tinker 1882 

1880 William H. Slade 1881 

1880 Col. Geo. T. Perkins 1883 

1881 Col. A. L. Conger 1882 

1881 Edwin P. Green 1883 

1882 Judge A. C. Voris 1889 

1882 Charles S. Robinson. B. S 1884 

1883 Ferd. Schumacher 1894 

1884 Joy H. Pendleton 1891 

1885 Albert B. Tinker 1889 

1889 Col. Geo. T. Perkins 1892 

1889 Rev. Andrew Willson, D. D 1890 

1890 Hon. G. W. Crouse 1891 

1891 Albert B. Tinker 1895 

1891 Hon. G. W. Crouse 

1893 Dayton A. Doyle 1895 

1894 Geo. L. Case 1895 

1894 Judge N. D. Tibbals 1898 

1895 W. T. Sawyer 1900 

1895 D. Irving Badger 1898 

1896 Johnson A. Arbogast 

1897 Frank H. Mason 1903 

1897 Wallace L. Carlton 

1901 Supt. Henry V. Hotchkiss 1905 

1901 Rev. A. B. Church, D. D 

1905 Frank M. Cook, A. B 

Presidents — 

1S72 Rev. S. H. McCoIlester, D. D 1878 

1S7S Rev. E. L. Rexford, D. D 1880 



Entered. Retired 
18S0 Rev. Orello Cone, D. D 1896 

1896 Charles M. Knight, A. M. (Provisional 

President) 1897 

1897 Rev. Ira A. Priest, D. D 1901 

1901 Rev. A. B. Church. D. D., LL. D 

Mathematics — 
1872 Alfred Welsh, A. M 1S74 

1874 Elias Frauntelter, A. M., Ph. D 1883 

1883 George S. Ely, Ph. D 1884 

1884 Charles S. Howe, Ph. D 1889 

1889 Hermas V. Egbert, A. M 1903 

1903 Frank M. Morrison, A. M 1905 

1905 Wilfred H. Sherk, A. M 1906 

1906 Paul Biefeld, A. M., Ph. D 

Natural Science — 

1872 S. F. Peckham, A. M 1873 

1873 Sarah M. Glazier, A. M 1874 

.1874 Alfred Welsh, A. M 1875 

1875 Charles M. Knight, A. M 1883 

1883 Edward W. Claypole, B. A., So. D., F. 

G., S. S. of L. E. and A 1897 

1897 Samuel P. Orth, B. S 1903 

1903 Charles Brookover, M. S 

Ancient Languages — 

1872 Rev. Nehemiah White, A. M., Ph. D....1876 

1876 Rev. I. B. Choate, A. M 1878 

1878 Rev. G. A. Peckham, A. M 1880 

1880 Benjamin T. Jones, A. M 1882 

1882 Wm. D. Shipman, A. M. (Greek) 1895 

1882 Charles C. Bates, A. B. (Latin) 1895 

1895 Charles C. Bates, A. B. (Latin and 

Greek) 1904 

1904 Joseph C. Rockwell, A. M 

Modern Languages — 

1872 Carl F. Kolbe, A. M 1877 

1877 G. H. G. McGrew, A. M 1878 

1878 Carl F. Kolbe, A. M.. Ph. D 1905 

1905 Parke R. Kolbe, A. M 

Physics and Chemistry — 

1884 Charles M. Knight, A. M., Sc. D 

English Literature — 

1872 Helen F. Spalding, A. M 1873 

1879 Benjamin T. Jones, A. M 1880 

1880 Maria Parsons, A. M 1884 

1884 Marv B. Jewett, A. M 1892 

1892 Margaret G. Bradford, B. A 1893 

1893 Ellen E. Garrigues, A. M 1896 

1896 Maria Parsons, A. M 1905 

1905 Albert L Spanton, A. M 1893 

Philosophy. Economics and History — 

1902 Oscar E. Olin, A. M 

Rhetoric and Oratory — 

1890 Cecil Harper 1891 

1891 L. Alonzo Butterfleld, A. M., Ph. D 1894 

1894 Mrs. A. M. Garrigues 1896 

1896 L. Elmie Warner, Ph. B 1900 

1900 Carita McEbright, A. B 1901 

1901 Maude Herndon. B. S 1902 

1902 Anna M. Ray ' 1906 

1906 Louise Forsyth 

Instructors in Law — 

1883 Albert B. Tinker, M. S., LL. B 1890 

1890 Frediric C. Bryan, A. B., LL. B 1891 

1891 Charles R. Grant. A. B 1893 

Entered. Retired 
1894 Frediric C. Bryan, A. B., LL. B 1896 

1896 Lee K. Mihills, LL. B 1897 

Principals of Preparatory and Buchtel 

Academy — • 

1872 Prin., H. D. Persons 1873 

1874 Prin., Jennie Gifford, B. S 1898 

1897 Prin.. Oscar E. Olin, A. M 1904 

1904 Prin., Godfrey Charles Schaible, A. B...1906 
1906 Prin., Charles O. Rundell, B. S 

Art Department— 
1882 Mrs. Kate D. Jackson 1884 

1884 Mrs. Ada E. Metcalf 1885 

1885 Emma P. Goodwin 1886 

1886 Alexander T. Van Laer 1890 

1890 Bolton Coit Brown, M. D 1891 

1891 Minnie C. Fuller 1898 

1899 May F. Sanford 

Music — 
1872 Gustavus Sigel 1899 

1898 Estella F. Musson, Ph. B 1904 

1904 Lucy lone Edgerton 1906 

1906 Isabel Kennedy 

Valuable service as teachers has been rendered 

Wallace Mays. A. B. i Helen S. Pratt, L. A. 
Lizzie M. Slade, A. B. j Lillie R. Moore, A. B. 
Inez L. Shipman, B. S. Philip G. Wright, A. M. 
James H. Aydelotte, B.I Charles R. Olin. B. S. 

S. I Tracy L. Jeffords. Ph. B. 

Mary E. Stockman. L. i gdwin L. Pindley, A. B. 

Susie Chamberlain, M. 

Dora E. Merrill. 
Martha A. Bertie. 
Samuel Findley, A. M., 

Ph. D. 
Charles W. Foote, A. 

M., Ph. D. 

Willard H. Van Orman, 

B. S. 
Claudia E. Schrock, A. 

Blanche M. Widde- 

combe. Ph. B. 
Charles H. Shipman, A. 


Lack of space forbids mention of all names 
entitled to credit for valuable services in dif- 
ferent department^. 


Besides the gifts already mentioned since 
June, 1878, donations have been received a^ 

follows : 



The Buchtel Professorship of Physics and 
Chemistry was named in honor of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Buchtel. late of Akron. 




The Ainsworth Professorship of Mathe- 
matics and Astronomy was endowed hy Henry 
Ainsworth, late of Lodi. 


The Ryder Professorship of Rhetoric and 
Oratory was established by the Board of 
Trustees in memory of Dr. William H. Ryder, 
late of Chicago. 


The Messenger Fund was created by Mrs. 
Lydia A. E. Messenger, late of Akron. The 
fund consists of $30,000. 

The Isaac and Lovdnia Kelly Fund was 
created by Isaac Kelly, late of Mill Village, 
Pa. This fund consists of $35,788. 


This fund was established by "William Pitt 
Curtis, of Wadsworth, Ohio. It now amounts 
to $25,000. 

A friend of the college and the church has 
given for the endowment of a Theological 
Professorship, the sum of $10,000. 

Twenty-six scholarships have been endowed 
by the following named doners: 

S. T. and S. A. Moon Cuba 

George Thomas Greenwich 

Mrs. E. W. Terrill Jeffersonville 

Mrs. John H. Hilton Akron 

Samuel Birdsell Peru 

Samuel Grandin Tidioute, Pa. 

N. B. and A. E. Johnson Mingo 

Henry Ainsworth Lodi 

Miss Anna A. Johnson Bay City, Mich. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Miller Edgerton 

John P. Chapin New Philadelphia 

Christian Swank Creston. O. 

Mrs. S. O. Acomb Tidioute, Pa. 

Mrs. Jane Betz Hamilton 

Miss Hannah Allyn Akron 

Mrs. Rosa G. Wakeiield Green 

These scholarships are intended to aid 
worthy and deserving students, and are 
awarded by a Scholarship Committee under 
authority from the Board of Trustees. 

The following from the catalogue for 1906- 
1907, contains valuable information worthy 
of a place in the history. 

The College Campus comprises six acres, is 
situated on the highest eminence in the 
county and faces on Buchtel Avenue, one of 
the pleasantest residence streets of the city. 
The Loop Line electric cars, which receive 
transfers from all city and suburban lines, 
pass the college gates. 


Buchtel Hall, designed for college classes^ 
in all work except chemistry, is a beautiful 
building, classic in design and convenient in 
.arrangement. The main entrance is up 
a broad flight of marble steps to the first floor, 
which is high enough to leave the basement 
story almost entirely above ground. In the 
center of the first floor is the grand staircase 
and an open court extending to a skylight. 
There are four large recitation rooms with a 
professor's private office connected with each 
on'the first and second floors. On the groimd 
floor, besides a work-shop and separate study, 
bicycle, and toilet rooms for young men and 
women, is a suite of six rooms well planned 
and equipped for the Physical Laboratories. 


The ^\^cademy is designed for the conven- 
ience of the Prepairatory, Oratory and Art 
Schools. It is a roomy and convenient three 
story building. On the ground floor are the 
Physical Laboratories, and the separate lock- 
ers and toilet rooms for young men and wo- 
men. On the second floor are the Adminis- 
tration offices and the main recitation rooms. 
On the third floor are the large -Art Rooms 
and Assembly Room, which is used for Me- 
chanical Drawing. 


These two new buildings are fire-proof and 
have the heating, ventilating and sanitary ar- 
rangements and appointments of the most 



approved kind known to modern builders. 
With the Gymnasium; they are heated from 
one central heating plant. 


The Observatory is intended for the use of 
students, and, although some of the appara- 
tus is very delicate and costly, yet it will be 
freely placed in the hands of those students 
who prepare themselves for its use. It is 
furnished with the following instruments : 

An equatorial telescope of 4.5 inches aper- 

A meridian circle of 3 inches aperture, pro- 
vided with various necessary accessory appa- 
ratus, and so mounted that it can be used as 
a zenith telescope. 

Two astronomical clocks, furnished with 
electrical connections. 

A chronograph. 

Various other minor apparatus. 


This building is named in honor of Hon. 
George W. Grouse, of Akron, one of the lib- 
eral benefactors of the college. The struc- 
ture is a substantial brick building, one hun- 
dred and two feet in length by fifty-three in 
breadth. The basement contains the locker, 
dressing and bathing rooms thoroughly fur- 
nished. On the first floor are the directors' 
office and the gymnasium proper, which is 
eighty-four feet long and forty-eight feet 
broad. This room is equipped with the most 
approved apparatus and offers every facility 
for physical development. A nlnning gal- 
lery of twenty-five laps to the mile surrounds 
the room. 

The Gymnasium is open at stated times for 
the exclusive use of the young women, and 
at others times for the exclusive use of the 
young men, in both instances under a trained 

In addition to the above mentioned facili- 
ties for physical culture, the college possesses, 
only three squares away, exten.sive and elab- 
orately equipped Athletic Grounds of four 

acres, which are admirably adapted for use of 

the students in playing base ball, foot-ball, 
lawn tennis and similar games. 

At present the Chemical Laboratory occu- 
pies a suite of six rooms in the basement of 
the Gymnasium and is niodernly equipped 
for practical work. 

The Buchtel College Music School occupies 
certain rooms in the Gymnasium. 

A two-manual pipe organ has been recently 
erected for chapel use and instruction. The 
Gymnasium is also used, for the present, as 
the chapel assembly room. 


The Heating Plant is located in a building 
by itself, thus avoiding any danger from fire 
or explosion. The plant is equipped with a 
thoroughly anodem smoke consuming device. 
By means of conduits the steam is conveyed 
to the other buildings where fresh air is 
heated and forced through the rooms by the 
fan system. 


Curtis Cottage is the college home for wom- 
en. It was completed and first occupied in 
January 1905. It has eleven student rooms, 
uniform in size and furnishings and arranged 
for two students in a room, — -parlors, dining 
room, kitchen, laundrj' and its own efficient 
hot water heating plant. It furnishes also a 
delightful suite of rooms for each of the wom- 
en's fraternities. 

The Cottage is in charge of a preceptress 
of culture and school experience, and pro- 
vides, at a m>oderate expense, a home for 
women students, which is most modern and 
sanitary in all of its appointments, conven- 
ient and comfortable in its arrangements, and 
delightful and elevating in its social life. 

THE president's HOUSE. 

The President's House is situated on the 
campus within easy access of the other build- 
ings, is a commodious, substantial brick 
structure wth modern conveniences and is 
occupied by the President and his family. 




Buchtel College is organized and equipped 
to give young men and women a wholesome 
phj'sical development, a most thorough men- 
tal discipline, and a practical, altruistic, moral 
training; to hold up before them the noblest 
ideals of manhood and womanhood, and to 
develop within them a genius for usefulness. 


The instruction of the college aims to com- 
bine the advantages of the lecture, recitation 
and laboratory system. 


The curriculum embraces ; 

First: A Classical Course. 

Second: A Philosophical Course. 

Third : A Scientific Course. 

These are four year courses leading to the 
degrees of A. B., Ph. B., and S. B., and are 
equal to those adopted by other similar in- 
stitutions of the country. 


In connection with the college, but oc- 
cupying a separate building on the Campus, 
and a separate Faculty, is Buchtel Academy, 
in which students are thoroughly prepared for 
college entrance. Owing to limited numbers, 
tie student is under the personal .supervision 
of a strong corps of teachers and is afforded 
daily practical drill in class room and labora- 
tory work. 


The Music School is located at the college 
in Crouse Gymnasium. Thorough and tech- 
nical training, beginning with fundamentals, 
is given in instrumental course by capable 
and experienced specialists. 

The Art School is situated at the Academy 
Building in a specially arranged and equipped 
suite of rooms and is under the personal su- 
perivsion of a trained and experienced spe- 
cialist. The School offers excellent advantages 
for the study of art. It embraces instruction 
in charcoal, crayon, pencil, pastel, oil and 
\vater color. Students work from original 
designs, life, casts, and still life. 


The larger portion of the basement rooms 
of Crouse Gymnasium have been reaiTanged 
since the fire of 1899 for use as chemical lab- 
oratories consisting of five rooms. A general 
laboratory for the use of students during the 
first year of work in chemistry has been fitted 
with all modern facilities. Drainage, gas, hot 
and cold water, and all necessary apparatus, 
are at each student's desk. The students pur- 
suing quantitative methods have ample room 
and opportunities for the more refined and 
careful researches in a laboratory by them- 
selves, undisturbed bj- other workers. The 
ventilation of the laboratories is good, special 
wall flues carrying off noxious vapers. 

The laboratories for physics are arranged 
in the basement of Buchtel Hall. Six rooms 
are given to the use of experimental physics. 
The rooms for experiments in electricity and 
magnetism are free from iron in their con- 
struction, and solid masonrv' floors in all lab- 
oratories secure the instruments from all out- 
side jar and disturbance. 

Excellent facilitic,* for work in photography 
are provided by a well equipped dark-room, 
and students in physical science are encour- 
aged to become familiar with the best methods 
of experimental illustration. 

The department of Natural Science is lo- 
cated in the new Buchtel Hall, where three 
laboratory and lecture rooms are fitted for 
work in biology and geology'. The student is 
supplied with microscopes, reagents, micro- 
tomes, and other apparatus needful for thor- 
oTigh work in biographical research. A collec- 



tion of minerals and crystals, together with 
maps, charts and paleontological cabinet, 
comprise the equipment for work in Geology. 

The College is supplied with excellent sur- 
veying instruments, in the way of compass, 
engineer's level, surveyor's transit, with solar 
attachment for determining the true meri- 
dian, independent of the needle, chains, tapes, 
poles, pins, etc. 

The Astronomical Observatory is adequate- 
ly equipped with efficient, delicate and costly 
instruments for carrying on in a practical 
laboratory way that line of higher mathe- 


The College Library had its origin with a 
collection of works donated in 1874 by the 
late Gen. L. V. Bierce. During the early 
days of the college the library was augmented 
by books purchased from the proceeds of a 
bequest received from Gen. Bierce'4 e-state. 
In recognition of this etxrly gift the library 
has been called the Bierce Library. 

At the present time the Library is in Buch- 
tel Hall and embraces about 9,000 bound 
volumes of standard works (exclusive of pub- 
lic documents). These books have been 
mostly selected with special reference to their 
use in connection with the various depart- 
ments of college instruction. All are classi- 
fied and arranged on the shelves by the Dewey 
system of ola.ssification. The whole Tibrar^' 
is practically one of reference, as students 
have access to the shelves at all hours of the 
day. Books may also be drawn by students, 
professors and officers, in accordance with the 
regulations, for use outside the Library. 

Since the fire of 1899 the Library has been 
reclassified and recatalogued and put in the 
best working order for students. 

In connection with the College Library is 
the College Reading Room, which has upon 
its files the leading periodicals and newspa- 
pers of the day. These are selected, upon 
recomendation of the various professors, with 
special reference to supplementing their class- 
room instmction. 

A trained librarian of experience has charge 
of the library to render it of the greatest use- 
fulness to the students. 


Recognizing the fact that physical training 
is as legitimate a part of any system of edu- 
cation as is the mental, Buchtel College has 
made ample provision for this course in edu- 
cation, in her large and well equipped Gym- 
nasium and Athletic Field. Systematic in- 
struction is given to both young men and 
wamen in the Gymnasium each year by train- 
ed instructors, and the young men are given 
systematic training and regular drill in track 
athletics. Public sports such as foot-ball, base 
ball, basket ball, and lawn tennis are per- 
mitted and encouraged so far as is consistent 
with the student's health and with his prog- 
ress in the cla.*s-room. 


The students of Buchtel College maintain 
an Oratorical Association to which all college 
students are eligible. The object of the socie- 
ty Ls to secure an increased interest in public 
speaking, with special reference to the pres- 
entation of original productions. The local 
association is a branch of the State Associa- 
tion, which includes a number of the leading 
colleges of the State. Each year a local con- 
test is held by the association, the winner of 
which is sent by the association to the State 
contest. The successful contestant in the 
State contest represents the State in the inter- 
State contest. 


A Literary and Debating Club is organized 
among the students. Regular meetings are 
held for the discussion and debating of topics 
of interest. Often public debates are held 
with the neighboring societies and colleges. 




A Dramatic Organization is maintained 
by the students for mutual self-culture, and 
for the study of literature and the histrionic 
art. One or more public entertainments are 
given each year with credit to the club and 
the College. 

All such literary organizations and efforts 
are approved and encouraged by the College. 


The College and Academy admit students 
of both sexes. No sex discrimination is made 
in requirements, and equal educational ad- 
vantages and honors are offered to each. 

master's degrees. 

The degree of A. M. will be conferred up- 
on those who have acquired the degree of A. 
B. or Ph. B., and the degree of M. S. upon 
those who have acquired the degree of B. S. 
These degrees will be granted in not less than 
two years after gi'adualion, unless the appli- 
cant, in residence, can devote the larger part 
of his time to his work, when the degrees may 
be granted in one year. 


Alumni Prizes. — A fund has been estab- 
lished by the alumni of the College, the in- 
come of which is annually appropriated ac- 
cording 'to the following regulations: 

Lst. That student being a member of 
the Senior Class of the academy — who makes 
the highest average grade during the year 
in full Senior Avork in the Academy, and com- 
pletes his Senior year without conditions, shall 
be entitled to free tuition during the suc- 
ceeding year. 

2nd. That student' — being a member of 
the Freshman Class — who attains the high- 
est average grade during the year in the regu- 
lar freshman work and completes the year 
without any conditions, .shall be entitled to 
free tuition during the succeeding year. 

3rd. That student — being a member of 
the Sophomore Class — who attains the high- 
est average grade during the year in not few- 
er than thirty-two term hours above the fresh- 
man yeai', and completes this year without 
conditions, shall be entitled to free tuition 
during the succeeding year. 

4th. That student — being a member of 
the Junior Class — who attains the highest 
average grade during the year in not fewer 
than thirty-two term hours above the fresh- 
roan year, and completes this year without 
conditions, shall be entitled to free tuition 
during the succeeding year. 

5th. In determining the award of prizes 
for any year, there shall be considered only 
grades made in regular class work at Buchtel 
College during that year in subjects <'om- 
pleted before Commencement day. 

6th. In case of a tie in any class the 
prize shall be equally divided. 

7th. The prize for any class shall go to the 
student attaining the second highest average 
grade only in case the one ranking highest 
does not return to Buchtel College the next 
succeeding year. 

Oliver C. Ashton Prizes. — A fund consist- 
ing of $3,000 has been established by the late 
Oliver C. Ashton, endowing the 0. C. Ashton 
Prizes for excellence in reading and recitation. 

The annual income of this fund will be 
paid, one-third to competitors from the Senior, one-third to competitors from the Jun- 
ior Class, and one-third to competitors from 
the Sophomore Class, in a first and second 
prize to each class, in the proportion of two 
to one. 

These are public exercises, and will take 
place at stated times during the year. 

Pendleton Law Prizes. — For the purpose 
of encouraging the study of Law and Civil 
Government, a fund of $1,000 has been es- 
tabli,shed by Joy H. Pendleton, late of Akron, 
the annual income of which is u.sed as prize= 
for essays in the Law Class. Two-thirds of 
such income is annually to be paid for the 
best esf;ay, and one-third for the second best 
e.«,say, on some subject of Law or Government 
announced by the Instructor in Law. 



High Schools. — The College offers annual- 
ly one scholarship to each of several high 
schools, to be awarded to the student standing 
highest during the last year of his High 
School course. Each scholarship entitles the 
holder to two years' free tuition in College, 
subject to conditions which may be learned 
on application to the President of Buchtel 

Township. — Two standing schohirships in 
the Academy are offered to pupils in each 
Township of Summit County who complete 
the common school course in the country 
schools. These scholarships are awarded to 
the two pupils in each township passing the 
best examination before the County Board of 
School Examiners, under the provisions of the 
Patterson Law. 

Students winning the High School or 
Township Scholarships must begin their 
course of study not later than one year from 
the opening of the following school year. 

The College has just closed the thirty-fifth 
j'eai' of substantial educational work. It has 
been ably officered and has had a well quali- 
fied faculty, one that will compare favorably 
with that of any similar institution in our 
countiy. It has had generous support and 
liberal patronage, and has made history of 
which its friends are not ashamed. This has 
required earnest work and large sacrifice. The 
founders were men and women of large hearts, 
who planned for the best good of humanity. 
Cheerfully and freely did they give time and 
money for the erection of buildings and the 
endow-ment of the institution, and if their de- 
scendants truly honor the founders, tlie Col- 
lege will increase in strength and usefulness 
as the years go by. It surely has a bright out- 


It is impossible to fully ani?wer this very- 
appropriate and important question. Some 
facts mav more than suggest the true answer. 

It has brought into the City approximately 
one million dollars for building purposes, en- 
dowment funds and current expenses. Each 
year students expend thousands of dollars for 
board, clothing and other items. 

It has increased the value of real estate, 
especially in its vicinity, and it has advertised 
the city, its various industries and enterprises 
as nothing else could have done. Young men 
and women who have spent several years in 
the institution will not soon cease to sound 
the praise of the city that gave them generous 

While the College was established by the 
Ohio Universalist Convention, and a very 
large share of the building fund and endow- 
ment has been donated by members of the 
Universalist Church, yet it is not, strictly 
speaking, denominational. It is religious but 
not sectarian. It tolerates and respects all re- 
ligious opinions and organizations and asks 
no questions of students concerning their the- 

It seeks to occupy a high moral plane and 
aims to inspire in students exalted ideals of 
character and life. 

Its educational standard is equal to that of 
any college in Ohio. Graduates are welcomed 
to Harvard, Yale, and all American Univer- 
sities on the diplomas received at Buchtel. 
More than this, .students who spend one or 
more years at Buchtel are everywhere credit- 
ed, without examination, with all the marks 
that have been received. Its standing is un- 
questioned. With its record its friends have 
abundant reason to be satisfied. 

Possessing buildings well adapted for the 
purpose designed, well equipped for teaching 
Science, Art, Literature, etc., with a faculty 
composed of able, scholarly men and women, 
the College has furnished the opportunity for 
hundreds of young men and women to obtain 
a liberal education at home at a comparative- 
ly trifling expense. By bringing into the city 
a considerable number of gifted men and 
women it has helped to elevate the intellectual 
and mora Itone of the citizens. It is now 
known not only as an enterprising commer- 
cial town, but as an educational center, that 



challenges the attention of people of char- 
acter and influence. Summit County has 
abundant reason for being grateful to those 
who earnestly and successfully labored to se- 
cure the institution in its County Seat. While 
it has a wide field and draws patronage from 
several states, yet it peculiarly belongs to 

Akron, and in its perpetuity and prosperity 
citizens should take a just pride and extend 
generous help. As a beacon light to Akron, 
Summit County, and humanity, it challenges 
the respect and confidence of the world and 
truly merits the generous support of a large 



First Churches and Pioneer Clergi/ — General History of Religious Organ! 

and Clergi/ of To-day. 

Akron has sixty-two churches within its 
corporation limits. This demonstrates that 
the city is not wholly given to manufacturing, 
leisure and society. Akron is a typical Ameri- 
can city and believes that all work and no 
play makes Jack a dull boy. Therefore, its 
citizens are provided with large and modern 
theaters and a beautiful music hall. A strong 
religious influence also permeates Akron's 
life. The same desire for culture which has 
brought such great success in educational 
lines, has manifested itself in the various re- 
ligious societies of the city. There has been 
a sound and healthy rivalry among them to 
provide splendid meeting places for worship 
for their various congregations. As a result 
Akron today enjoys superior advantag&s for 
the church-goer. 

The oldest church organization in Akron 
today is the First Presbyterian Church. It was 
organized December 15, 1831, by Rev. B. C. 
Baldwin and Rev. John Hughes with twenty- 
six members. They occupied the old brick 
church on Kent Street for any years, un- 
til 1906, when they completed the beautiful 
modem church building on East Market 
Street near Buchtel Avenue. 

In 1834 the Congregational Church was 
organized by J. W. Pettit. In 1885 a small 
frame church was built where the Court 
House stands now. Rev. James B. Walker 
was its first permanent pastor. In June, 1843, 
the society built a large church on the comer 
of North Main and Federal Streets. During 
the pa.*torate of Rev. Carlos Smith, the brick 
church on South High Street was built. The 

'zations — Churches 

society has now, in the year 1907, purchased 
a site on the corner of East Market and Union 
Streets, and will build a fine church at that 
point during the next year. Rev. Thomas 
E. Monroe became pastor of this church 
April 1, 1873, and continued as its active pas- 
tor until 1901. He is now Pastor Emeritus. 

In 1830 a Methodist congregation was or- 
ganized by Rev. John Janes, and meetings 
were held in the school house at the corner 
of South Broadway and Buchtel Avenue. In 
1836 a church was built at the corner of 
South Broadway and Church Streets. In 
1871 the fine brick church at the comer of 
South Broadway and Church Streets was com- 
pleted. The Sunday-school rooms were plan- 
ned by Lewis Miller and gave rise to the 
"Akron Plan" of arranging Sunday-school 

On October 19, 1834, a Baptist congrega- 
tion was organized in the school house, on the 
corner of South Broadway and Buchtel Ave- 
nue. The moderator of the meeting was Ca- 
leb Green. Amasa Clark acted as scribe. 

The Universalist was one of the early re- 
ligious organizations in Akron, and held 
meetings here as early as 1835. In 1837 
Rev. Freeman Loring organized a chiirch, 
and meetings were held at the corner of Main 
and State Streets. A church was built on 
North High Street a few years later. It was 
built of stone and was one of the finest stmc-, 
tures in the State at that time. 

In 1836 a parish of the Episcopal Church 
was organized in Akron by Rev. W. H. New- 
man of Cuyahoga Falls. In 1844 a chiirch 



building was built on South High Streets. In 
1884 the parish built the fine stone church on 
East Mai-ket and Forge Street. 

The Disciples congregation was organized 
in 1839, although meetings had been held as 
early as 1830. The society was organized by 
Elders Bently and Bosworth. 

In 1842 the German Evangelical Protes- 
tant Congregation was organized. It is the 
parent of the German Lutheran Church and 
the German Reformed. 

The Grace Reformed society was organized 
in 1858 by Rev. N. Gher. 

The German Lntlieran society w^as formed 
in August, 1854, by Rev. P. J. Buehl. Its 
church on the corner of South High and 
Quarry Streets was erected in 1837. 

Trinity Lutheran Church was organized in 
1870, and its fine church on Prospect Street 
was erected in 1872. In October, 1882, the 
Rev. Excell organized the United Brethren 
Church on the corner of High and James 

As early as 1835 services of the Roman 
Catholic Church were held in Akron, various 
priests coming from neighboring parishes for 
that purpose. In 1843 a church was built 
on Green Street. On March 17, 1864, the 
present stone church on the corner of West 
Market and Maple Streets was begun. Rev. 
M. A. Scanlon was pa«tor of St. Vincent de 
Paul's Church from .June, 1859, to December, 
1873. Rev. T. F. Mahar became pastor Au- 
gust 1, 1880, and has continued until the 
present time. St. Mary's congregation was 
established in 1887. and a church was erected 
on South Main Street, opposite McCoy Street. 
In 1861 St. Bernard's Catholic Church was 
organized. The first pastor was Rev. Father 
Loure. In 1866 Rev. John B. Broun took 
charge of the church, and he has continued 
as its pa.stor until the pr&sent time. In 1903 
a magnificent Church on South Broadway 
and Center — the finest in the city — was com- 

In 1865 the Akron Hebrew congregation 
was organized, and services were held in the 
first story of the Allen's block on South How- 
ard Street. They were afterwards held in the 

first story of the Barber Block. In 1885 the 
congregation purchased the Episcopal church 
on South High Street and has occupied it 
since as a temple of worship. 

These were the parent congregations of the 
city. As the city grew rapidly in all direc- 
tions, and some of the city congregations were 
located in many cases two or four miles from 
the city churches, various branches were es- 

The following is a complete list of all the 
city churches, with their respective pastors, 
and their location, at the present time: 

First Baptist, 37 South Broadway; Rev. A. 
M. Bailey, pastor. 

Second Baptist, comer Hill and James; 
Rev. R. A. Jones, pastor. 

Maple St. Baptist, South Maple near Ex- 
change; Rev. J. C. Swan, pastor. 

Arlington St. Baptist, South Arlington; 
Rev. J. M. Huston, pastor. 

German Baptist, West Thornton, corner of 

First Congregational, South High, near 
Market; Rev. H. S. MacAyeal. 

West Congregational, corner West Market 
and Balch; Rev. P. E. Bauer. 

Welsh Congregational, McCoy Street. 

First Church of Christ, South High ; Rev. 
George Darsie, pastor. 

Broad Street Church, Broad near Market; 
Rev. I. H. Durfee, pastor. 

Third Church of Christ, comer Wabash 
and Euclid Avenue; Rev. A. F. Stahl. 

Fourth Church of Christ, Steiner Avenue; 
Rev. C. A. MacDonald, pastor. 

St. Paul's Church, E. Market corner Forge; 
Rev. S. North Watson, D. D., rector. 

Church of Our Saviour, corner Crosby and 
Oakdale Avenue; Rev. Geo. P. Atwater, 

St. Andrew's Mission, West Tallmadge 
Avenue, near Cuyahoga. 

Calvary Church, corner Bartges and Co- 
burn: Rev. W. L. Naumann, pastor. 

Kenmore Church, Kenmore: Rev. E. S. 
Flora, pastor. 

First U. E. Church, corner Wooster Avenue 
and Locust; Rev. H. W. Epsy. 



Akron Hebrew Reformed Congregation, 
South High near Mill; I. E. Philo, rabbi. 

Sons of Peace Congregation, 235 Bowery; 
E. W. Lutz, rabbi. 

Hebrew Congregation meets at 706 Edge- 
wood Avenue. 

Trinity Lutheran, South Prospect near 
Mill; Rev. E. W. Simon, pastor. 

German Lutheran, South High, corner 
Quarry; Rev. W. H. Lothmann, pastor. 

St. John's Lutheran Church, Cobum near 
Voris; Rev. E. C. Billing, pastor. 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
West Thorn ; Rev. J. H. Zinn, pastor. 

Grant Street Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
East Thornton near Grant; Rev. J. Franklin 
Yount, pastor. 

Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
Kent near Market; Rev. G. S. Ohslund, pas- 

First M. E. Church, South Broadway cor- 
ner Church, Rev. Frank W. Luce, D. D., 

Grace M. E. Church, East Market near Car- 
roll ; Rev. A. R. Custer, pastor. 

North Hill M. E. Church, North Howard 
corner Tallmadge Avenue; Rev. J. 0. David- 
son, pastor. 

Woodland M. E. Church, South Main 
south of Thornton ; Rev. E. T. Mohn, pastor. 

Main Street M. E. Church, Corner Balch 
and Crosby; Rev. F. C. Anderson, pastor. 

Arlington Street M. E. Church, North Ar- 
lington near North ; Rev. B. P. White, pastor. 

Wooster Avenue M. E. Church, Wooster 
Avenue corner Raymond ; Rev. B. P. White, 

German M. E. Church, corner Exchange 
and Pearl ; Rev. D. J. Harrer, pastor. 

Zion A. M. E. Church, South High, near 
Cedar; Rev. E. C. West, pastor. 

Free Methodist, 1044 Yale; Rev. J. E. Wil- 
liams, pastor. 

Wesleyan Methodist, 729 Princeton ; Rev. 
I. F. McLei-ster, pastor. 

First Presbyterian, 647 East Market; Rev. 
H. W. Lowry, pastor. 

Central Presbyterian, East State near Main. 

First United Presbyterian, services in G. A. 
R. Hall; R_ev. W. A. Chambers. 

Grace Reformed, South Broadway near 
Mill; Rev. Irvin W. Hendricks, pastor. 

German Reformed, South Broadway cor- 
ner Center; Rev. Edward Stuebi, pastor. 

Trinitj^ Reformed. South Broadway cor- 
ner York; Rev. J. S. Freeman, pastor. 

Wooster Avenue Reformed, Wooster Ave- 
nue, corner Bell ; Rev. E. R. Willard, pas- 

Miller Avenue Reformed, 81 West Miller 
Avenue; Rev. S. E. Snepp, pastor. 

Goss Memorial Reformed Church, Ken- 

St. Bernard's Church, South Broadway 
corner Center; Rev. J. B. Broun, pastor. 

St. Vincent de Raid's Church, West Mar- 
ket corner Maple; Rev. T. F. Mahar, pastor. 

St. Mary's Church, South Main opposite 
McCoy ; Rev. J. J. Farrell, pastor. 

First LT. B., East Center near Buchtel Ave- 
nue; Rev. William Clarke, pastor. 

Howe Street U. B., Corner Howe and Na- 
than ; Rev. 0. W. Slusser, pastor. 

First Universalist, corner Broadway and 
Mill; Rev. E. G. Mason, pastor. 

Christian and Missionarv Alliance meets 
85 West Cedar; Rev. S. M. Gerow. 

Seventh Day Adventists meet 57 West 
South Street. 

Latter Day Saints, Reorganized Church of 
.lesus Christ, meets corner Main and Bartges 

Christian Science, Services are held in tbe 
Hebrew Temple, High Street. 

Spiritualists meet in G. A. R. Hall. 

Hungarian Church, South Main extension. 

Union Gospel Mission, 51 North Howard; 
Rev. C. A. McKinney. superintendent. 

Gospel Church, East South; Rev. C. A. 
McKinney, pastor. 

Salvation Army, 54 Main : Adjutant and 
Mrs. D. G. Main in charge. 

Industrial Home, .33 and 35 Viaduct, store 
874 South Main. 




Since Laurin Dewey set up a hand press in 
Middlebnry in 1825 and began the publica- 
tion of the 07uo Canal Advocate, it is recorded 
that Akron and Summit County have had 
nearly 100 somen-hat similar ventures. Mr. 
Dewey was Summit County's first editor and 
publisher. The publication of his paper was 
made possible by the contribution of $204 in 
amounts varying from $2 to $10 by public 
spirited citizens of Middlebury. Some of these 
early newspaper promoters were the follow- 
ing: Erastus Torrey, Henry Chittenden, 
Charles Sumner, Nathan Gillett, Jr., Rufus 
Hart, Edward Sumner, Samuel Newton, Chas. 
W. Brown, Theophilus Potter, Miner Spacer 
and Paul Williams. 

Laurin Dewey was a "practical printer," 
and came to Middlebury from Ravenna. The 
building of the canal was being advocated 
about that time, and Middlebury citizens be- 
lieved that if built, the future greatness of the 
place would be assured. And they believed, 
further, that a newspaper booming the canal 
might help their hopes along toward realiza- 
tion. Mr. Dewey saw an opportunity, and 
seized it. Second-hand materials were pur- 
chased from the Cleveland Herald, brought 
to Middlebury in two wagons, and the first 
issue appeared September 28, 1825, the name 
having been changed, in the meantime, to 
the Portage Journal, as the building of the 
canal was by that time assured. Hiram 
Bowen, afterwards founder of the Bearon. 
was associated with Laurin Dewey in the 
publication of the Portage Journal. The size 
of the Portage Journal -was nineteen by twen- 
tj'-four inches; the price was two dollars a 

year. It was independent in politics and op- 
posed Jackson. In 1826 it passed into the 
hands of McMullen & Mason, then was again 
transferred to Alvah Hand, who discontinued 
it in 1829. 

The first paper was unsuccessful, financial- 
ly. This was perhaps unfortunate, as a prece- 
dent, for the same might be said of the most 
of the ninety odd newspaper and magazine 
publications which have followed, in the 
years from 1825 to 1907. 

Today three daily newspapers — two being 
entire local products and the third a Cleveland 
publication, keep Akron and Summit County 
thoroughly informed. Then there are a num- 
ber of other newspapers and similar publica- 
tions, which will be dealt with in their turn. 
It might be added in passing, however, that 
Akron's present newspapers ai'e far more suc- 
cessful, from a business view point, than 
of their predecessors. 

In no 'department of its industry may the 
progress of the city be so well followed as in 
its newspaper history. The printing art has 
improved and developed amazingly. Lane 
says, speaking of the Portage Journal, Sum- 
mit County's first newspaper: 

"With this fund, an old style Ramage press 
and a quantity of second-hand materials were 
purchased from the Cleveland Flerald, the 
entire outfit being transported overland in a 
couple of two horse wagons." One team 
could probably have hauled the entire outfit 
an ordinars'^ distance. The equipment may 
have weighed a ton. A new press was brought 
to Akron in the spring of 1907 for the Akron 



'times. It ^veighs over 52,000 pounds, with- 
out its accessories. 

Ill 1825, and in fact until a comparatively 
few years ago all type-setting was done by 
hand. Now it is indeed an obscure and back- 
ward paper which does not have one or more 
type-setting machines. In the old days, a 
strong youth furnished power for the print- 
ing press, turning out, possibly 300 to 500 in 
a laborious hour. Today presses in use by 
Akron's daily papers are operated by great 
engines or motors, and vastly larger papers 
than the earlv ones are turned out at the rate 
of 12,000 to 15,000 an hour. 

The telegraph, the telephone, the perfecting 
of mail delivery service, the evolution of the 
photographic and tlie photo-engraving proc- 
ess liave made newspapers entirely different 
things, both to publishers and to readers, than 
they were in the early days. Akron, proper, 
had no newspaper before 1836. Its people 
received their news through the Western In- 
telUgence, 1827: the Ohio Observer, 1832; 
published at Hudson and Cuyahoga Falls. 

In 1836, Akron was incorporated. Im- 
mediately thereafter Madison H. White, of 
Medina, came over and establi-shed the Akron 
Post, the first issue appearing March 23. It 
was a five column weekly, and it died in No- 
vember of the same year. Its equipment was 
purchased by Constant Bryan, then a young 
lawyer, and later a judge, who established the 
AIcro7i Journal. December 1. 1836. The 
Jottrnal gave up the ghost six months later. 

The Post and Journal had been Demo- 
cratic. Now the Whigs had an inning, when 
Horace K. Smith and Gideon J. Galloway 
brought forth the first issue of the American 
Balanre. August 19, 1837: suspended August 
9, 1838; age one year. 

Easily the liveliest and most comTuendable 
of the early Akron new.spaper ventures was 
that of Samuel Alanson Lane, who established 
the American Buzzard, in 1837, his object 
being to reduce the lawless young town of 
Akron, filled with bad men, to a state of law 
and order. In its stated object and in finan- 
cial matters the Evzzard was quite sticcessful, 
and after an exceding bri.«k career as editor 

and manager for two years, Mr. Lane dis- 
posed of it to Hiram Bowen, who turned it 
into the Summit Beacon, in 1839. 

The Beacon has continued to this day, be- 
ing issued as a daily under the name of the 
Beaton Journal. It represented the Whig 
Party, and had a hard time of it for several 
years. In 1844 Mr. Bowen sold the Beacon 
to Richards 6. Elkins, who was succeeded as 
editor by Laurin Dewey in 1845. They in 
turn sold it to John Teesdale, of Columbus, 
in 1848. Mr. Teesdale was still in command 
when the Republican party was formed in 
1855, and the Beacon became its organ. He 
sold out to Beebe & Elkins in 1856, and was 
succeeded as editor by James, later Judge 
Cai"penter; A. H. Lewis, of Ravenna, succeed- 
ed him, and in 1861 S. A. Lane, former pro- 
prietor of the Buzzard, became editor. Four 
years later Mr. Lane and Horace G. Canfield 
bought an interest, and in Januar^^, 1867, the 
business was taken entirely out of the hands 
of Beeibe & Elkins, the publishers' names being 
changed to Lane, Canfield & Company. The 
new proprietors believed that Akron had 
grown to a point where it should have a daily 
paper; the necessary preparations were made 
and the first issue of the Akron Daily Beacon 
made its appearance December 6, 1869. Mr. 
Lane was editor-in-chief, and Thomas C. Ray- 
nolds, wa« assistant editor. Mr. Raynolds 
afterward piloted the Beacon's ship of des- 
tiny for many years. 

The Beacon Publishing Companv was 
formed in 1871, capital $25,000. Messrs. Lane 
and Denis A. Long retained an active inter- 
est : H. A. Canfield and A. L. Paine retired 
and Mr. Raynolds was made editor-in-chief. 
The paper grew, and the fact that its entire 
jilant was destroyed by fire in 1872 checked 
its progress but little. In 1875 the property, 
rehabilitated, was purchased by Mr. Rav- 
nolds, -n-ith Frank J. Staral and John H. 
.\uble. Later Mr. Raynolds secured control. 

In 1869, the Akron Daily Beacon, the first 
local daily, made its appearance. It grew, and 
in 1891 absorbed the Akron Daily Republi- 
can, which had, in the meantime sprung up 
to di.spute its right to the whole of the local 



daily field. This led to a complete reorgani- 
zation. The Republican was a consolidation 
of two papers, the Daily Telegram and the 
Sunday Gazette, the latter founded by Paul 
E. Werner in 1878. 

When the Beacon took over the Republi- 
ran, it reorganized as follows: George W. 
Grouse, president; K. B. Congle, vice-presi- 
dent, and T. C. Raynolds, business manager. 
The Beacon and Republican continued in 
that form until 1897, when it was again 
deemed expedient to reach out and absorb a 
competitor, this time the Daily Journal. 
founded by Charles H. Wright. AVhen this 
change was made the name of the paper be- 
came the Beacon-Journal and a? such it ap- 
pears today. About that time R. T. Dobson, 
who, with his brother, had been conducting 
the Times, and had disposed of his interest 
there, came over and acquired in interest in 
the Beacon-Journal. This interest grew until 
it controlled the industry and it was much 
more prosperou,* under the Dobson direction 
than it had been in years before. A few 
years ago, Mr. Dobson, tiring of the newspa- 
per business, disposed of his interest to T. .1. 
Kirkpatrick, of Springfield, Ohio, and the 
latter removed to Akron and took personal 
charge, with C. L. Knight as business mana- 
ger. A year ago Major Kirkpatrick disposed 
of his holding and returned to Springfield 
where he has again engaged in the publish- 
ing business. Mr. Knight remains, as the 
manager and controller of a majority of the 
stock. William B. Baldwin, an Akron boy, 
and in newspaperdom a product of the local 
field, has been the editor of the Beacon-Jour- 
nal for years, and continues in that position. 
The Beacon-Journal Company occupies its 
own block at the corner of Quarry and Main 
Streets, and has a modern and complete 
equipment. So much for the story of what 
has developed into the leading Republican 
newspaper of the County. The Beacon-Jour- 
nal is a prodiict of gradual growth, of devel- 
opment with the years, as the city and county 
have developed. 

The Akron Tim,es, Summit County's lead- 
ing Democratic paper, daily and weekly, has 

another story to tell — a story of magnificent 
success in shorter time — a narrative of a 
struggle, which though short and successful, 
has been sharp. 

The American. Democrat, published at 
Akron for the first time on August 20, 1842, 
>was the first newspaper of that faith to make 
its appearance in Summit County. It? pub- 
lisher was the late Horace Canfield, pioneer 
printer, whose son, now honored and full of 
years, still plies the trade in the city of Akron. 

The life of the American Democrat was a 
little above six years. Then it daunted. Mr. 
Canfield immediately began the publication 
of another paper, with indifferent success. In 
1849, in partnership -with the late ex-gover- 
nor Sidney Edgerton, Mr. Canfield as mana- 
ger and Mr. Edgerton as editor, he began the 
publication of the Akron Free Democrat. 
That was in .July. After the fall election 
that year, the name of the paper was changed 
to the Free Demiocratic Standard. The paper 
continued for years, its name being frequently 
changed, however, to correspond with editorial 
belief or their burning issues. Its names 
were, successively, the Democratic Standard, 
the Summit Democrat and the Summit Un- 
ion. As the Summit Vnion the paper died 
in 1867. 

But Akron and Summit County were not 
to be left without a Democratic newspaper, 
and in the same year a new newspaper ven- 
ture, at least more enduring than its prede- 
cessors, was launched and christened the 
Akron Times. The present Akron Times is 
its lineal descendant. As a weekly paper 
the Akron Weekly Times continued un- 
til 1892. During those years, though it was 
without competition in its own field, its for- 
tunes were varied and it was at no time over- 
opulent, conforming in that respect to the 
well-known small newspaper rule. But it held 
on, and it grew despite the fact that it was 
the apostle of a minority in- local political be- 
lief. Among its editors were E. B. Eshelman, 
known better as editor of the Wayne County 
Democrat, and Frank S. Pixley, who has since 
become famous as a playwright. 

In 1892 fate decreed that the Times should 



emerge from its weekly newspaper chrysalis 
and become a daily. It happened that in that 
year W. B. and R. T. Dobson — then aggres- 
sive Democrats — decided that Akron must 
have a Democratic daily paper. The Akron 
Daily Democrat was accordingly launched by 
them. This was early in the year. The daily 
quickly occupied the field formerly taken by 
the weekly, and the weekly Times surren- 
dered, being taken over by the Brothers Dob- 

For five years the new arrangement contin- 
ued, W. B. Dobson having in the meantime 
become postmaster of the City of Akron, and 
the newspaper having been taken over by his 
brother, Russell T. Dobson. 

In 1898 the latter decided that he would 
dispose of the paper. In his employ at the 
time was an energetic youth who had gradu- 
ated from the printers' case to the editorial 
rooms and had become fii-st a reporter and 
later city editor of the paper. His name was 
Edward S. Harter. It was his ambition, of 
course, to own a newspaper, and when it was 
made known that the Daily Democrat and 
Weekly Times were for sale, he wanted to 
buy. With a partner then — Fred W. Gayer, 
of Akron — Mr. Harter made the purchase, 
paying whait was under the circumstance a 
large price for the property. It is a matter 
of local history that the seller boasted, when 
he completed the sale, that he would "have 
it back in six months." This came to the 
ears of Harter, the new editor. It checked 
his enthusiasm to a marked degree, but it 
also spurred him on to prevent, if possible, 
any other outcome of his venture than com- 
plete success. Mr. Dobson has not got the 
property back in ten years — by default. — and 
it is not likely that he ever will. Under the 
energetic direction of Mr. Harter and those 
associated with him then and since, the Times 
has grown. AVhen purchased its press ec(uip- 
ment wa? antiquated, type was set by hand, its 
office equipment was poor, its circulation small 
and its good will — an exceedingly important 
part, of a newspaper— was almost nil. 

Today the Times occupies its own building, 
a fine two-story brick structure at the corner 

of Mill Street and Broadway. Below are 
counting-room offices and pressroom, above 
reportorial and composing rooms. A battery 
of four linotype machines prepares the type; 
an elevator carries the pages to a pressroom 
equipped to the minute with the best and new- 
est machinery; a two-color sixteen-page press 
has just been installed, and today the Times 
has easily the most modern and complete 
newspaper plant in the county. Edward S. 
Harter, leaving the tripod for a business desk, 
is manager ; Judge C. R. Grant, a large stock- 
holder in the enterprise, wields a pen that 
moulds opinions, and the Times today is in 
the very front rank among Summit County 

This paper is produced by the Akron Dem- 
ocrat Company, of whom the following are 
officers: Judge C. R. Grant, president; J. V. 
Welsh, vice-president; Edward S. Harter, sec- 
retary and manager, and M. N. Hoye, treas- 

For the large number of German speaking 
people within its borders Akron has a live 
German newspaper, the Germania, edited and 
largely owned by Louis Seybold. This paper 
has had a long and successful career, having 
been founded in 1868 by H. Gentz. Within 
a year after its birth, it passed into the hands 
of the late Prof. Karl F. Kolbe, who for more 
than half a century was prominently identi- 
fied with all that was good in German litera- 
ture in this community. Louis Seybold became 
editor in 1875. In 1887 the Germania Print- 
ing Company was incorporated, with Paul 
E. Werner, president; Louis Seybold, secre- 
tary, and Hans Otto Beck, business manager. 
Later Mr. Werner and Mr. Beck disposed of 
their connections, Mr. Beck returning to Ger- 
many and Mr. Werner going into other things 
But the Germania lives on, Editor Seybold at 
the helm and members of his family at his 
right hand — a power for good in that part of 
the community for which it is especially in- 
tended. Some twenty years ago the Freie 
Presse was started, but the Germania quickly 
absorbed it. 

In a work of the present scope it would be 


impossible to name all the publications which 
have at various times catered to the local pub- 
lic for a time, then passed on. D&serving of 
special mention, however, at the present time 
is The People, published weekly under the 
direction of the Akron Central Labor Union. 
The People is by far the most pretentious 
labor publication ever attempted in the Akron 
field. It enjoys a wide patronage and circu- 

lates among the members of the various local 
labor unions. 

The Akron Press, an edition of the Cleve- 
land Press, printed and prepared in Cleveland, 
is also circulated considerably in Akron. It 
is understood that its ow'uers at the present 
time contemplate the erection of a plant in 
this city, and the publication of the Akron 
Press as a bona fide Akron paper. 






There are two names in the history of Sum- 
mit County up to the year 1907, which, in 
the years to come, will stand out far above 
all others. The name of one who lived 
among us will always be honored because of 
the memories associated with the anti-slavery 
struggle; the fame of the other is secure be- 
cause of the perfection of his art. One 
wrought; the other wrote. Although they 
are the greatest by far of all Summit County's 
citizens, yet neither of them was a native of 
the county. They were both born in Connecti- 
cut, and the places of their birth were but 
forty miles apart. Nor, was the great work 
which each of them did, accomplished in 
Summit County. Nevertheless, as a large 
part of the lifetime of each was spent within 
her borders, the county claim? them both as 
her own sons. She views with increasing 
pride the added fame which the years bring 
to the memory of John Brown of Osawatomie, 
and Edward Rowland Sill, one of the worthi- 
est and truest of American poets. 

Torrington, in Western Connecticut, is set 
amid all the glories of the Housatonic Moun- . 
tains. Nature presents few landscapes more 
charming than this idyllic region. Litchfield, 
which means so much to the residents of Sum- 
mit County is only a few miles to the south- 
west. John Brown was born at Torrington 
on the 9th day of ilay in the year 1800. 
The town record supplies the date and states 
that he was the son of Owen and Ruth 
Brown. He was a direct descendant of Peter 
Brown, an English Puritan carpenter who was 
on6 of the Mayflower company. His ancestors, 
too, had been part of that remarkable colony 

which founded Windsor, Connecticut. In his 
own words, he was born of "poor but re- 
spectable parents." His father was a tanner 
and shoemaker who was often hard put to 
in order to provide the bare necessaries of life 
for his faanily. His grandfather was Captain 
John Brown, of the Revolutionary Army. 
Hi^ mother was Ruth IVIills and she, too, could 
boast of a father who had fought with great 
credit in the war of the Revolution. His 
mother was of Dutch descent, her first Ameri- 
can ancestor being Peter Mills who emigrated 
from Holland about 1700. 

In 1805 Owen Brown moved with his wife 
and babies to Ohio. It was an emigration 
rather than a moving; for the way was long 
and toilsome and beset with many perils. They 
settled in Hudson, which at that time was 
only a clearing in an almost unbroken wilder- 
ness. In the story of his life John mentions 
that it was filled with Indians and wild 
beasts. During the first few years of his life 
in Hudson, he was accustomed to intimate 
association with the Indians; his early play- 
mates were Indians and from them he learned 
much woodcraft and some of their language. 
He mentions with much feeling the loss of a 
yellow imarble (the first he ever had), which 
had been given to him by an Indian boy. 
Soon after settling in Hudson, his father was 
made a trustee of Oberlin College. This 
speaks volumes for the standing of the family 
and the character of that worthy father. In 
spite of the scholastic connection of his father, 
however, the youthful John received very 
scanty schooling. Dres.sed in his rough buck- 
.skin clothes he preferred to tend the cattle 
and .«heep, and roam on long trips in the for- 
est. AVhen onlv twelve vears old he made a 



trip of over a hundred miles driving alone a 
herd of cattle. He enjoyed immensely the 
hardest and roughest sports, and lost no op- 
portunity to "wrestle, snow-ball, run, jump 
and knock off old seedy wool hats." Perhaps 
the battles in Kansas were being won on the 
field of those rough frontier sports in Ohio. 
His mother died when he was eight years old, 
and the poor little fellow mourned for her for 
years. His father soon married again, but 
his heart remained lonely for his mother. At 
ten years he commenced reading books. It 
is easy to determine how that rugged charac- 
ter was formed by considering the sources of 
its inspiration. From that time on, his fav- 
orite books were: first and always, The Holv 
Bible; then Baxter's Saints' Rest; The Pil- 
grim's Progress; Josephus' Works, Plutarch's 
Lives; The Life of Oliver Cromwell; Rollin's 
Ancient History; Napoleon and His Mar- 
shals; and Henry on Meekness. 

At the age of sixteen he joined the Congre- 
gational Church at Hudson, and remained a and bible-reading Christian all the 
days of his life. After he became a nationnl 
character, the extent of his Bible knowledge 
was much marvelled at. About this time he 
determined to study for tbe ministry and 
entered the Hallock School, Plainfield, Ma=sa- 
chusetts, and also Morris Academy in Con- 
necticut. Inflammation of the eyes compelled 
him to quit study, and he returned to his 
business of tanning hides in Hudson. He 
was made foreman in his father's tannery 
and also mastered the art of .surveying. Sub- 
sequent sui-veys showed that Iiis early sur- 
veys Avere made with great accuracy. 

On June 21, 1820, he was married in Hud- 
son to Dianthe Lusk, of that village. He de- 
scribes her as "a remarkably plain, but neat, 
industrious and economical girl, of excellent 
character, earnest piety and good, practical 
common-scn.?e." He confesses that .«he "main- 
tained a most powerful and good influence 
over him" so long as she lived. By her, he 
had seven children, the first three of whom 
were born in Hudson, Ohio; the others in 
Richmond, Pennsylvania. These children 
were John Brown. Jr.; Jason Brown, now 

livijig in -Vkron ; Owen Brown ; Frederick 
Brown ; Ruth Brown, who afterward married 
Henry Thompson ; Frederick Brown, mur- 
dered in the Kansas trouble by Rev. Martin 
White; and an infant son who died three 
daj's after birth. Jason Brown was born in 
Hudson, January 19, 1823. He was the most 
prominent of the "Sons of Hudson" who re- 
turned for the "Old Home Festival" in the 
autumn of 1907, having walked all the way 
from Akron to Hudson to attend it. In 1826, 
John Brown moved to Richmond, Crowford 
County, Pennsylvania, where he carried on 
the business of tanner until 1835. His wife 
died here in, 1832, and he soon re- 
married. His second wife was Mary A. Day, 
who bore him thirteen children as follows: 
Sarah Brown, born May 11, 1834, at Rich- 
mond, Pennsylvania; Watson Brown, October 
7, 1834, at Franklin Mills, Ohio, (now Kent, 
Ohio) ; Salmon Brown, October 2, 1836, Hud- 
son, Ohio; Charles Brown, November 3, 1837, 
Hudson, Ohio; Oliver Brown, March 9, 1839, 
Franklin Mills, Ohio; Peter Brown, Decem- 
ber 7, 1840, Hudson, Ohio; Austin Brown, 
September 14, 1842, Richfield, Summit 
County, Ohio; Anne Brown, December 23, 
1843, Richfield, Ohio ; Amelia Brown, June 
22, 1845, Akron, Ohio; Sarah Brown (2d) 
September 11, 1846, Akron; Ellen Brown, 
Mav 20, 1848, Springfield. Massachusetts; in- 
fant son, April 26, 1852, Akron, died May 
17, 1852, and Ellen Brown (2d), September 
25, 1854, Akron. 

In 1835 he moved back to Ohio; this time 
settling at Franklin Mills (now Kent) in 
Portage County. He was unfortunate in the 
real estate business here, and in 1840 he re- 
turned to Hudson and formed a partnership 
with Heman Oviatt, of Richfield, to engage in 
the wool business. In 1842 he moved across 
the Cuyahoga Valley to Richfield, where he 
lived two years. AVhile living in Richfield 
four of his children died. In 1844 he moved 
with his family to Akron and formed a part- 
nership with Col. Simon Perkins, of Akron, 
to engage in the wool business. The firm 
name was Perkins & Brown and they sold 
large quantities of wool on commission. John 



Brown was an expert judge of wool; in fact, 
he had few equals. His reputation as a wool 
expert extended over the whole eastern part 
of the countrj'. A Massachusetts friend re- 
lates this anecdote of him : "Give him two 
samples of wool, one grown in Ohio and the 
other in Vermont, and he would distinguish 
each of them in the dark. One evening, in 
England, one of the party wLshing to play a 
trick -on the Yankee farmer, handed him a 
sample and asked him what he would do with 
such wool as that. His eyes and fingers were 
then so good that he had only to touch it to 
kno^' that it had not the minute hooks by 
which the fibers of wool are attached to each 
other. 'Gentlemen,' said he, 'if you have any 
machinery that will work up dog's hair, I 
would advise you to put this into it.' The 
jocose Briton had sheared a poodle and 
brought the hair in his pocket, but the laugh 
went against him, and Captain Brown, in 
spite of some peculiarities of dress and man- 
ner, soon won the respect of all whom he 

Perkins it Brown was not a success. Tlie 
failure was due solely to John Brown's lack 
of business instinct. He was not intended by 
Nature for a business career. He lacked all 
the fundamental requisites. He was by na- 
ture a dreamer, a seer, a poet, if you will. The 
impulses or intuitions he had at sixteen were 
correct; he would have made a splendid 
preacher. Colonel Perkins said of him: "He 
had little judgment, always followed his own 
will, and lost much money." During his 
residence of two years in Akron, he lived in 
the frame house on the top of Perkins Hill, 
now occupied by Hon. Charles E. Perkins, 
and which for several years was used as a 
club-house liy The Portage Golf Club. In the 
spring of 1846 he went to Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts as the agent for certain large wool 
growers in Ohio and Pennsylvania. In 1848 
he went to England with 200,000 pounds of 
wool, which he was compelled to sell at about 
half its value. His record as a wool factor is 
a series of failures. He was now reduced to 
poverty again. 

In 1849 he fell in with Gerritt Smith's 

quixotic plan to found a colony of negro set- 
tlers in the wild lands of the Adirondack 
wilderness, and moved his family there in that 
year, settling in North Elba, Essex County, 
New York. Mr. Smith gave John Brown the 
land and the latter started to clear it and en- 
deavored to show the negro how to cultivate 
and plant their farms in the colony. North 
Elba was the home of his family until the time 
of his death. It was a wild, cold and bleak 
place, and they suffered many privations while 
living there. From that time on John 
Brown's business was to fight slaverj'. He had 
been an abolitionist since the war of 1812. 
His witnessing the ill-treatment of a little 
slave boy, about his own age, to whom he was 
much attached, brought home to him the evils 
of human slavery and led him to declare eter- 
nal war with slavery. "This brought John to 
reflect on the wretched, hopeless condition of 
fatherless and motherless slave children, for 
such children have neither fathers nor moth- 
ers to protect and provide for them. He would 
sometimes raise the question : 'Is God their 
Father?' " — Autobiographical letter to Harry 
Stearns. Verily, God was their Father and 
was even then "trampling out the vintage 
where the grapes of wi'ath are stored." In 
1837. while the whole family were assem- 
bled for prayer, John Brown made them all 
take a solemn oath to work with him for the 
freeing of the slaves, and then, kneeling, they 
invoked the blessing of God on their compact 
In Ohio and also in Massachusetts, he was 
active in assisting runaway slaves to es- 

In 1854 his sons began to emigrate to Kan- 
sas, intending to settle there and grow to 
wealth with the country. In two years five 
of them, John, Jr., Jason, Owen, Frederick 
and Salmon, had located in the new terri- 
tory. They built their rude huts not far from 
the Missouri line, and, as it later turned out, 
right in the center of the struggle between the 
Free State and Pro-Slavery forces. The Mis- 
souri Compromise of 1820 had prohibited 
slavery in the new territory; the Kansas-Ne- 
braska Act of 1854 repealed that prohibition 
and allowed the settlers in the new territory 



to decide the question for themselves. Then 
the Kansas war was on. The Brown broth- 
ers found themselv&s drawn into it. Perhaps 
they remembered their oaths of 1837. At any 
rate, they wrote to their father to send them 
arms, and finally asked him to come and help 
them. The father did both. September, 1855, 
found John Brown in Kansas fighting his 
first big battles for the freedom of the slaves. 
In March, 1856, the time for the election 
whether the state should be "free" or "slave," 
Kansas was invaded by 5,000 Missourians, 
who took possession of the polls and con- 
trolled the election. From that time the war 
was on in good earnest. Its record is a part 
of our national history, and this is not the 
proper place to review the stirring incidents 
of those times. John Brown was now a na- 
tional figure. He was the leader of the Free 
State forces. June 2, 1856, he won the "bat- 
tle" of Black Jack. In August he was in 
command of the "Kansas Cavalry." On Au- 
gust 30, 1856, he won the fight called the "bat- 
tle of Osawatomie." It was from this battle 
that he got that nickname which has always 
clung to him. On September 15, 1856, he was 
in command of the defenders of the town of 
Lawrence and successfully resisted the attack 
of the "Missouri Ruffians." These fights are 
called "battles" ; in reality, they were skir- 
mishes in a guerrilla warfare. It was as a 
guerrilla leader that John Brown won his suc- 
cesses. By his activity he made it impossible 
to hold slaves in Kansas and thus the state 
was saved to the cause of Freedom. 

In October, 1856, he started, with his sons, 
for the East, begging assistance for the Kan- 
sas cause as he journeyed. On the 18th of 
February, 1857, he addressed the Massachu- 
setts legislature in a notable speech. He spent 
the winter with his family at North Elba, 
New York, and, in making speeches, collect- 
ing money for the cause and, buying arms. 
He alreadv liad Harper's Ferry in his mind. 
Autumn of 1857 found him in Iowa raising 
his forces and drillino- them for the invasion 
of Virginia. of 1858 was spent in Kan- 
sas at the request of Abolition friends in the 
East, who were furnishing funds for the 

cause. ^Vll the prepai'ations for and the at- 
tack on Hai'per's Ferry are a matter of na- 
tional and not local history. Suffice it to say 
that on July 3, 1859, he hired a farm near 
Haiper's Ferry, called the Kennedy Place, 
and assumed the name of Isaac Smith and be- 
gan to ship in the arms he had collected. - He 
succeeded in concealing his little band about 
this farm until he was ready to strike. Early 
on the morning of October 16, 1859, the blow 
fell. With his little band of twenty-two fol- 
lowers he seized the United States arsenal at 
Harper's Ferry. On October 17 he was at- 
tacked, by United States forces, most of his 
followers were killed and he, himself, was 
wounded and made prisoner. He was put on 
trial October 26, charged with treason, con- 
spiracy and murder, was found guilty on No- 
vember 2 and executed by hanging on the gal- 
lows on December 2, 1859. His body was 
delivered to his wife at Harper's Ferry and 
by her taken to North Elba, where he was 
buried. Wendell Phillips preached the 
funeral sermon. 

All the North looked upon John Brown as 
a martyr. As Christ had died to make men 
holy, this man had died to make them free. 
The Summit County boy had awakened the 
conscience of the Nation. It is difficult to 
realize that the bright-eyed little fellow, play- 
ing with his Indian mate? and tending his 
father's sheep up at Hudson, had become the 
central figure of our national life for the few 
years preceding the fall of Sumter. He did 
more; he had compelled the attention of the 
whole world. Victor Hugo published a sketch 
of him in Paris in 1861, which contained 
Hugo's own drawing of John Brown on the 
gallows, and which he marked Pro Chrisfo 
sicut Christus — he died for Christ in Christ's 
own manner. Biographies of him were pub- 
lished in England, Germany and other Eu- 
ropean countries. Emerson, Thoreau, Wen- 
dell Phillips, Thoanas Wentworth Higgin- 
son and other philosophers, poets and states- 
men were proud to acknowledge their friend- 
ship with the latest martyr to the cause of 
Eternal Freedom. 

On the day of his execution Akron made 




public display of her mourning. Business 
was entirely suspended, flags were at half- 
mast, bells were tolled, and in the evening 
memorial services were held, at which promi- 
nent citizens made addresses. He was Sum- 
mit County's first, but not her last, martyr to 
the cause of Human Freedom ; he was only 
the leader of a mighty company of noble men 
who made willing sacrifices of their lives for 
the cause of their Country and Humanity. 
Victor Hugo was right. 


Year by year the fame of this true poet is 
growing. It will be only a little while in the 
future until he is given the rank he deserves — 
among the foremost of America's poets. In 
many of his poems he attained the highest 
level of American art. In many respects his 
career offers a striking parallel to that of John 
Brown. He was born in the village of Wind- 
sor, Connecticut, April 29, 1841. This vil- 
lage was not far from John Brown's birth- 
place, and had been founded by a colony of 
Puritans, of whom John Brown's ancestors 
had been an influential part. He was not 
born to the poverty that was John Brown's 
lot. His family were well-to-do, and he re- 
ceived a splendid education at Yale College, 
from which he was graduated with the class 
of 1861. On the 9th of December of that 
year he sailed for California and landed in 
San Francisco March 25, 1862. The long sea 
voyage restored his health, which was im- 
paired upon his graduation. His first posi- 
tion was that of clerk in the postoffice at 
Sacramento. He kept the position only a 
short time, going to Folsom, California, to ac- 
cept a place as clerk in a bank. In July, 1862, 
he had determined fully to study law and en- 
ter upon that profession. He was then much 
disturbed as to the end toward which his life's 
activities should be directed. He writes "as 
Kingsley puts it, we are set down before that 
greatest world-problem — 'Given Self, to find 
God.' " In 1864 he determined to enter the 
ministry, and by February, 1865, he was deep 
in his theological reading. During these ear- 

ly days in California he wrote much — both 
prose and poetry. Early in 1867 he returned 
to the East and entered the Divinity School 
of Hai-vard University, where he studied for 
a few months. Why he quit the divinity 
school and relinquished the hope of the min- 
istry he tells in a little autobiographical let- 
ter ^\Titten March 29, 1883, as follows: "At 
last I went to a Theological Seminary (in 
Cambridge, because there you did not have to 
subscribe to a creed, definitely, on the start), 
and thought I would try the preliminary 
steps, anywaj', toward the ministry. But here 
I finally found I did not believe in the things 
to be preached, as churches went, as historical 
facts. So I desperately tried teaching." In 
June, 1867, he returned to Cuyahoga Falls, 
fully determined not to return to his theo- 
logical studies. He says in a letter: "There 
could be no pulpit for me. * * * It is 
no sentimentalism with me — it is simply a 
solemn conviction that a man must speak the 
truth as fast and as far as he knows it. — truth 
to him. * * * Emerson could not preach, 
and now I understand why." He then deter- 
mined upon school teaching as his life work — 
a singularly happy choice. "School teaching 
always has stood first," he wrote, significantly, 
at this time. He began by teaching the dis- 
trict school at Wadsworth, Ohio. In Septem- 
ber, 1869, he assumed the position of princi- 
pal of the High School at Cuyahoga Falls, 
Ohio, to which he had been appointed during 
that summer. His predecessor in that posi- 
tion was Vergil P. Kline, well known later to 
the people of Northern Ohio. The memories 
of his happy days in California were drawing 
him thither. He secured a position in the 
High School at Oakland, California, in 1871. 
In 1867, he was married to his cousin. Eliza- 
beth Newberrv' Sill, of Cuyahoga Falls, daugh- 
ter of Hon. Elisha Noyes Sill and Elizabeth 
(Newberry) Sill. No children were born to 
them. In 1871 he resigned his position as 
principal of the Cuyahoga Falls High School 
and, with his wife, moved to California to 
accept the new teaching po-sition in Oakland. 
In 1874 he was oflFered and accepted the chair 
of English Literature in the Univcrsitv of 



California, where he taught successfully un- 
til 1882. His health, which had never been 
very rugged, failed him entirely in this year. 
In 1883, he returned to Cuyahoga Falls, 
where he died February 27, 1887. His life 
work was teaching, but he will be known in 
the years to come because of his verse. Most 
of it ranks very high. The critics have com- 
pared him with Emerson, Arnold and Tenny- 
son. His first volume of poems was published 
in 1868, and was entitled "The Hermitage 

and Other Poems." In 1883 his second vol- 
ume, "The Venus of Milo and Other Poems," 
was privately printed at Berkeley, California. 
In 1887 Houghton, Mifflin & Company is- 
sued "Poems of Edward Rowland Sill"; in 
1889 "The Hermitage and Later Poems," and 
in 1900, "Hermione and Other Poems." In 
1900 these publishers also issued the "Prose 
of Edward Rowland Sill" and a splendid edi- 
tion de luxe of his complete poems. 



Revolutionary War — War of 1812 — Mexican War — War of the Rebellion — Militia Or- 
gan iza tions — Spanish- A merican \ Var. 

Few, if any, communities have been more 
patriotic than Akron, and indeed all of Sum- 
mit County. Her sons have gone forth 
willingly and gladly to fight their country's 
battles, on many occasions not waiting to be 
called upon. Akron's volunteers were numer- 
ous and acquitted themselves manfully in 
1898, and during the stirring years from 1861 
to 1865 the city and the county furnished 
their full quota of defenders of the Union. 
Akron sent forth her brave and strong to the 
Mexican struggle of 1846, within her gates are 
buried men who fought in 1812, and in her 
soil rest even a few of those heroes who fought 
in 1776, and the years following, to give the 
nation birth. There is no chapter of local 
military history that were best skimmed 
lightly over. Glory, unselfishness and patriot- 
ism are written large on every page that tells 
the story of her soldiery. 


A few of the names of the veterans of the 
Revolution, who became settlers of the county 
and were buried in it, are preserved to us. 
Among them were Captain Nathaniel Bettes, 
buried in the family lot at Bettes' Corners; 
Daniel Galpin and Elijah Bryan. 

WAR OF 1812. 

Of soldiers of 1812 buried in the city the 
following may be mentioned: John C. Hart, 

Henry Spafford, James Viall, Sr., George 
Uunkle, John C. De La Matyr, Asa Field, 
'J'imothy Clark, Gideon Hewett, William 
Ilardesty, Jame.s Mills, Andrew May and Wil- 
liam Roland. 


Akron citizens who served in the Mexican 
war were: Jeroboam B. Creighton, Adams 
Hart, George Dresher, Ezra Tryon, Oliver P. 
Barney, Joseph Gonder, Thomas Thompson, 
Cornelius Way and Valmore Morris. 

From the time Akron was a small village 
her citizens were appreciative of military 
glory. They did their full share of the serv- 
ice required of the citizen-soldiers under the 
early militia laws. Among the early militia 
organizations to win renown were the "Sum- 
mit Guards," commanded by the late General 
Philo Chambeilaiu. From that time down t:i 
the present Akron has seldom been mthout a 
military company. Now her organizations are 
companies B and F of the Eighth Regiment, 
Ohio National Guard, commanded respective- 
ly by Captains William F. Yontz and Wil- 
liam E. Walkup. 


It was in connection with the Civil War, 
however, that Akron achieved the larger meas- 
ure of her military glory. Immediately fol- 
owing President Lincoln's first call for troops, 
in 1861, two companies of volunteers were 



mustered, and, their services being accepled, 
were sent into the service as companies G and 
K, Nineteenth Regiment, O. V. I. Company 
G was commanded by Captain Lewis P. Buck- 
ley, First Lieutenant Andrew J. Fulkerson 
and Second Lieutenant Gilbert S. Carpenter. 
The oflicers of Company K were Captain An- 
drew J. Konkle, First Lieutenant Paul J. 
Kirby and Second Lieutenant James Nelson. 
A third company, formed shortly after, in re- 
sponse to the same call, was not required to 
help make up the 75.000 volunteers called 
for and was accordingly disbanded. When 
Companies G and K joined their regiment at 
Columbus, May 16, there was an election of 
officers. Captain Buckley being promoted to 
the rank of major at that time. Assigned to 
the command of General Rosecrans, the Nine- 
teenth was in the battle of Rich Mountain, 
July 7, being especiallj^ mentioned for its 
good conduct and bravery. Having enlisted 
for only ninety days, the Nineteenth Ohio was 
mustered out in July, 1861, but was imme- 
diately reorganized, many of the Akron men 
remaining. Its excellent conduct so long as 
it remained in service is a matter of national 
history. Major Buckley, at the expiration of 
the three months' ser\'ice of the original 
Nineteenth, was made colonel of the Twenty- 
ninth Regiment, 0. V. I., serving with credit 
until physical disability forced him to leave 
the sei-vice in 1863. He died in Akron in 
1868. Buckley Post, G. A. R., Akron's pres- 
ent organization of Civil AVar veterans, wa? 
named for him. 

Of the Twenty-ninth Regiment, 0. V. I.. 
three companies, D, G and H, were composed 
largely of Summit County men. In 1862 the 
regiment, after some delays, got into active 
service under General Shields, and remained 
in the service until the close of the war. The 
Twenty-ninth was in the folloT^ang battles, as 
well as many others. Antietam, Chancellors- 
ville. Gettysburg, and with Sherman on his 
march "from Atlanta to the Sea," remaining 
in service continuously for over four years. 
Akron, Middlebury and Portage contributed 
largely to the Twenty-ninth. 

One company of the Sixty-fourth, 0. V. I., 

Senator John Slierman's regiment, contained 
many Summit County men. This was Com- 
pany G. The Sixty-fourth saw much fight- 
ing; among the battles in which it took part 
were the following: Shiloh, Stone River, 
Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Resaca, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Siege of At- 
lanta, Franklin and Nashville. The 238 sur- 
vivors were mustered out at Victoria, Texas, 
December 3, 1865. 

Those who remember Akron's part in the 
struggle of the North and the South, thrill 
at the name of the Sixth Ohio Battery, a sec- 
tion of which was made up of Akron and 
Summit County men. The Akron section 
was formed November 21, with Captain Cul- 
len Bradley, an army officer of experience, in 
command, the other two commissioned officers 
being 0. H. P. Ayres and A. P. Baldwin. The 
Sixth Ohio Battery saw much hard service, 
some special incidents in its career being its 
almost continuous fighting for 120 days in 
the siege of Atlanta, and its mention by Gen- 
eral Howard for its accurate firing before 
Kenesaw. The battery was mustered out at 
Huntsville, Alabama, September 1, 1865. 

In the gallant One Hundred and Fourth, 
0. V. I., Akron had nearly all of Company H, 
and was represented in several other compa- 
nies. The regiment was formed in August, 
1862. Captain Walter B. Scott commanded 
Company H. His immediate subordinates 
were First Lieutenant Hobart Ford and Sec- 
ond Lieutenant Samuel F. Shaw. The One 
Hundred and Fourth was under fire within 
a month, its first assignment being to head 
off General Kirby Smith's advance on Cincin- 
nati. The first clash came near Covington, 
Kentucky, September 10, 1862, the Confeder- 
ates being repulsed. Shortly after this the 
regiment went on guard duty at Frankfort, 
Kentucky. In February, 1863, it was relieved, 
and in September of the same year became a 
part of General Burnside's command. It took 
the Confederate arms and stores at the sur- 
render at Cumberland Gap; it took an active 
part in the Atlanta campaign in 1864; had 
almost daily exchanges of the "courtesies of 
war" with Hood's men, near Nashville, and 



cuptui-ed eleven battle flags at the battle of 
Frankfort. It was a part of the Army of the 
Potomac and was detailed to receive the sur- 
render of Johnston. Six hundred and forty 
survivors were mustered out at Camp Tay- 
lor, Cleveland, June 27, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment, 
0. V. I., like the One Hundred and Fourth, 
was formed at ^lassillon, in August, 1862, and 
went int&the United States service in Septem- 
ber. Companies C, G and I contained many 
Summit County men. It was assigned to 
various re.sponsible duties, guarding prisoners, 
doing provost work, and in all things acquit- 
ting itself well until October, 1863, when on 
orders it joined General Rosecrans at Chatta- 
nooga. Here part, of the regiment was put 
into guerrilla warfai'e, and the remainder as- 
signed to guard duty along the line of the 
Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad. In De- 
cember, 1864, while engaged in guarding this 
railroad, being stationed in block houses. 
Companies C, F and G were captured by the 
enemy. Among the prisoners were two-thirds 
of the Summit County men in the regiment. 
Many of these Summit County prisoners, 
upon being exchanged for Confederates, near 
the close of the war. were unwilling partici- 
pants in, and some of them victims, of the 
famous Sultana disaster. They were confined 
during their captivity at Andersonville and 
at Meridian, Mississippi. April 25, 1865, the 
exchange took place at Vicksburg, and the 
Summit County men, with some 2,000 others, 
were packed aboard the river steamer Sultana 
for tran.sportation to Cincinnati on their way 
home. Shortly after leaving Jlemphis, past 
midnight of April 27. as the homeward- 
bound soldiers either .slept upon the decks or 
lay awake thinking of their loved ones, and 
anticipating .joyful reunions, one of the Sul- 
tana's boilers exploded, wrecking her and set- 
ing her afire, so that she burned to the water's 
edge. Half of her passengers were lost, either 
killed by the explosion, or drowned when they 
were hurled into the water. Thirty of the 
victims were Summit County men, though no 
.\kronians are known to have lost their lives. 
The One Hundred and Fifteenth wa« assigned 

to active and dangerous work at Murfrees- 
boro, where it also performed garrison and 
.guard duty for a time; it continued in the 
same kind of duty until mustered out at Cleve- 
land at the close of the war. As provost mar- 
shal at Cincinnati, Captain Edward Bucking- 
ham, of Company I (an Akron man), was 
practically in command of the city during 
the Vallandingham afi'air. Lieutenant George 
S. Waterman, of Cincinnati, was shot and 
fatally wounded at Cincinnati by "Copper- 
heads," as one of the incidents of that af- 

John Morgan and Kirby Smith, rebel 
raiders, caused Ohio much uneasiness in 1862. 
Cincinnati was threatened; all available troops 
were stationed near the border, but even then 
the presence of more defenders seemed ad- 
visable. So Governor Tod issued a call for 
volunteers to defend the borders of the state, 
his message, dated at Columbus, September 
10, 1862, calling for the transportation of "all 
armed men that can be raised, immediately 
to Cincinnati," being responded to with com- 
mendable promptness by citizens in all walks 
of life. Akron and the vicinity sent two 
hundred. Many of them were "fearfully and 
wonderfully" armed and accoutered, but all 
had the fighting spirit. Some placed their 
faith in the old-fashioned rifles, with which 
they had picked squirrels out of Summit 
County trees in Summit County guUie.", and 
the presence of this variety of arms caused 
the volunteer defenders of Cincinnati to be 
called "The Squirrel Hunters." When thev 
arrived at Cincinnati, however, the enemy had 
retreat-ed and the "Squirrel Hunters" returned 
to their homes, not having fired a shot. Dan- 
iel AV. Storer was captain of the company from 
Akron and vicinity. 

The Second Ohio Cavalry was recruited en- 
tirely in the Western Reserve, and three com- 
panies were largely made up of Akron men. 
Then as now, more sentiment attached to the 
cavalrj'- branch of the service than to either 
artillery or infantry, and the career of the 
Second was watched closely from old Sum- 
mit. The regiment began its existence late 
in 1861, Colonel Charles Doubleday being in 



command. Among Akron men prominent in 
its affairs were George A. Purington, captain 
of Company A (promoted to be a colonel and 
afterwards entering the regular army), and 
Dudley Seward, who rose to be colonel of the 
Second before the war was over. The regi- 
ment joined General Porter in Missouri early 
in 1862, engaging in skirmish work against 
the guerrilla Quantrell soon after. It assisted 
in the capture of Fort Gibson and after about 
a year of active, wearing work on the border, 
returned east and was reorganized and re- 
equipped -at Columbus. In 1863 it was in 
the pursuit and capture of Morgan, the rebel 
raider. In the same year it joined Rosecrans, 
engaging in numerous hot fights, seeing the 
hardest kind of service and gaining death and 
glory quite impartially. Half the command 
re-enlisted Januaiy 1, 1864, and fought, first 
under Burnside, and then with Sheridan, be- 
having brilliantly throughout, and taking 
part imder this dashing commander in the 
la«t raid of the war, which resulted in the cap- 
ture of Early's army. The Second was mus- 
tered out at Camp Chase September 11, 1865. 
It had marched 27,000 miles and took part 
in ninety-seven fights of various magnitudes. 

In the First Ohio Light Artillery, formed 
in 1861, were two batteries composed largely 
of Akron and Summit County men, A, Cap- 
tain Charles Cotter, of Middlebury, command- 
ing, and D, Captain Andrew J. Konkle, of 
Cuyahoga Falls. The First immediately got 
into the fighting, firet with McCook, then 
with Buell in Kentucky, again M'ith McCook 
in 1863, doing fine work at Chickamauga, 
and, after re-enlisting as veterans, taking 
part in the entire Atlanta campaign. After 
making a record that was full of fight, it 
ended its .service in Texas, when the war 
ended, and was anu.stered out at Cleveland, 
having tiravcled 6,000 miles and fought the 
enemy thirty-nine times. 

Akron was represented honorably in the 
Fifty-eighth Regiment, 0. V. I., a German 
regiment, organized by Colonel A^alentine 
Bausenwein in 1861, which remained in the 
service till the close of the war, taking part 

in some of the greatest battles fought in the 
four years. 

The One Hundred and Seventh 0. V. I., 
also a German regiment, was organized in 
1862. It contained Akron men, among them 
being Captain George Billow, the well-known 
local undertaker. The local men were in 
Company I. The One Hundred and Seventh 
fought under General Franz Sigel, and lost 
42 per cent of its men in the Gettysburg cam- 
paign. It was mustered out at Charleston, 
South Carolina, July 10, 1865. Among other 
fights in which it took part may be mentioned 
Chancellorsville, Getty,sburg, Hagerstown, 
Sumterville and Swift Creek. 

A handful of Akron men were members of 
the Thirty-seventh Regiment, 0. V. I., the 
third German regiment organized in Ohio. 

In the Ninth Ohio Battery the following 
Akron men played their parts in the war: 
Robert Cahill, Adam France, Charles Gifford, 
Martin Heiser, F. A. Patton, Frederick Pot- 
ter, Caleb Williams, Thomas Williams and C 
0. Rockwell. 

The Sixty-seventh 0. V. I. was the vehicle 
that started the late General A. C. Voris on 
his way toward the military eminence which 
he attained during the war. He and two 
other Akron men, C. W. Bucher and C. A. 
Lantz, were, however, the only local repre- 
sentatives in that famous command. When 
the war broke out, Hon. A. C. Voris was a 
representative in Ohio's General Assembly. 
He enlisted as a private in the Twenty-ninth 
Regiment, 0. V. I. Soon after he received 
a second lieutenant's commission and left the 
Twenty-ninth to help form the Sixty-seventh, 
being elected lieutenant-colonel when the regi- 
ment was organized. In 1862 he became col- 
onel and entered upon a series of events which 
stamped him as a man of dashing courage, 
and paved the way to the promotions which he 
earned so hardly and deserved so richly. He 
was made a major-general in 1865, after a life 
of real leadership, plenty of fighting and 
wounds and great glory. General Voris was 
one of Akron's most distinguished soldiers 
in the Civil War. 



The One Hundred and Sixty-fourth Regi- 
ment, 0. N. G., composed of "100 day men," 
contained a host of Summit County men. Its 
service consisted of guarding the capitol at 
Washington in 1864, and, although it took 
part in no battles, several of the local men 
died of disease. The One Hundred and Sixty- 
fourth was mustered out at Cleveland, August 
27, 1864. 

Akron was represented by a half-dozen sol- 
diers, including Captain Josiah J. Wright, in 
the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Regi- 
ment, 0. V. I., organized August 10, 1863, 
and mustered out in March, 1864. 

Several Summit County men were also in 
the One Hundred and Ninety-seventh Regi- 
ment, 0. V. I., Ohio's last complete regimental 
contribution to the Civil War. 

The service of Ulysses L. I\Ia.r\'in was 
unique, as he was probably Akron's only of- 
ficer of colored troops between 1861 and 
1865. He enlisted in 1862 as a private in the 
One Hundred and Fifteenth 0. V. I., was 
commissioned a lieutenant in the Fifth U. S. 
Colored Infantry in 1863, took part in the 
Peninsula campaign, was promoted to cap- 
tain during the siege of Richmond, was at 
the final surrender of the Confederate army 
at Releigh, N. C, was brevetted major at the of the war and made judge advocate on 
the staff of General Paine. 

Another Akron soldier who won promotion 
was George T. Perkins. He was a volunteer 
in 1861, joining the Nineteenth Regiment, 0. 
V. I., as a second lieutenant. In August, 
1862, he enlisted for three years as a major 
of the One Hundred and Fifth. This regi- 
ment has a glorious history. Major Perkins 
was made a lieutenant-colonel in 1863 and 
colonel in 1864. He ser\'ed until the end of 
the war. 

Among other regiments besides those which 
have l)een mentioned, in which Akron's sol- 
diers fought during the Civil War, were the 
following: Forty -second 0. V. I., Eighty- 
fourth 0. V. I., One Hundred and Twenty- 
Fifth 0. V. I., One Hundred and Eighty- 
eighth 0. V. I., One Hundred and Seventy- 
seventh 0. V. I., Seventv-sixth 0. V. I., Sev- 

enty-fifth 0. V. I., Twenty-fourth O. V. I. 
Sixteenth 0. V. I., Twenty-fifth 0. V. I., One 
Hundred and Twenty-fifth O. V. I., and 
many others. 

ThvLs far the reader has followed in brief 
fashion the fortunes of those who went to the 
front, those who smelled the powder, faced 
the bullets, endured the discomforts and the 
dangers of camp, march and battle. All 
through the Civil War, however, Akron and 
Summit County had a full share of heroes 
and heroines who worked, not on the firing 
line, but right here at home. The departure 
of so many men from this city and surround- 
ing territory left hundreds of families to be 
provided for. And the boys at the front 
must have comforts and necessities, and 
money and hospital supplies. Patriotic citi- 
zens, unable to enlist themselves, gave for- 
tune after fortune to the cause. In the later 
days of the war there were the drafts to en- 
courage. And all through the great struggle 
Akron women praj'ed and worked, and their 
toil and their unceasing interest gave many 
a dying soldier a moment of comfort and 
made many a forced march endurable. The 
woanen of Akron did their full share toward 
the preservation of the Union. 


After the Civil War there was a natural re- 
turn to the pursuits of peace. Akron's ceme- 
teries contained numerous green, yet grim, re- 
minders of the thing that had been. There 
were aching hearts in numberles.s homes, yet 
time applied its healing lotion, and the deep.^r 
wounds in human hearts were eventually 
healed, so far as such wounds may be. For a 
full generation there was peace. The militia 
man was the only reminder of war to be met 
with frequently in the flesh. 

Under the militia law passed by the legis- 
lature in 1870, interest in citizen soldiery, 
which had lagged considerably after the war. 
was revived. In 1875 the "Porter Zouaves" 
were organized, under command of Henry 
Porter, a veteran soldier. Shortly aftenvard 
the organization changed its name to "Bierce 



Cadets," in honor of the late General Lucius 
V. Bierce, who had backed the organization 
financially. M. W. Santry was the first cap- 
tain under the reorganization. 

In the same year the "Akron City Guards" 
were organized, many of the members being 
veterans. D. \V. Thomas was the first cap- 
tain and the official membership was thirty- 
seven. A new election was held January 3, 
1876, D. W. Thomas being re-elected. 

These two organizations saw some strike 
and riot service within a reasonably short 
time. Both companies were included in the 
Ninth Regiment, when organized in 1877, 
and the first regimental encampment was 
held in Akron in October, 1877. Captain 
Thomas of the City Guards was the regi- 
ment's first colonel. 

In 1878 the Ninth was mei'ged into the 
Eighth Regiment, and the City Guards, which 
had become Company A of the Ninth, now be- 
came Company B of the Eighth. Company 
B continues till thLs day. Colonel Thoma* 
took" command of the regiment by reason of 
his rank, being succeeded by Colonel A. L. 
Conger, and then by George R. Gyger, of Al- 
liance, in 1891. The regiment was fre- 
quently called upon for strike duty, riot duty 
and annual encampments, until 1898, when a 
war cloud again appeared above the horizon 
and the stirring scenes of 1861 were, in a 
mca.sure, repeated. 

Akron was also represented in the artil- 
lery branch of the Ohio militia for manv 
years. The Sixth Battery, 0. N. G., was 
formed in 1877. Joseph C. Ewart was the 
first captain. The organization thrived from 
the beginning. In 1886 a regiment of Ohio 
artillery was formed, and the Sixth Battery 
became Battery F, First Regiment, 0. N. G., 
retaining that dftsignation until the out- 
break of the Spanish-American war. This 
organization w-as called upon for important 
services and invariably acquitted itself in sol- 
dierly fashion. 

Unique in Akron's citizen army was "Com- 
pany Buchtel," composed of veterans of the 
German army, who organized in Akron in 
1883, with a membership of twenty-five. Its 

first captain was Paul E. Werner. The com- 
pany retained its identity for a number of 
years. It was named after the late John R. 
Buchtel, who assisted the organization finan- 
cially at the beginning. 


War with Spain was declared April 21, 
1898. There Avas little fighting; peace re- 
turned after a few months, so far as the Cuban 
campaign was concerned, yet it was a deadly 
campaign. When President McKinley called 
for volunteers, Akron boys responded as 
promptly and as patriotically as many of their 
fathers had done in 1861. The two local mili- 
tary organizations, Company B of the Eighth 
Infantry, 0. N. G., Captain H. 0. Feecferle, 
commanding, and Battery F, First Regiment 
Light Artillery, 0. N. G., volunteered as one 
man. The infantrymen were accepted. The 
artillerymen were not taken on the first call. 
There was a special reason for the acceptance 
of the one organization over the other. The 
home of President McKinley was in Canton, 
and that city was represented by three compa- 
nies, F, L and I, in the Eighth Regiment. 
It was a matter of considerable gratification to 
the President that the boys from his home 
and regiment of which they were members 
(including Akron and Company B) should 
be among the first to respond to his call for 
troops. He demonstrated his appreciation of 
that promptness by accepting the proff'ered 
.seiTices immediately. Moreover, the Eighth 
was at that time considered one of the most 
compact and best drilled bodies of citizen 
troops in Ohio. 

The regiment, consisting of twelve compa- 
nies, was mobilized at Akron, April 26, 1898, 
and then embarked for Columbus, where it 
was drilled thoroughly and on May 18th was 
mustered into the vohniteer service of the 
ITnited States as Company B. Eighth O. V. I. 
Colonel C. V. Hard, of Wooster, was in com- 
mand of the regiment, LieutenantrColonel 
Cluarles Dick, of Akron, since commander-in- 
chief of the Ohio guard, being second to Col- 
onel Hard under that organization. Company 



B was a part of the Third Battalion, com- 
manded by Major C. C. Weybrecht, of Al- 
Hance. On May 16th the Eighth proceeded 
to Camp Alger, near Falls Church, Virginia, 
and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First 
Division, Second Army Corps, under Briga- 
dier-General George A. Garretson, of Cleve- 
land. Here, under the sun of Virginia, the 
regiment was prepared for service in the trop- 
ics, attracting much attention from visitors 
from Washington by reason of its designa- 
tion as "The President's Own," and the fact 
that two nephews of President McKinley were 
enlisted in Canton companies. 

On July 4 the Eighth was ordered to Cuba 
to re-enforce General Shafter before Santiago. 
A quick run was made from Camp Alger to 
New York and on the evening of July 6 the 
regiment, on board of the auxiliary cruiser 
St. Paul (Capt. Sigsbee), steamed out of New 
York harbor, bound for Cuba. Five days 
later they arrived off Santiago, and were 
landed in small boats at Siboney. One bat- 
talion was landed that night and the re- 
mainder the next day. One hundred rounds 
of ammunition and three days' rations were 
issued, and the march inland began. 

On July 13 the Third Battalion, including 
Company B, was detached from the remainder 
of the regiment for special guard duty and 
did not rejoin the main body until the time 
came for departure for tlie United States. The 
surrender of Santiago came almost simul- 
taneou.sly with this detail, and the long wait 
and the battle with sickness began, ending in 
the embarkation of the regiment at Santiago, 
Augvist 18. The Eighth was taken to Mon- 
tauk Point. Long Island, whence, after a rest, 
the health of the men being extremely bad, 
the various companies returned home Septem- 
ber 6. After sixty days' furlough, the Eighth 
was mustered out at Wooster, Ohio, November 
10. The regiment lost seventy-two men by 
death between the muster in and the mu.ster 
out, yet did not fire a single shot. Company 
B's death roll during that time numbered 

Shortly after the muster out, the company 

was .reorganized as a militia company, and 
continues as such today. Its present officers 
are: Captain, William E. Walkup; lieu- 
tenant, Royal A. W^alkup; second lieutenant, 
Austin B. Hanscom. The Eighth Regiment 
Band, composed mostly of Akron musicians, 
accompanied the Eighth Regiment on the 
expedition to Cuba. 

Though Battery F's offer of its services ■ 
came just too late to be available under Presi- 
dent McKinley's first call for volunteers, that 
organization was later mustered into the serv- 
ice of the United States and did its pan 
faithfully and well in the War with Spain. 

The Tenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry was 
formed of the militia organization remaining 
after Ohio's quota of the first call troops had 
been filled. It contained naval militia, light 
artillerj', engineers and infantry, all or- 
ganized as infantry for the purposes of the 
campaign. The regiment was formed in re- 
sponse to President McKinley's second call 
for volunteers, Battery F repeating its offer 
and cheerfully giving up its heavy guns and 
shouldering Springfield rifles in compliance 
with the conditions governing acceptance. 
The organization retained its letter, becoming 
Company F. Mobilization was at Camp 
Bushnell, Columbus, June 25th, the com- 
pany being mustered into the United States 
service July 7th, with the following officers: 
Captain, Herman Werner; firsst lieutenant, 
John M. Straub; second lieutenant, J. P. 
Caldwell (afterwards transferred to signal 
service) ; second lieutenant, Ora F. Wise. 
Uniforms were issued to the regiment on July 
13th. On AugiLst 18th the regiment was or- 
dered to Camp Meade, Middletown, Pennsyl- 
vania, where it became a part of the Second 
Brigade, Third Division, Second Army Corps, 
under command of General Graham. Here 
the Tenth remained until November 12th, 
when it was ordered to Augusta, Georgia. At 
this place "Camp Young" had been estab- 
lished, this name being afterward changed to 
"Camp MacKenzie." The Tenth remained 
at Camp MacKenzie until March 23rd, when 
it was mustered out. 


The members of Company F returned to bers of the company died of disease during 

Akron and about two weeks later as a com- the service in 1898. 

pany became a part of the Eighth Regiment, Akron sent her full share of soldiers to the 

0. N. G., of which regiment Company F still Philippines, both in 1898 and later; many 

forms a part, its present commanding officer are still in that service; others have returned 

being Captain William F. Yontz. Six mem- home and taken up the pursuits of peace. 



A.s the reader runs through the long list 
of secret societies, and other bodies of men 
and women united for a common cause, which 
have existed and prospered in Summit Coun- 
ty, almost from its very earliest time, he can- 
not fail to Ix' impressed with the truth that 
the spirit of brotherhood has, indeed, been 
very strong in this community. Today, there 
are many lodges whose memljershij) rises as 
high as 400 and 500. Two fraternities witli 
national plans. The Pathfinders and The 
Chevaliers, liad their origin here. There is 
not a single fraternity of any prominence 
whatsoever that is not represented in Sum- 
mit County. In addition, there are innum- 
erable non-secret organizations for every con- 
ceivable purpose. The last ten years liave 
been remarkable for the growth of the club 
idea among the women of the county. The 
women's clubs of Akron are an important 
factor in the daily life of that city. Nearly 
every church has its men's club or its boys' 
brigade and other associations of its members. 
Many workingmen are members of trades 
unions. The farmers have organized granges, 
horticultural societies and neighborhood 
clubs. The Summit County citizen who has 
not '"joined" something is, indeed, a rarity. 

The first lodge of any secret society to be 
formed within the- county was Akron Lodge, 
No. 83, of the Free and Accepted Masons. 
Its charter was granted October 21, 1841. 
Its first master of the lodge was Hon. R. P. 
Spaulding. He was succeeded in 1842 by 
Gen. L. V. Bierce who held the office until 
1850. Dr. S. W. Bartges then assumed the 

chair for four years. Other distinguished 
masters of this lodge were C. A. Collins, Dr. 
Thomas McEbrighf, Hon. S. C. WUliamson, 
R. P. ]\Iarvin, B. F. Battles and A. P. Bald- 
win. It has had two past grand masters in 
L. V. Bierce and Frank vS. Harmon. It now 
numbers 433 members and is officered (1907) 
as follows: Orlando W. Groff, master; John 
Crisp, senior warden; James R. Cameron, 
junior warden; A. C. Rohrbacher, treasurer; 
A. E. Roach, secretary; M. E. Fassnacht, 
senior deacon; William A. Sackett, junior 
deacon ; Harry F. Runyeon , tyler ; Ernest C. 
Housel, chaplain: W. E. Wangle, marshal; 
C. AVeaver and W. Boesche, stewards; H. T. 
Budd, J. M. Weidner and R. A. Walkup, 
prudential committee; and George N. Haw- 
kins, assistant secretary. 

Washington Chapter, No. 25, Royal -Arch 
Masons, was established October 25th, 1841. 
In 1907 its membership was 454. Its present 
officers are : D. W. Hollowav, high priest ; H. 
T. Budd, king; W. B. Baldwin, scribe; 0. W. 
Groff, captain; AV. A. Sackett, principal so- 
journer; 0. A. Nelson, treasurer; W. E. 
Waugh, secretarv; C. A. Dixon, R. A. captain; 

F. A. Clapsadel,'G. M., 3d Vail; E. C. Housel, 

G. M. 2nd Vail; R. R. Peebles, G. M. 1st 
Vail: H. F. Runyeon, guard; Ira A. Priest, 
chaplain; Geo. W. Shick, M. of C. & D. of 
M. ; Judson Thomas, Geo. W. Shiek, and 
Joseph Kolb, prudential committee; and R. 
A. AValkup and Charles Meier, stewards. 

The next Masonic body to be established 
was Akron Commandery, No. 25, Knights 
Templar. The commandery officers, for 1907 
are: C. S. Eddy, eminent commander: C. 
C. Benner, general; H. J. Blackburn, cap- 
tain ; F. W. Shirer, senior warden ; A. A. 



KohliT, junior warden; R. F. Palmer, prel- 
ate; John Motz, treasurer; Bela B. Clark, 
recorder; W. H. Douglas, standard bearer; 
Robert Wilson, sword bearer; C. W. Wicklinc, 
warder; H. F. Runveon, sentinel; Geo. W. 
Sliick, M. of C; E.'e. Morse, H. T. Budd, 
and 11. M. Hagelbarger, guards; W. F. Lau- 
bach, G. H. Dunn, and A. W. Hawkins, pru- 
dential committee; 0. W. Groff, electrician: 
and Frank Farst, organi.-it. 

The next Ma.sonic body to be established 
was Adoniram Lodge, No. 517, F. & A. M., 
the charter for which was granted October 
16th, 1878. Its ofRcere in 1907 are: H. J. 
Blackburn, master; Lee R. Knight, senior 
warden; J. S. Lowman, junior warden; Geo. 
W. Shick, treasurer; Norman G. Nelson, sec- 
retary; H. H. Garman, senior deacon; C. A. 
Dixon, junior deacon; A. T. King.sbury, 
chaplain; H. R. Tucker, tyler; E. E. Morse 
and C, S. Hiddleson, .stewards; W. B. Bald- 
win, mai-shal; and F. M. Cooke, J. A. Palmer 
and D. W. Holloway, prudential committee. 
In the list of past masters of this lodge appears 
the name of Henry Perkins, who held the 
master's chair for four years. 

Akron Council, No. 80, R. & S. M., was 
organized September 28, 1897. At the pres- 
ent time it has 175 members. Its officers 
are C. W. Wickline. T. I. M.; O. W. Groff, 
D. I. M.; H. T. Budd, P. C. AV.; Geo. 
L. Curtice, treasurer; W. E. Waugh, record- 
er; W. A. iSackett, captain; E. E Morse, 
conductor; C. A. Dixon, steward; H. F. 
Runyeon, sentinel; Judson Thomas and R. 
B. Wilson, auditing committee; Geo. W. Bil- 
low, chaplain; Geo. W. Shick, marshal; and 
W. F. Farst, musical director. 

The Akron Masonic Relief A.ssociatioii was 
incorporated February Ifith, 1888. It.-; ob- 
ject is to provide a fund for funeral and other 
immediate expenses in the event of the death 
of one of its members. All master masons 
in good standing under sixty yeai-s of age are 
eligible to membership. George Billow is 
president; John Crisp, vice-president; Geo. 
W. Shick, trea.surer; W. E. Waugh, secretarv; 
and O. W. Groff, C. C. Benner, Judson 

Thomas, D. ^^^ Holloway, C. W. Wickline, 
all of Akron; A. A. Cahoon, of Wadsworth; 
€. E. Bass, of Hudson ; T. J. Davies, of Bar- 
berton; Fred Bolich, of Cuyahoga Falls; and 
A. B. Young of Kent; are the board of di- 

The Akron Ma.-^onic Temple Company was 
incorporated May 9, 1896. Its officers are 
Geo. Billow, president; P. W. Leavitt, vice- 
president; W. A. MoClellan, treasurer; A. 
E. Roach, secretary: and R. M. Pillniore. P. 
W. Leavitt, Geo. W. Shick, W. A. McClellan, 
John Crisp, John Motz and George Billow, 

The Masonic Club, of Akron, Ohio, was in- 
corporated November 27, 1899. Its object is 
to promote and cailtivate social and fraternal 
relations among it? members and also to pro- 
vide amusement for the members' wives and 
daughters. It maintains very well appointed 
club rooms, on the second floor of the Masonic 
Temple. It-; officers for 1907 are: F. M. 
Cooke, president; C. W. Wickline, vice-presi- 
dent; Bela B. Clark, secretarv; John Crisp,- 
treasurer; and H. T. Budd, J. W. Kelley, and 
D. W. Holloway, directors. It has 309 mem- 
bers at i)resent. 

Many Akron Masons are also members of 
the Society of Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite 
Masons and of Al Koran 'Temple, nobles of 
the Mystic Shrine, which is located in Cieve- 
hnid, Ohio. 

I. n. o. F. 

The Odd Fellows were not far behind the 
Masons in e.stablishing their first lodge in 
Summit County. On September 16, 1845, 
Edward Rawson and eight others acting as 
charter members instituted Summit Lodge 
No. 50 of the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows. This lodge has had an unbroken record 
of prosperity since that early day. Its officers 
in 1907 are: Noble grand, R. A. Porter; vice- 
grand, Charles P. Gregory; recording secre- 
tary, William F. Chandler; financial secre- 
tary, Frank T. Hoffman : treasurer. Perry A. 
Krisher; trastees, W. H. McBarnes, A. C. 
Bachtel and IT. W. Haupt ; relief committee, 
Ilenrv Bollincrer. 









The second lodge was Akron Lodge, No. 
5-17, I. 0. 0. F., which was instituted July 
9, 1873. Among its charter members were 
John J. Wagoner, Aaron Wagoner, R. P. 
Marvin, H. J. Church, Charles L. Brown, 
John Memimer, Jolm H. Auble, D. W. 
Thomas and T. W. McGillicudy. It officers in 
1907 are: Noble grand, A. P. Myers; vice- 
grand, E. B. Anderson ; secretary, C. B. 
Quine; treasurer, Charles Warner; tnistees, 
E. W. Stuart, A. W. Hawkins and W. J. 
Coney; relief committee, A. K. Fouser. 

Nemo Lodge, No. 746, I. 0. 0. F. was insti- 
tuted May 22, 1886, by Richard Bacon, grand 
master. Among its charter members were H. 
G. Canfield, P. H. Hoffman, E. Colloredo, A. 
A. Bartlett, A. G. Keck, P. W. Leavitt, C. W. 
Kline, Jacob Koplin, Robert Guillet and D. 
R. Bunn. Its officers for 1907 are: Noble 
grand, H. R. Wells; vice-grand, Harvey Par- 
ker; recording secretary, F. G. Smith; finan- 
cial secretarv, J. H. Wagoner; treasurer, Wil- 
liam H. Rook. Sr. ; trustees, F. G. Marsh. A. 
G. Keck and W. F. Payne. 

Granite Lodge, No. 522, I. 0. 0. F., is the 
German lodge and is located in fine lodge 
rooms in the Kaiser Block. East Akron is 
also represented in Odd Fellowship, having 
a lodge named Apollo Lodge. In Cuyahoga 
Falls there are Howard Lodge, No. 62, I. 0. 
0. F.. and Rebecca Lodge. I. 0. 0. F., Elm 
227. The total membership of the five Akron 
lodgjs in 1907 Avas 1400. 

The greatest event in the history of Odd 
Fellow.ship in Summit County was the dedi- 
cation of the magnificent New Temple on 
South Main Street in Akron. The building 
is one of the finest in the city and consists of 
eight stories and a tower. It was dedicated 
with due ceremony on April 2, 1895. It 
was built by the Akron Odd Fellows Temple 
Company. The first board of officers were: 
President, A. C. Bachtel; vice-pre.sident, Lewis 
Bullinger; .secretary. A. G. Keck; treasurer, 
Ma.-on Ciiapman. The officers of the Temple 
Company for 1907 are: President, John Mem- 
mer; vice-president, W. H. Lohr; secretary. 
A. G. Keck; treasurer, A. W. Hawkins. 


The other orders represented in Akron are 
the following: Buckley Post, No. 12, Grand 
Army of the Republic, organized in March 
1867, of which Major H. A. Kasson is now 
commander. Woman's Relief Corps, Buckley 
Corps, No. 23. Union Veteran's Legion, Abra- 
ham Lincoln Command, No. 1 ; Women's Vet- 
eran Relief Union, No. 2; Sons of Veterans, 
Akron Camp, No. 27; Ladies' Aid Society, 
No. 8, Auxiliary to the Sons of Veterans; 
Knights of Honor, Acme Lodge and Spartan 
Lodge; National Union, Diamond Council, 
48 ; American Legion of Honor, Akron Coun- 
cil, No. 248; Knights and Ladies of Honor, 
Agenda Lodge, No. 310 and Akron Lodge,. 
No. 2518; Royal Arcanum, Provident Coun- 
cil, No. 16; Protected Home Circle, Akron 
Circle, No. 54 and Summit Circle No. 565; 
The Maccabees, Akron Tent, No. 26, Lean 
Tent, No. 282, Charity Tent, No. 538 and 
Unity Division, Uniformed Rank, No. 14; 
Ladies of the Maccabees, Busy Bee Hive No. 
35, Protective Hive No. 60, Independent 
Hive No. 147, Favorite Hive No. 164 ; Ladies 
of the Modern Maccabees; Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks No. 363; Sons of 
St. George, Akron Lodge No. 180 ; Daughters 
of St. George, Ganter Lodge No. 18 ; Foresters 
of America, Court. Akron No. 42, and Court 
Summit City No. 24; Independent Order of 
Foresters, Court Pride No. 356 and Court 
Portage Path No. 4470; Companions of the 
Forest, Pride of Akron Circle, No. 220 ; Royal 
Neighbors of America, Puritan Camp No. 
1746 and Evening Star Camp; Independent 
Order of Red Men, Saranac Tribe No. 141 and 
Ogareeta Council No. 29. Modern Woodmen 
of America, Akron Camp, 4334, Security 
Camp No. 4937, and Welcome Camp. The 
Pathfinders, Akron Lodge No. 1, and Acme 
Lodge No. 135. National Protective Union. 
Akron Legion No. 712. Junior Order United 
American Mechanics, Commodore Perry 
Council No. 209. Daughters of Liberty. Co"- 
lumbia Council, No. 21. Independent Order 
of Heptasophs, Akron Conclave, 713. Order 
of Ben Hur. Antioch Court No. 11. Kniglits 



and Ladies of Security, Summit Council No. 
661 and Liberty Council, No. 1356. Inde- 
pendent Order of the Red Cross, Teutonic 
Commandery No. 25. United Commercial 
Travellers, Akron Council No. 87. Royal 
Templars, Summit Council No. 36. Fraternal 
Order of Eagles, Akron Aerie 553. Court of 
Honor, Akron District Court, No. 238. Royal 
League, Akron Council No. 243. Home 
Guards of America, Akron Home No. 47. 
American Insurance Union, Akron Chapter 
No. 175. Knights of Columbus, Akron 
Council No. 547. Knights of St. John, Akron 
Commandery No. 42 and St. George Com- 
mandery No. 6. Catholic Knights of Ameri- 
ca, St. Vincent's Brancli No. 227. Catholic 
Knights of Ohio, St. Mary'.-i Branch No. 21. 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, Division No. 
1, and Ladies Auxiliary. Father Mathew 
Temperance Society, No. 1621. Catholic 
Ladies of Ohio, St. Rose Branch, No. 5. Catho- 
lic Mutual Benevolent Association, Gibbons 
Branch No. 14, St. Bernard's Branch 37, and 
St. Mary's Branch No. 78. Ladies' Catholic 
Benevolent A.ssociation, St. Mary's Branch 
No. 180. National Association of Stationary 
Engineei-s, Akron Section No. 28. The Order 
of Mutual Protection. Independent Order of 
Good Samaritans and Daughters of Samaria. 
Western Reserve Lodge, No. L Daughters of 
Jerusalem, Ida May Council No. 12. United 
Order of True Reformers, Superior Fountain 
1311, and .\kroii Star llHO. 

The principal nun-si'crct organizations are 
the following: German Club, Akron Lieder- 
tafel, Akron Turnverein, Thalia Unter.stuet- 
zung's Verein, Landwehr Society, ■ Akron 
Saengerbund, Gruetli Society, Saxony Bene- 
ilcial Association, German IMilitarj- Society, 
Young Men's Hebrew Association, St. Joseph's 
Benevolent Society, St. Bernard's Benevolent 
Society, Alsace-Loraine Benevolent Union, 
Women's Christian Temperance Union, 
Young Women's Christian Association, Young 

Men's Christian Association, Elks Club, Kirk- 
wood Club, Masonic Club, Odd Fellows Club, 
Akron Camera Club, Akron Dental Society, 
Portage Path Canoe Club, Akron Bar-Asso- 
ciation, Celsus Club, Summit County Clinical 
Society, Summit County Medical Society, and 
many others . 

In Barberton, many orders are represented 
by lodges as follows: Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons, National Lodge No. 568; Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, Pharos Lodge No. 863 ; 
Daughters of Rebecca, Summit Lodge No. 
603 ; Knights of Pythias, Barberton Lodge 
No. 486 ; Modern AVoodmen of America, Al- 
pha Camp No. 3206; Knights of the Macca- 
bees, Barberton Tent 114 ; Ladies of the Mac- 
cabees, Lake Anne Hive, No. 104; Independ- 
ent Order of Red Men, Katonka Tribe, No. 
218 and Pocohontas Council ; Woodmen of 
the World, Magic City Camp No. 136; Path- 
tinders, Barberton Lodge No. 5; Independent 
Order of Foresters, Lodge 4058; C. M. B. A. 
l^ranch 55; Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks, Barberton Lodge No. 982; Fraternal 
Order of Eagles, Barberton Aerie, No. 562 ; 
Ancient Order of Hibernians, Barberton 
Branch ; Junior Order United ^Vnierican Me- 
chanics; Daniel Webster Council No. 161, 
Barberton Cadets and Daughters of America. 

In Cuyahoga Falls the principal organiza- 
tions are the following: Free and Accepted 
Masons, Star Lodge No. 187 ; Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, Howard Lodge No. 
62 ; Royal Arcanum, Enterprise Council No. 
234 ; National Union, Security Council, No. 
51; Knights of Pythias, Pavonia Lodge No. 
301 ; Grand Army of the Republic, Eadie 
Post No. 37 ; Sons of Veterans, Wood Camp 
No. 66; Good Templars, Lodge No. 59; 
l')aughters of Rebecca, Elm Lodge No. 227; 
Protected Home Circle, Glen No. 85 ; Pythian 
Si.'itorhood, Ivy Lodge No. 8 ; The Public Li- 
brary As,sociation, the Women's Christian 
Temperance Union, and others. 



North Akron was founded by a doctor. The 
prosjjerous and bufiv Akron of today is due 
more to the restless energy of Eliakim Crosby, 
M. D., than to any other factor. Since his 
time, the medical profession have not been 
content to busy themselves with pills and 
fevers alone, but have been active in an extra- 
ordinary degree, in the civil, business and 
social life of the community. The first two 
large additions to the city were those planned 
and executed by physicians: Dr. S. H. Co- 
burn and Dr. S. W. Bartges. Two of the im- 
portant streets of the city have been named 
after them. -The founder of one of Akron's 
largest manufactories — perhaps the largest — ■ 
was Dr. B. F. Goodrich, from whom the B. F. 
Goodrich Company takes its name. The pro- 
fession has also been prominent in the City 
Council, the Board of Education and Public 
Library affairs. 

There is very little on record concerning 
the early physicians of the county. Who was 
the first to regularly practice medicine in 
Summit County is a matter of dispute. Dr. 
Crosby was practicing in Middlebury in 1820 ; 
Dr. Joseph Cole began his practice in 1826, 
removing to ■A'kron in 1827. Other early 
physicians were Elijah Hanchett, Titus Chap- 
man, Theodore Richmond, E. F. Bryan, H. 
A. Ackley, D. D. Evans, W. T. Huntington 
and Edwin Angel. Perhaps, the very oldest 
residents now living will recall the names of 
Drs. E. L. Munger, Elijah Curtis, A. Kilbourn 
and Wareham "W&st. Of all these early phy- 
>icians there is only one whose name is famil- 
iar to posterity: It is that of Dr. Eliakim 
Crosby. It is perpetuated in the names of 
Crosby School, Crosby street and the Crosby 
Race. He was born in Litchfield, Connecti- 

cut, March 2, 1779, studied medicine in Buf- 
falo, N. Y. ; began his professional career in 
Canada, where he also married; served in the 
American Army in the war of 1812, as a sur- 
geon ; and, in 1820, moved to Ohio and re- 
sumed the practice of medicine, in Middle- 
bury, now a part of the city of Akron. In 
1826 he formed the partnership of Crosby 
and Chittenden, contractors. From that time 
on his gigantic business affairs claimed his at- 
tention almost exclusively, and what practic- 
ing of medicine he did was merely incidental. 
His next business venture was the operation 
of the Cuyahoga Furnace for the reduction of 
the local iron ores. Then in rapid succession 
he took on the manufacture of agricultural 
implements, the operation of a sawmill, and, 
lastly, a grist-mill. Finally, in 1831, came 
his great scheme for the hydraulic canal and 
the founding of the village of Cascade, which 
are fully described in another chapter of this 
history. In 1836, he started the "Portage 
Canal and Manufacturing Company" project, 
a gigantic undertaking, but one which ended 
disastrously. He lost his entire fortune in 
this disaster, and evidently his fine spirit was 
cru.<hed by the completeness of the failure, 
for we hear of him no more in connection 
with any additional schemes. Upon the cele- 
bration of the completion of the Crosby Race, 
May 29, 1844, this was the one sentiment of 
the entire community as voiced by the chair- 
man of the meeting, namely, "Dr. Eliakim 
Crosby : The noble projector and efficient ex- 
ecutive of the great enterprise this day suc- 
cessfully accomplished, of introducing the 
waters of the Great Cuyahoga River to Akron 
by land. Of his noble and persevering spirit 
of enterprise, his fellow citizens are justly 



proud." The tribute was as deserved as it 
was fitting. Dr. Crosby's wife, whom he mar- 
ried in Canada in 1810, died in Akron, Octo- 
ber 13, 1830. Seven children had been born 
to them. He was twice subsequently mar- 
ried. In 1853 he moved, with his family 
to Wisconsin, near the city of Green Bay, 
where he died September 2, 1854, in the 76th 
year of his life. Akron owes much to Dr. 
Crosby. We should pause once in each year 
and pay a tribute of respect to his memory. 
In the 30's and 40's the Crosby family was 
easily the foremost in the village, in every 
sphere of activity. The Doctor was not only 
foremost in the work of founding the city 
and establishing its business enterprises but 
he was active in every good work. One is 
compelled to admire that restless energy, that 
magnificent .spirit of activity, that was his 
first characteristic. If Akron should ever 
have a "Founder's Day" in its list of Anni- 
versary Days, the largest part of the celebra- 
tion will be the recalling of the works of this 
early physician. 

Dr. Joseph Cole was born in Winfield, New 
York, September 17, 1795, graduated in med- 
icine in 1825 and began the practice of his 
profession in Old Portage in 1826. The next 
year he moved to Akron where he built up 
a very large practice. He took a leading 
part in formulating local sentiment in favor 
of the Temperance and Anti-slavery Move- 
ments. He aided in securing the Akron 
School Law, and served on the Akron Board 
of Education in 1847. Dr. Cole died Octo- 
ber 28, 1861, in the 67th year of his life. 

Dr. Elias W. Howard, another of the most 
prominent of the early physicians, was born 
in Andover, Vermont, April 14, 1816; studied 
and was graduated in medicine; and came to 
Akron in 1889. Here he enjoyed a large 
general practice for more than fifty years. 
Dr. Howard served many years in the 70's 
on the Board of Education, the City Council 
and the Board of Health. In 1875, he was 
president of the Council. He was one of the 
founders of the Summit County Medical So- 
ciety and was a member of many other medi- 
cal societies. He was married in 1840 to 

JClizabeth Chittenden who bore him two sons; 
Dr. II. C. Howard and Frank D. Howard. 
Dr. E. W. Howard died August 9, 1890. 

Dr. Amos A\'right was the first white male 
child born in Tallmadge. He was born Oc- 
tober 8, 1808. His parents were natives of 
Connecticut. His father was a practicing 
physician, and he read medicine in his fath- 
er's office and also attended lectures in New 
Haven, Connecticut. He began hLs practice in 
Tallmadge in 1833 and continued his minis- 
trations until his death, more than sixty years 
of active practice. He was married to Clem- 
ence C. Fenn, of Tallmadge, March 31, 1831. 
Nine children were born to them. 

Dr. Mendal Jewett was born in Greenwich, 
Massachusetts, on September 4, 1815; moved 
to Portage County in 1836; was graduated 
from Western Reserve Medical College 
with the class of 1839, and began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Mogadore in the 
autunni of that year. In the 50's he was 
elected to the State Legislature and served 
four years. He was a strong advocate of 
temperance and a bitter foe of slavery. He 
was much interested in education, horticulture 
and scientific matters, and the city owes much 
to his activity in worthy causes. He moved 
to Middlebury in 1858 and continued his 
practice until the time of his death. He was 
married to Cordelia H. Kent, on June 14, 

Dr. Stephen H. Coburn, the father of Mrs. 
J. A. Kohler, was one of the most prominent 
citizens of Akron during the period 1850- 
1880. He was born in Hillsdale, New York, 
December 29, 1809 ; studied medicine and be- 
gan his practice in Massachusetts; moved to 
Akron in 1848 and for many years enjoyed 
a large practice as a homeopathic physician. 
He was married to Adeline Myers, May 15, 
1839. Soon after coming to Akron, he be- 
came interested in several business concerns, 
and was very successful. He made large in- 
vestment.s in real estate and platted a large 
tract in the southwestern part of the city, 
which is still known as the Coburn allotment. 
Coburn Street, in that portion of the city, was 



named for him. He died June 1"-, 1888, at 
the age of 78 years. 

Another early Akron physician who made 
considerable money in his real estate ventures 
was Dr. Sanuiel W. Bartges, who was born in 
Mifflinsburg, Pennsylvania, April 19, 1814. 
Upon completing his medical studies in 1842, 
he commenced practice in Akron, and soon 
enjoyed a large and lucrative practice. The 
Bartges allotment and the Bartgcri-Mallison 
allotment were both laid out by him' and 
were big successes. They now constitute a 
substantial portion of the city. Dr. Bartges 
was married to Catherine A. Citimp in 1835. 
He died November 24, 1882, aged 68 years, 
leaving a widow and three children. 

The kindly face of Dr. Daniel A. Scott will 
be recalled by all old Akron residents. He 
was born in Cadiz, Ohio, May 4, 1821 ; was 
graduated in medicine and commenced prac- 
tice in Akron in 1848. He was soon in com- 
mand of a large practice, which he continued 
to look after until the day of his death — .Janu- 
ary 23, 1890. During the last four years of 
his life he was a member of the Akron Board 
of Health. 

Many of us in Akron have reason to be 
thankful for the skill and patient care uni- 
formly exercised by Dr. Thoma.s McEbright 
toward hLs large circle of patients during his 
long professional career. He came to Akron 
in November, 1864, upon the mustering out 
of the 166th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry. He had served as an Army Surgeon 
continuously since 1861. Dr. McEbright 
was born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, April 14, 
1824. His parents soon moved to Ohio 
where he received his education in Norwalk 
Academy and Ohio Wesley an University. 
Graduated in medicine in 1851 he commenced 
active practice at once. In 1857 he moved 
to Millersburg. When the Civil War broke 
out. he offered his services to his country, and 
for three years rendered splendid service as 
an army surgeon. In 1864, he was appointed 
ealonel of the 166th Regiment. Dr. Mc- 
Ebright was married to Nancy Liggett, of 
Millersburg. on the 16th day oif June, 1853. 
Until the time of his death. Dr. McEbright 

tonk an intense interest in public affairs, es- 
pecially those concerning education. Hi^ 
strong public spirit is shown by the fact that 
he served for more than fourteen years as a 
member of the Akron Board of Education, 
some of the time as its president. The next 
public school building should be named for 

Another of the early doctors who was also 
greatly interested in Akron school affairs, and 
for whom the Bowen School on North Broad- 
way was named, was Dr. William Bowen. 
He was born in New York July 3, 1805, and 
about 1825 moved to Ohio, locating in Can- 
ton. He taught school and .studied medicine 
there until 1832, when he commenced prac- 
tice in Doylestown, Ohio. In 1836, he was 
graduated from the Ohio Medical College and 
resumed his practice, locating first in Canton 
and later in Massillon. In 1857 he came to 
Akron and soon won a large practice. In, 
1830 he was married to Iluldah M, Chitteri- 
den. Nine children were born to them, oxie 
of whom married Dr. A. E. Foltz, of Akron. 
Dr. Bowen served for maay years as a member 
of the Akron Board of Education, part of the 
time as its president. While living in Massil- 
lon he published a journal called "The Free 
School Clarion" in the interests of education. 

Dr. Byron S. Chase was born in Vermont, 
January 9, 1834. About 1856 he came to 
Akron and studied medicine with Dr. E. W. 
Howard. He finished his medical education 
at Michigan University and began his active 
practice in Akron. Upon the advent of the 
Civil War, he was appointed surgeon of the 
16th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and served 
faithfully throughout the whole war period. 
In 1865 he resumed his practice in Akron. 
In 1863 he was married to Henrietta Sabin. 
Four children were born to them, the eldest 
of whom is Dr. William S. Chase, a success- 
ful practicing physician of Akron at the pres- 
ent time. Dr. Chase, the elder, died February 
23. 1878. at the early age of forty-four years. 
Dr. Elizur Hitchcock was born in Tall- 
madge; Ohio, August 15, 1832 ; graduated at 
Yale in 1854 ; received his medical education 
at the University of Michigan and the West- 



erii Reserve Medical School; practiced two 
years, and then entered the Union Army as 
surgeon of the Seventh Regiment, Ohio Vol- 
unteer Infantry. In 1870 he came to Akron 
and practiced successfully until his death a 
few years ago. In November, 1861, he was 
married to Hattie Reed, who died in 1834. 
He afterward married Lucrctia Kellogg, who 
bore him two children, Hal. K. Hitchcock, an 
electrical engineer of Pittsburg, and Lucius 
W. Hitchcock, the artist, now living near 
New York City. 

Dr. William C. Jacobs probably enjoyed 
the confidence of a larger circle of patients 
and friends than any other phj^sician who 
ever practiced in Summit County. Hi.s death 
a year or two ago was lamented throughout 
the county. He was an earnest, honest, 
straight-forward and plain-spoken man whom 
everyone who knew hini loved for his fine 
qualities. He was born in Lima, Ohio, 
February 26, 1840 ; was educated for the Navy, 
but resigned from the Academy at Annapolis 
to study medicine. In Annapolis he was a 
schoolmate of Admirals Schley and Sampson. 
He was graduated from Ohio Medical College 
in Cincinnati, with the class of 1862. He 
immediately joined the Union Army as a sur- 
geon and served until the close of the war. 
He was connected with the Fourth Regiment, 
Ohio Volunteer Cavalry and the Eighty-first 
Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He 
came to Akron in October, 1865, and com- 
menced to practice medicine and surgery. 
He was one of the chief workers in founding 
the Akron City Hospital, and at the time of 
his death was Chief of the General Staff of 
that institution. Dr. Jacobs was twice mar- 
ried, his first wife being Ilulda M. Hill, to 
whom one child was born, Dr. Harold Hill 
Jacobs, at present a successful and respected 
surgeon of Akron and the head of the City 

Dr. James H. Peterson came to Akron in 
1854 and was one of the earliest practitioners 
of dentistry in Summit County. He was 
born in New Bnmswick in 1830 and passed 
his early years in BufiFalo, New York. In 
November, 1855, he married Caroline Van 

Evra, of Akron. The eldest of their three 
children is the wife of Senator Charles Dick. 
Up to the time of his death. Dr. Peterson gave 
much attention to public affairs and rendered 
valuable service in behalf of the general wel- 

Dr. Mason Chapman, who came to Akron 
in 1865, was another successful dentist who 
took a deep interest in municipal affairs, 
serving in the 70's as a member of the Akron 
City Council. 

Dr. John W. Lyder, now rounding out a 
successful career as dentist, came to Akron 
in April, 1870. He has been very much in- 
terested in Horticultural and Agricultural de- 
velopment, and has been of much service to 
those interests during his residence in Sum- 
mit County. Other physicians who came to 
Akron just after the close of the Civil War 
and to whom this community is much in- 
debted both for the unselfish and faithful 
practice of their profession, and their untir- 
ing zeal in jiublic affairs, are Dr. Warren J. 
Underwood, the father of the present Dr. Ed- 
ward S. Underwood; Dr. A. C. Belden, who 
met an untimelv death by accident, Decem- 
ber 11, 1890; Dr. Abner E. Foltz, the father 
of the present Dr. Esgar B. Foltz; Dr. 0. D. 
Childs, who is still continuing his successful 
practice; and Dr. Leonidas S. Ebright, Ak- 
ron's efficient postmaster, who has been con- 
tinued in that post since the first term of 
President McKinley. The five last mentioned 
were veterans of the -Civil War, and the first 
four served long appointments as army sur- 
geons in various Ohio regiments. This chap- 
ter should not close without reference to the 
services of Doctors John Weimer, George P. 
Ashmun. 0. E. Brownell, George G. Baker, 
.Mexander Fisher, Henry M. Fisher and Rol- 
lin B. Carter. The following is a complete 
list of the Physicians and Surgeons practic- 
ing their professions in Akron and vicinity 
in the year 1907 : 


Adams. F. X. 
Alspach, E. Z. 

Angler, J. C. 
Barton, E. W. 














h- 1 





Beidler. Williniii 
Bowman, I). S. 
Boyd, J. P. 
Callin, F. B. 
Cauffield, E. J. 
Chase. W. S. 
Childs, 0. D. 
Clapcadel, F. A. 
Cleaver. J. \'. 
Conn, Eli 
Conner, II. E. 
Cranz, D. E. 
Dixon, C. A. 
Eberhard. L. R. C 
Ebright, L. S. 
Emery, Wm. J. 
Evans, Jennie L. 
Evans, Nellie M. 
Ewers, F. A. 
Fehr, Peter 
Foltz & Foltz 
Fouser, A. K. 
Grant, J. G. 
Halter, M. V. 
Hassenflue. -T. W. 
Havs, C. J. 
Held. C. E. 
Hiddleson, C. S. 
Hill, C. T. 
Hill, J. E. 
Hottenstein. E. K. 
Hulse. J. A. 

Humphrey, C. M. 
Humphrey, L. B. 
Jacobs, H. H. 
Johnson, S. W. 
Jones, A. W. 
Keller, ^\'. L. 
Kendig, R. C. 
Kennedv & Kergan 
Kneale.^V. E. 
Kohler, A. A. 
Kurt, Katherine 
Leas. Luev 
Lee, J. L.' 
Leonard, ^^'. \V. 
Leppa & Co. 
Lyon. 0. A. 
McDonald. D. M. 
McKay, R. H. 
Mather. E. L. 
Millikin, C. W. 
Montenyohl, E. A. 
Moore, T. K. 
Morgan, D. H. 
Morgenroth, Simon 
ISIurdock, Wm. 
NorrLs, C. E. 
Parks, Thos. C. 
Pumphrev, J. M. 
Rabe, J. \V. 
Rankin. G. T. 
Rankin. I. C. 

Reed, F. C. 
Robinson, R. DeW. 
Rockwell, J. \V. 
Rowe, Darius 
Rowland, Albert 
Sackett, W. A. 
Sanborn & Gleason 
Seller, J. H. 
Shirey, J. L. 
Shuman, J. C. 
Sicherman, Armin 
Sippv, A. F. 
Stauffer, G. W. 
Stevenson, M. D. 
Sturgeon, S. H. 
Swan, C. G. 
Svveitzer, L. S. 

Taggart, H. D. 
Theiss, G. A. 
Theiss, H. C. 
Todd, H. D. 
Underwood, E. S. 
Waldron, L. P. 
Weaver, Elizabeth M. 
Weber, J. H. 
Weeks, E. A. 
Weller, J. N. 
Wilson, William 
Wise, L. J. 
Workman, T. W. 
Wright, S. St. J. 


Albany Dental Parlors, Dr. C. C. Spangler, 

American Painless Dentists, Dr. F. H. Mc- 
Lean, Prop. 

Barton, H. W. 

Branch, E. E. 

Browne, L. T. 

Buchtel, A. P. 

Capron, F. M. 

Cole, H. W. 

Conner. W. B. 

Cooper, W. C. 

Dewey. W. H. 

Dreutlein, B. H. 

Felker, Charles 
Hamilton, T. J. 
Henninger, D. H. 
Hillman, J. W. 
Hottenstein, W. J. 
Johnson, A. G. 
Lewis, F. M. 
Lyder, J. W. and F. H. 
Maxwell, W. J. 
Mottinger, C. C. 

Philadelphia Dental Rooms, Dr. W. J. 
Slemmons. Prop. 
Pontius, B. B. 
Quirk, E. E. 



Risch, J. F. 
Ruegsegger, D. U. 
Saunders & Locy 
Schultz, J. E. 
Shriber, B. A. 
Sibley, N. B. 
Smitii, C. E. 
Yedder, J. B. 
Watters, W. J. 

White Dental Parlors, Dr. A. C. Buffing- 
ton, Prop. 

Williams,, E. J. 
Williamson, G. B. 

Lahmers, Frederick 
Livermore, F. B. 
Mansfield, W. A. 
RodenBaugh & Rodenbaugh 
Snyder, H. A. 
Stall, A. H. 
Whipple, C. H. 


Chandler & Benner 
Galloglv, D. B. 
Hille, 6. A. 
Wearstler, 11. 0. 


Brown, G. A. 
Carr, C. B. 
Cory, Mrs. Kate W. 
Davidson, H. S. 
Gardner, G. E. 


Bill, A. II. 

Hough, W. S. 
Middleton, W. B. 
Smith, F. D. 
Taylor, W. X. 


the: bench and bar 

Ein-hj HiMi>nj^Thr Pir^rnt Bar and Us Ilifjh Sfunding. 

Prior to the erection of Suiniiiit County, 
about the year 1838 or 1839, there were com- 
paratively few lawyers in the city of Akron. 
Those who were here, were required to attend 
the courts in Ravenna, Medina and Canton, 
which were then the county seats of Portage, 
Medina and Stark Counties. The county of 
Summit was, in fact, made up by taking a 
number of townships from each of the coun- 
ties named. 

Among the earliest practitioners who had 
established themselves in the little town of 
Akron, were some of the old pioneer advo- 
cates who have long since passed away. 

The completion of the Ohio Canal about 
the year 1827, and the subsequent junction 
at Akron of the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal 
brought the town of Akron into great promi- 
nence, as there were practically no railroads 
at that time in the state, and the opening 
of these canals, opened water-ways for the 
tran.sportation of produce to the cities of 
Cleveland, Pittsburg and Cincinnati. 

Quite a number of lawyers came to Akron 
who had previously located at Ravenna, 
and among the earliest lawyers of that time 
may be mentioned Gregory Powers, Rufus P. 
Spaulding, Seneca and Alvin Hand, John C 
Singletery, Van R. Humphrey, David K. 
Carter, George Bliss and others, who came in 
later years. 

Later on the General Assembly of this sitate 
enacted a law, authorizing suits against water 
craft by name, and as the canal was then in 
full tide of prosperity, and there being a con- 

(stant procession of boats in use, a large 
amount of litigation in the way of collections, 
damage suits and otherwise resulted, and this 
class of business occupied a considerable por- 
tion of the time of the court. 

In those earlier years, following the erec- 
tion of the Court House, there were compara- 
tively few divorce cases and very few cases for 
the recovery of damages for personal injury. 
And the amounts involved in suits, compared 
with the present time, were exceedingly small. 
But the records of the court will show that 
the eases that were brought into court were 
generally tried by the court or jury, and they 
will also show that the cases were, without 
regard to the amount involved, carefully pre- 
pared and thoroughly and ably tried. There 
were then, as now, generally three terms of 
court during the year, but these terms rarely 
lasted longer than two or three weeks at the 
outside, and during this time the business 
was generally fully di.sposed of. Unlike the 
j)resent time, when the court convened, on 
the first day of the term, the lawyers of the 
town vacated their offices and attended the 
court. They were on hand and present at the 
trial of each, so that practically all the 
members of the bar heard the testimony and 
arguments of counsel in each case. And dur- 
ing the tenu of court there was generally a 
full audience, not only the members of the 
bar, but bystanders and people who came in 
to hear. The large court room in the present 
old Court House, was none too large to ac- 
commodate the people who were almast uni- 



formly present during the entire term of 
court. The lawyers were given ample time 
for the trial of their cases. They were rarely, 
if ever, limited as to the time for argument 
as to the court or jury. It ls needless to say 
that rare ability and the most persuasive elo- 
quence was frequently displayed in the trial 
of cases. 

All this has greatly changed in recent 
years, .so that appeals to the passions and 
prejudices of men are rarely permitited at 
the present time, and so valuable is the time 
of the court and so practical in business, that 
concise, clear and business-like statements 
have taken the place of the oratory and elo- 
quent addresses of the lawyers of former 

RUFUS P. SPAULDING, among the 
earlier lawyers, was conspicuous for his efforts 
as a member of the General Assembly in se- 
curing the passage of the act creating Sum- 
mit County. He was foremost in the effort to 
make Akron a county seat, Cuyahoga Falls 
being at the time a very strong competitor 
for the location. Judge Spaulding was indeed 
an ornament to the bar and an example to 
imitate. He was dignified and courteous in 
his deportment, a logical and forcible de- 
bater, and he wa,- deeply learned in law. He 
was a graduate of Yale College, and in later 
years of life he became a judge of the Su- 
preme Court in the State of Ohio. He was. 
however, strongly inclined to a political life, 
and his interest in politics brought about his 
election as a member of Congress to represent 
the Cleveland District, of which Summit 
County was then a part. He served in Con- 
gress with rare distinction during the period 
of the Civil War. 

Another lawyer of great distinction was 
ticed law a great many years. He came to 
Akron about the year 1836 and died in 1864, 
and during that time he was engaged in 
perhaps as many suits in the courts of this 
county and Portage as any other lawyer of 
tha/t. time. He was very skillful. Among his 

partners during that time was Charles G. 
Ladd, and subsequently Alvin C. Voris. Gen- 
eral Bierce was very efficient in aiding the 
government during the Civil War; he raised 
several companies of men for the military 
and naval service. He w^as elected to repre- 
sent Portage and Summit Counties in the 
(Jhio Senate, and made an enviable record as 
a Senator. And in later years, towards the 
close of life, he was elected mayor of the city 
of Akron. He was an able and vigorous 
writer, and in the intervals of his large legal 
practice he prepared a number of lectures, 
which he delivered in various parts of the 
country. But above all General Bierce was a 
large practitioner, and very successful in his 

VAN R. HUMPHREY was one of the old 
(imo judges and lawyers. He was presiding 
judge and held court in Ravenna, Akron be- 
ing then a part of that jurisdiction. He was 
a very portly man, affable and genial. He 
was skilled in the old common law practice, 
and when the oivil code went into effect in 
1851, all those old common law forms were 
abolished and Judge Humphrey never could 
reconcile himself to the new modes of prac- 
tice, and constantly made war upon the new 
proceeding. Pie was a very able lawyer and 
continued in practice up to the date of his 
death, which occurred at Hudson, in Sum- 
mit County. He was effective, both before 
the court upon questions of law and in argu- 
ing oases to the jury. 

GEORGE BLISS was a native of Vermont. 
He was educated at Granville College and 
came to Akron in 1832 and studied law with 
Hon. D. K. Carter. He practiced law in Sum- 
mit County, and was appointed in 1851 presi- 
dent judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 
this county, succeeding Benjamin F. Wade. 
He held this po.sition which he filled with 
distinguished ability, \mtil the taking effect 
of the new Con.=;titution in 1852. He was 
elected a member of Congress, from this 
district in 1854, and subsequently he re- 
moved to Wonster, in Wavne Countv, where 



he practiced law in partnership with the Hon. 
John McSwaney. It is safe to say that Judge 
Bliss had few equds and no superiors as a 
lawyer. He was learned in the law and hi^ 
logic was most profound. His command of 
language was such that his extempore argu- 
ments to the court or jury would read like 
a page of Junius. His eloquence was of the 
Web.sterian type, profound and convincing, 
while in the art of examining and cross-ex- 
amining he has never been excelled. 
He married late in life, and at his death a 
wife and five children survived him. He was 
a most companionable nian, very witty and 
interesting. He never lost his temper, but 
exercised complete selfcontrol. He took an 
active part in politics, and achieved a na- 
tional reputation as one of the leading stat&^- 
men of the country. He was one of the lead- 
ing counsel in the case of Ohio against -James 
Park.-:, which was the first and perhaps the 
most important murder trial ever tried in 
Summit County. 

JAMES S. CARPENTER was a very prom- 
inent lawyer, born in New Hampshire in 
1805. Moved with his i>arent.s to Pottsdam, 
New York, and was educated at the St. Law- 
rence Academy at Pottsdam. In June, 1832, 
he came to Ohio and removed to Medina, in 
Medina County, in 1835, where he edited a 
newspaper called the Constitutionalist. He 
was elected to the Legislature of the State dn 
the fall of 1839. He was a strong anti-slav- 
ery man and advocated in his papers as well 
as in his the rights of the colored 
people of Ohio. He moved to Akron in 184(; 
and practiced law at Akron for many years. 
He occupied the Common Pleas Bench from 
1856 to 1861. Judge Carpenter was of Eng- 
lish ancestry, and in his example and by 
precept he represented the extreme type of 
Puritan morality and uprightnes-;. He was 
very highly educated as a judge, lawyer and 
citizen. His wife and three children sur- 
vived him. 

born in Lorn, New- York. May 2, 1834, and 

he came to Akron in 1854. He taught in the 
high school of Akron for a year or two, after 
coming to Ohio, and during the time studied 
law in the office of his uncle, Hon. Sidney 
Edgerton, and was admitted to the bar in 
1876. On the breaking out of the Civil War 
in 1861, he enlisted in the army and was 
elected a lieutenant in Company G, Sixty- 
fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He re- 
mained in service until 1863. He commenced 
the practice of law in Akron with his uncle, 
Sidney Edgerton, and his rise in the pro- 
fession was rapid. He was a very fluent 
speaker, and was especially prominent in po- 
litical discussions. Ho accompanied his un- 
cle, Sidney Edgerton, to the territory of Idaho 
and to Bennock City; this was in 1884. So- 
ciety in this portion of the west at that time 
was in a very chaotic condition. There was 
but little security for life or property, through 
the regular legal channels. Murders, rob- 
beries and crimes of all kinds were of such 
frequent occurrence that the peoi^le of this 
portion of the territory, for their protection, 
organized themselves into a body, called 
■'Vigilantes." Colonel Saunders was very 
prominent in this organization, and fifty or 
more outlaws and desperadoes were hung un- 
der the orders of this court. It was a very 
speedy and effective measure of justice, but 
it made honest men and it was not long before 
law and order prevailed. Colonel Saunders was 
appointed United States attorney by President 
Grant, and he became also a inember of the 
Territorial Legislature, and in 1890 was 
elected L'nited States Senator from the newly 
organized State of Montana. At the expira- 
tion of his term he returned to the practice 
of the law in the city of Helena, Montana, 
where he lived until his death. 

came from Connecticut, was born in 1825, 
and with his parents removed to Steubenville, 
Ohio. He graduated at Jefferson College, 
Pennsylvania, and .studied law with Tappin 
& Stanton in Steubenville. Upon his admis- 
sion to the bar in 1843, he formed a partner- 
ship with General L. V. Bierce at Ravenna, 



Ohio, and in 1846 came to Akron, forming 
a partnership with William S. C. Otis, and 
after Mr. Otis removed to Cleveland, he be- 
came a partner of Judge William H. Upson. 
Upon the death of the Attorney General F. 
D. Kendel in 1856, Governor Chase appointed 
Ml-. Wolcott to fill the vacancy, and he was 
subsequently elected. His services as Attor- 
ney General were particularly notable. Dur- 
ing that time there occurred a heavy defalca- 
tion in the State Treasury and this brought 
on a number of very important State trials, 
in which Mr. Wolcott took a very prominent 
j)ai1, and perhaps the most important case 
that occurred was the case of ex parte Bu^h- 
nell, sometimes called the "Oberlin rescue 
ciuses." It grew out of the attempt to en- 
force the fugitive slave law by carrying back 
fugitive slaves to the State of Kentucky. The 
people of Oberlin resisted the enforcement of 
this law; indeed public opinion in the North 
was strongly against this enforcement, and a 
mn liber of citizens of Oberlin were arrasted 
for resisting the enforcement of tliis law, and 
the case came up in the Supreme Court of 
Ohio on application for a writ in Habeas cor- 
pus; in behalf of the persons who had been 
arrested. The main quesition was over the 
constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave law. 
Mr. AVolcotts argument on this occasion was 
a most masterh' effort. The decision of the 
court was against him, but they did Mr. Wol- 
cott the honor of having his argument in 
full, printed in the volume of the Ohio Re- 
ports. Mr. Wolcott was strictly a lawyer; he 
gave law his whole attention, even at the ex- 
pense of his social duties. His arguments 
were .solid, logical and convincing. He never 
indulged in matters of sentiment, or appealed 
to the emotions or passions. He relied simply 
upon his logical processes and reasoning. ^Ir. 
Wolcott was one of the leaders of the Summit 
County bar. Soon after the breaking out 
of the Civil W^ar, he was appointed by his 
brother-in-law, Edwin M. Stanton, assistant 
secretary of war. He entered upon the dis- 
charge of these important duties with energy 
and skill, taxing himself to sucli an extent 
that his health broke down, and lie died in 

the city of Akron shortly after his retiring 
from that position. 

SAMUEL W. McCLURE was born in 
Cheshire County, New Hampshire, Novem- 
ber, 1812. In 1828 he came to Medina 
County, Ohio, and taught school at Medina 
for a period of two years. He then attended 
Allegheny College, Pennsylvania, where he 
graduated. At that time he intended becom- 
ing a minister of the Gospel. He taught the 
academy at Ashland, in Ashland County, for 
two years, and while so engaged studied law 
in the offices of Silas Robbins and Judge 
Charlas Sherman ; during the time he edited 
the Ashland Phoenix. He subsequently re- 
turned to Medina and became the editor of 
the Constitutionalist, and during that time 
also entered into a law partnership with Judge 
Carpenter. He removed to Cuyahoga Falls, 
in Summit County, about the year 184.3, and 
practiced law at that place with great suc- 
CC.S.S, until he removed to Akron, about 1865, 
where he practiced his profession in partner- 
shiip with the late Edward Oviatt. Judge Mc- 
Clure held the office of prosecuting attorney 
in Summit County, and was elected a mem- 
ber of the General Assembly of the State in 
1848, and he was .subsequently elected a judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas for the dis- 
tricts of Summit, Medina and Lorain Coun- 
ties, which office he held for one term. Judge 
McCluro 'was a very able lawyer, and by his 
constant attention to business and his skill 
and energy, he acquired a large practice and 
was very .successful, especially in the trial of 
jury cases. While Judge McClure lived at 
Cuyahoga Falls, he entered into a partner- 
ship with Hon. Henry McKinney, who .still 
lives in the city of Cleveland. 

MR. McKINNEY was elected i)rosecuting 
attorney of Summit County, which office he 
filled with great succe,«s, and was also elected 
a Senator from this district. He removed to 
Cleveland in about 1880, where he wiis elected 
a judge of the Court of Common Plea-; and 
held the oftice for one term. It i< no more 
tlian just to say that Judg.' McKiniiiy liad 



few equals as a trial lawyer. He was espe- 
cially strong in the trial of jury cases, and 
his preparation for trial, both as to law of 
the case and the facts involved, was com- 
plete dn every particular. He w'as a man of 
large s}-mpathie.s and most generous impulses. 

one of Ohio's distinguished citizens, who from 
1852 until 1865 sei-ved his city. State and 
country, in positions of honor and great re- 
sponsibility, was born at Cazenovia, New 
York, August 17, 1818. His fathei'. a teacher 
by profession, was afflicted by l^lindness dur- 
ing his later life, dying when Sidney was six 
months old. Mi's. Edgerton, left in strait- 
ened circumstanc&s, could support lier family 
for a few years only, and the boy was forced 
into the world at the age of eight to battle 
for himself. 

After attending the district school for the 
usual period, he began at the age of seventeen 
to ie-M-h school, soon earning enough to en- 
able him to enter Wesley Seminary, at Lima, 
New York, where he was subsequently en- 
gaged as a teacher. In the spring of 1844 
he came to Akron, making the journey by- 
water. The day after Ms arrival he entered 
the office of Judge Rufus P. Spalding, for 
the study of law, and during the following 
winter he taught in the Tallmadge Academy. 
In 1846 he was graduated from the Cincin- 
nati Laav School and admitted to the bar in 
that city and immediately opened an oflico 
at Akron. He soon became identified with 
public affairs, and in 1848 was a delegate 
to the convention which resulted in the for- 
mation of the Free Soil Party. In 1852 lie 
secured election as pro.secuting attorney of 
Summit County, in which office he served for 
four years. In 1858 came his election to 
Congress, followed by his re-election in 1860. 
His record as a statesman was such that in 
1863 lie was appointed by President Lincoln 
to the oflice of chief justice of Idaho. It wa?, 
Mr. Edgerton who prepared the bill for the 
organization of the territory of Montana, and 
who went to Washington and presented it to 
Congress, making the long journey partly 

by stage and horseback through a country 
then almost entirely unsettled. President 
Lincoln recognized the value of his services 
l)y appointing him governor of the Territory 
of Montana, an office he held until a more 
perfect organization was effected, and the way 
[>aved for further legislation and the opening 
up of that rich region to settlement. Mr. 
Edgerton then resigned his office and in Jan- 
uai-y, 1866, resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession at Akron, where he continued a resi- 
dent during the rest of his life, which ter- 
minated July 19, 1900. 

On May 18, 1849, Mr. Edgerton was mar- 
ried to Mary Wright, of Tallmadge, Ohio, 
and they became the parents of nine chil- 
ilren. ilrs. Edgerton died August 3, 1883. 
Four of their children survive, namely: 
Martha E. Plassmann, residing at MLssoula., 
Montana; Mary Pauline Edgerton, of Akron; 
Lucia Idaho Buckingham, wife of George E. 
Huckingham, of Akron, Ohio; Nina E. Whit- 
man, wife of CaiJtain W. M. Whitman, U. 
S. A., now stationed at Fort Riley, Kansas. 
Those (locca.^ed are: Wright Prescott Edger- 
t')n, jirofessor of mathematics at the We.-t 
Point Military Academy, at the time of his 
death, June 24, 1904; Sidney Carter Bdger- 
t'lii. died November 29, 1895; Francis Lowell 
Edgerton, died Octol>er 2, 1861 : Lucy lone 
]':duerton, died May 10, 1906. 

Sidney Edgerton was a man of stanch 
moral courage, wonderfully proven in the 
anti-slavery struggle, and in the formaitdve 
jieriod of the New West, He was gifted with 
a mai'velous memory, his reading broad, yet 
discriminating. In his profession of law he 
gained distinction, and was parti cularly re- 
nowned as a jury lawyer. He had a keen 
<;Mise of humor, and possessed an inexhaust- 
ible supply of anecdotes. He was an ardent 
champion and a fervent hater, and his whole 
life was a struggle for the upbuilding of 
right and justice. 

merly judge of the Probate Court of Sunniiit 
County, was one of the county's promi- 
nent and u.^eful men in his day and genera- 



tioii. He was barn in Lincoln County, Maine, 
December 20, 1818, in childhood accompany- 
ing bia parents to Lower Canada, where he 
lived until the age of seventeen years. 

In 1837 N. W. Goodhue moved to Wayne 
County, Ohio. At that time there were fewer 
avenuea of labor promising satisfactory emol- 
uments than at present. He was ambitious 
and turned his eyes in the direction of the 
law even while spending his summers in ped- 
dling notions and general merchandise 
through the country and his winters in 
teaching school, which occupied his time for 
several years. In 1840 he studied law in 
the office of Hand & Nash, at Middlebury, 
having come to Summit County as a teacher, 
and in 1846 and 1847 was fortunate enough 
to secure the posiition of engrossing clerk in 
the House of Representatives, at Columbus. 
In the latter year he was admitted to the bar, 
in 1848 he was elected auditor of Summit 
County and was re-elected in 1850, fill- 
ing the office for four years. In 1856 
he was appointed canal collector, serv- 
ing for two years, and was collector of inter- 
nal revenue for Summit County, from Sep- 
tember, 1882, until September. 18G(). He bed 
always been active in the Reinil)lican party 
since its formation, and in 1878 he was elected 
by this organization State Senator from Sum- 
mit and Portage Countie,s, sen-ing two years. 
In 1880, he was Republican elector for the 
Eighteenth Congres.sional -District and presi- 
dent of the Ohio Electoral College. In Oc- 
tober, 1881, he was elected .judge of the Pro- 
bate Court of Summit County, this being has 
last public honor. On the bench lie gave 
entire satisfaction and occupied this honor- 
able position until his death, which occurred 
September 12, 1883. In his many official 
capacities he had always acquitted hin^'elf 
with credit. 

Judge Goodhue was married December 20. 
1841, to Nancy Johnston, who was born in 
Green Township, Summit County and they 
had four children, namely: James P., who 
died in infancy; Allan J., now residing at 
Chicago, Illinois, who served as a member of 
the 104th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infan- 

try, during the Civil War; Mary H., now de- 
ceased, who was the wife of Rev. Samuel 
Maxwell, a clergyman of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church ; and Nathaniel P., ex-clerk of 
the Summit County Court. The last named 
is a prominent business citizen of Akron, in- 
terested in many of her successful enterprises, 
and is treasurer of the Bruner, Goodhue, 
Cooke Company and president of the Akron 
Laundry Company. He resides at No. 140 
Adolph Avenue. 

CONSTANT BRYAN. Judge Constant 
Bryan was another of the old time lawyers. 
He was born in the State of New York in 
1809. Read law and graduated from the law 
department of Yale College in 1833 and was 
admitted to the bar in 1834. He was elected 
Probate Judge for Summit County in 1852. 
He took a great interest in the cause of edu- 
cation and was a member of the School Board. 
Judge Bryan was a very dignified, quiet gen- 
tleman. He had no taste for the hurlyburly 
of a court trial, he preferred rather the quiet 
of an office practice, and the business part 
of the legal profession. He was a man of 
jiroved integrity and was very highly re- 

CHARLES B. BERNARD was a son of 
Rev. David Bernard, a former Baptist clergy- 
man in Akron. Mr. Bernard was l>orn in 
New York, and came to Akron in 1846, where 
be taught school and later entered the office 
of the county auditor. Six years later he was 
elected auditor and served four years. Dur- 
ing this time he studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and became a member of 
tlie firm of Wolcott, LTpson & Bernard. He 
was a member of the Board of Education. 
During the Civil Wair he was made adjutant 
of the One Hundred and Sixty-fourth Ohio 
Rt'giment, Ohio National Guard. Mr. Ber- 
nard was a splendid .specimen of physical 
manhood and was prominent in public affairs. 
His probity no one ever doubted, and his 
character M-as the very highest. As a busi- 
nes's laiwyer, or rather a lawyer for office prac- 
tice, he had no superiors. 



Van R. Humphrey, Avas born at Hudson, 
Ohio, in 1840. He graduated at "Western 
Reserve College in 1863, and was soon after 
admitted to the bar. He served for a time in 
the Civil War. After the close of the war 
Mr. Humphrey commenced the practice of 
his profession at Cuyahoga Falls, later com- 
ing to Akron, where he entered into a part- 
nership with .ludge E. \V. Stuart. Mr, 
Humphrey made a specialty of patent laws 
and he became a very successful and efficient 
attorney in that department. He wa.s a clever 
lawyer as well as a skillful mechanic. 

E. P. GREEN. Judge Edwin P. Green 
was born in Windsor County, Vermont, Marcli 
10, 1828. He was educated at Bradford 
.Vcademy, and commenced the study of law 
in Littleton, New Hampshire. Coming to 
Akron in 1852, he entered the office of Hum- 
phrey & Edgerton, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1853. He was elected clerk of the 
court in October, 1854, .and at the clo.^ie of 
his term he resumed his law practice, and he 
was elected Judge of the Common Pleads 
Court, •which office he held for five years. 
Judge Gre«i was president of the Ohio Bar 
Association in 1878. He Mas a very careful 
lawyer; he was not an advocate in any sens? 
of the temi, but he was learned in the law 
and WHS a prudent judicial advisor. His de- 
cisions a* judge of the Connuon Pleas Court 
were very able, and his judgments were very 
rarely reversed by the higher courts. Judoe 
Green was prominent in educational matters, 
he was a great reader and po.ssessed a splendid 
and well selected library of books. He was a 
member of the Akron Public Library 
ciation, and was one of the corporator- and 
trustees of Buchtel College. 

ROLIN W. SADLER was born in St. Jo- 
seph County, Michigan, in 1856. His father 
was a .school teacher by profession. ^Ir. Sad- 
ler entered Baldwin University and later went 
to Mt. Union College, where he graduated in 
1871. He then engaged in teaching, finst a- 
principal of the High School at R-ad'ng. 

Michigan, and then at Bedford, Summit 
County, Ohio. In 1876 he entered the law 
office of Edgerton and Kohler, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1876. He was for sev- 
ertil years in partnership with Mr. Kohler 
and later he became a partner in the firm of 
Marvin, Sadler & Atterholt. Mr. Sadler was 
one of the j'ounger members of the bar, but 
from the very start of his profession he ex- 
hibited qualities which brought him 
to the front of the profession, and he very 
soon became one of the best equipped lawyers 
of the Summit County bar. He had a thor- 
ough education and his mind readily grasped 
the most intricate leading questions and 
solved them with intuitive ease and clearness. 
He was also an influential, persuasive and elo- 
quent speaker. He met with an accident in 
the city of Akron which him his life, 
and had he lived there is no doubt that he 
would have achieved a national reputation 
as a great lawyer and advocate. In his prac- 
tice and in the trial of cases he was, in the 
best sense of the term, a gentleman, and made 
it clear that one can be a perfect gentleman, 
kind and courteous, and at the same time a 
most effective trial lawyer. 

FRANK M. ATTERHOLT was born in 
1848 near New Lisbon, Ohio. He w-as edu- 
cated at New Lisbon High School and at Mt. 
Union College, graduating at the latter in- 
stitution in 1870. He wa.s a prominent 
teacher for several years and became editor 
of the Columbiana Register. He came to Ak- 
ron in 1879 and read law with Upson, Ford 
and Baird. "Was admitted to the bar in the 
Supreme Court at Columbus, and later be- 
came a partner of Judge ilarvin in the law 
])ractice. i\Ir. Atterholt was a member of the 
Board of Education, member of the Board of 
School Examiners and trustee of Mt. Union 
College. Mr. Atterholt the latter years 
of his life almost exclusively to business af- 
fairs, being largely interested in a number of 
corporations and in organizing others. He 
was a prominent member of the Methodist 
Church in the city of Akron. He died at 
Akron after a long and painful illne.-s. 



DAVID LESLIE MARVIN, son of Ulysses 
L. Marvin, was born at Kent, Ohio, in 1862. 
He was educated in the Akron public schools 
and at Kenyon College, Gambler. He was 
elected assistant engineer of the board of 
Public Works of Ohio, and was re-elected in 
1888 and 1890. During this time he read 
law, and was admitted to the bar in Decc^m- 
ber, 1889. Coming to Akron he began tlie 
practice of his profession, as a member of 
the law firm of Marvin, Atterholt, Slabaugh 
& Marvin. Mr. Mar\-in was a bright, capable 
and genial young man, and gave promise of 
success in his profession. His untimely death 
was mourned by all who had enjoyed the 
pleasure of Ids acquaintance. 

in Richfield, October 23, 1833. He moved 
•with his family to Hudson. He was grad- 
uated at the Western Raserve College in 1857, 
and studied law in the office of Judge Van 
R. Humphrey, and Avas admitted to the bar 
by the Supreme Court at Columbus, March 
9, 1859. Upon the breaking out of the Civil 
War he enlisted in the Second Ohio Cavalry 
Regimental Band, serving in the division of 
General Blont in the Western campaign. He 
was commi,s.sioned by Governor Tod as Cap- 
tain in the 124th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 
In 1864, at the caU of Governor Brough, he 
served one hundred days in defense of the 
National Capital as a member of the 164th 
Ohio National Guard. Mr. Ingersoll was a,n 
indefatigable worker, energetic and pains- 
taking. He was a man of high character and 
was highly educated. In addition to hi? at- 
tainments as a lawyer he was a fine mn- 
sician ; he had- a splendid voice, which was 
highly cultivated. 

WILLIAM M. DODGE desen-es honorable 
mention among the earlier lawyers of Sum- 
mit County. He was born in 1805, in New 
York, where he studied law with Judge 
WTieeler. After his admission to the bar, he 
came to Middleb;ir\% which was then the chief 
town in Summit County. He was elected 
prosecuting attorney of the new county, being 

the first one to hold that ofHce in the new 
jurisdiction ; he was re-elected and held the of- 
fice two years. He was one of the leading 
advocates and workers for the famous Ak- 
ron School Law, and became a member of the 
first board of education in the city of Akron. 
In 1860 Mr. Dodge was elected probate judge 
of Summit County, and this office he held un- 
til his death, July 21, 1861. He was fifty-six 
years of age at the time of his death. 

EDWARD OVIATT was another of Sum- 
mit County's earlier lawyers. He was born 
in Hudson Township in 1822. He attended 
school at the Richfield Academy, whei'e the 
family lived, and later at Granville Institute 
and Western Reserve College. He prepared 
for admission to the bar in Akron in the of- 
fice of Hon. D. K. Carter, and he was admit- 
ted to the bar at Medina in 1844. He was en- 
gaged in practice for a number of years until 
about 1865, when he became partner of Hon. 
Samuel W. McClure, and after the dissolution 
of that firm Mr. Oviatt continued his profes- 
sional practice with his .«on-in-low, George G. 
Ellen, Esq.; later Mr. Charles Cobbs was ad- 
mitted to the firm. Mr. Oviatt held the office 
of prosecuting attorney of Summit Cinnity. to 
which he was elected by the people, and dur- 
ing the Civil War he served in a hundred day 
service as a member of the 164th Regiment, 
Ohio National Guard. Mr. Oviatt was a 
patriotic, public-spirited citizen and a most 
painstaking, conscientious lawyer. He was 
frequently selected and instructed with the set 
tlement of estates in which he was very prompt 
and thorough. 

ROLLAND 0. HAMMOND was another of 
the old lawyers long since pa.s,?ed away. He 
was born in 1826 in the town.ship of Bath. He 
wa? educated at Oberlin College and also at- 
tended Western Reserve College. He pre- 
pared for the business of his profession in the 
office of Judge Carpenter and IMcClure and 
was admitted to the bar in Painesville in 1850. 
He held the office of probate judge, imder ap- 
pointment from Governor Reuben Wood. He 
made a very excellent officer, and, upon the 



election of James Buchanan as president, he 
wai appointed postmaister of the city of Ak- 
ron, which office he held for four years. Mr. 
Hammond Avas an excellent trial lawyer. He 
was a man of high tastes and culture, and was 
a fine writer as well as a persuasive and elo- 
quent orator. 

in Stow, in 1839. He was educated in the 
district schools and Twinsburg Institute, and 
for a time engaged in teaching the common 
schools. In 1858 he entered the law office 
of H. B. Foster in Hudson, and then he 
came to Akron and entered the law office of 
Hon. Sidney Edgerton, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1860. In 1862 he enlisted as a 
private in the 115th Regiment, Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, and later he became first lieu- 
tenant of the Fifth United States Colored 
Regiment. He was promoted tO' captain dur- 
ing the Siege of Richmond in 1869. Judge 
Marvin was elected probate judge of Summit 
Count}^, serving six j^ears and was appointed 
Common Pleas Judge by Governor Faster in 
place of Judge Tibbals, serving until the fol- 
lowing October. He was later elected a judge 
of the Circuit Court for Cuyahoga, Summit, 
Lorain and Medina District and is still serv- 
ing as a judge of that court, having been 
nominaited for a third term. 

GEORGE C. KOHLER was born at Akron 
June 26, 1869. He attended the High School 
in Akron and Buchtel College, and in 1885 
went to Williston Seminary, East Hampton, 
Masj^achusetts, graduating there three years 
later. He then went to Yale College and 
graduated from that University, returning to 
Akron and entered upon the study of law in 
the office of Kohlcr & Mu.-ser, and was later 
admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court 
at Columbu.s. He was a member of the Board 
of School Examiners in the city of Akron for 
several years and was appointed by the Su- 
preme Court a member of the board of the 
examination of applicants for the admission 
to the bar. He became a member of the law 
finn of Musser, Kohler & Mottiiiger, and is 

now a member of the firm of Kohler, Kohler 
& Mottinger, attorneys, of Akron, Ohio. 

HENRY W. HOWE, son of Captain Rich- 
ard Howe, was born in Bath, 1828. He came 
to Akron with hiis parents and was educated 
in the Akron public schools, and afterwards 
attended the Oberlin College, where he grad- 
uated in 1849. He read law with James S. 
Carpenter and became his partner and prac- 
ticed with him, until the judge's election to 
the bench in 1856. Mr. Howe was a mem- 
ber of the Akron Board of Education. For 
many years last past Mr. Howe has devoted 
his entire time to agTicultural matters, living 
upon his farm in Northampton Township. 
He is a prominent member of the Grange, 
and is a close and careful student of impor- 
tant questions, and has largely directed his 
attention, his writing and addresses to the 
subject of agriculture. 

Carroll County, Ohio, 1855, and when four- 
teen years of age, came to Akron with his 
parents. He attended "the public schools here 
until 1872, at which time he entered Buchtel 
College, where he studied for three yeare. Jn 
1877 he became a student in the office of -John 
J. Hall, Esq., and upon his admission to the 
bar in 1879, became a partner of Mr. Hall, by 
the firm name of Hall and Waters. Mr. Wat- 
ers was mayor of the city of Akron, 1883 
to 1885, and was re-elected, serving in 
all four years. At the end of his term Mr. 
Waters then resumed his practice of law on 
his own account. He was popular as an office 
holder, and his discharge of the duties of 
mayor' were highly satisfactory. 

HON. CHARLES DICK was born in Ak- 
ron November 3, 1858, and was educated in 
the Akron schools. Mr. Dick marked out for 
himself a bu.siness life, and commenced as 
clerk in a hat .store. He then became book- 
keeper for the Citizens' Savings and Loan As- 
sociation. Later he was chief bookkeeper for 
the Empire Reaper and MoA^'er Company. In 
1881 he formed a partnership with Liicius C. 



Miles, under the name of Dick & Miles, in a 
general grain and commission business. Mr. 
Dick was elected auditor of Summit County in 
1886 and was re-elected in 1889. Tliis ottico 
he filled with great credit to himself, and 
made many friends by his prompt and agree- 
able manner in doing business. About this 
time Mr. Dick took a prominent part in the 
politics of Summit County; he became chair- 
man of the Republican E.xecutive Commit- 
tee, and so efficient was he in the perform- 
ance of his duties that he became a member 
and chairman of the State Executive Conunit- 
tee. He has held that office for a number of 
years, successfully carrying the Republican 
party to victory in this state in many succes- 
sive campaigns. He was one of the close 
friends of William McKinley, as well as of 
Mark Hanna. Upon the death of Mark 
Hanna, Mr. Dick was elected United States 
Senator, which office ho now holds, and the 
duties of which he has performed to the sat- 
isfaction of lids constituents and with great 
credit to himself. 

land, Green Township, Summit County, Ohio, 
May 14, 1873. He attended the district school 
and completed a course at Uniontown High 
School, graduating in 1892. He then taught 
in district and village school at. Summit, 
Ohio, for several yeai-s, entering Hiram Col- 
lege in the fall of 1895, and graduating from 
that in.«titution in 1899, having completed the 
collegiate course, including one year of legal 
work. October 29, 1899, he came to Akron 
and took up the study of law with the tirm of 
Musser & Kohler. He was admitited to the, 
bar in the January term of 1901, «nd re- 
mained in the employ of Musser & Kohler un- 
til January, 1905, when he was taken into 
the firm of Mus,ser & Kohler. the firm l)eing 
Musser, Kohler & Mottinger. In June, 1906, 
this firm was dissolved, Mr. ]\Iusser reliring 
from the firm, and Judge J. A. Kohler taking 
his place, since which time the firm has been 
known as Kohler, Kohler & Mottinger. Mr. 
Mottinger was married August 9, lOOli. 1o 
Cassie M. Lawyer, of Burton, Ohio. 

F. J. ROCKWELL, attorney-at-law, Akron, 
was born in Akron, Ohio, February 19, 1878, 
and has always resided in this city. His lit- 
i>rary education was acquired in the public 
schools, including the High School, from 
which he was graduated in 1895, and at Buch- 
tel College, 'where he was graduated in 1899. 
He studied kw with tlie firms of Atterholt & 
Marvin, Rowley & Bradley, and Rogers, Row- 
ley & Bradley, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1902, He immediateh' entered into part- 
nership with Messrs. Rogers, Rowley and 
Bradley, and is now a member of the suc- 
cessful law firm of Rogers, Rowlev & Rock- 

ERNEST C. HOUSEL, son of Martin J. 
and Amanda C. Housel, was born in Middle- 
bury (now East Akron), Summit Countv, 
Ohio, Augusit 18, 1868. He attended the Ak- 
ron public schools, read law in the office of 
John J. Halland, and was admitted to the 
bai', October 3, 1889, since Avhich time he 
has been engaged in the practice of law in 
the city of Akron. He wa* elected justice of 
. the peace in Akron Township in the spring 
of 1891. and .served in that capacity for the 
term of three years. He was a memlier of 
the Akron Board of Education from 1902 to 
1905. He was appointed a director of public 
safety for Akron, in January, 1906, to serve 
for the term of four years. Mr. Housel was 
married, December 28, 1892, to Emma E., 
daughter of Robert and Jane Caine, and ha^ 
one daughter, Elinore E. 

CHARLES BAIRD, a well known attor- 
iiey of Akron, was born in this cily ^larch 25, 
1853, a son of Robert and Helen Baird. His 
father Avas a native of Scotland, born in Kin- 
cardine.^liire, in 1818, who came in 1843 to 
America, settling in Akron, where he fol- 
lowed the trade of blacksmith for many years. 
He was a strong anti-slavery man and free- 
stiiler. and later one of the most faithful ad- 
herents of the Republican party. He was 
married in Akron to Helen Knox Moir, a na- 
tive of Forfarshire, Scotland, and daughter 
of Charles and Mary (Gordan) Moir. She 



died in Akron in February, 1891, at the age 
of seventy-oiie year.*. They were the parents 
of five children — William, Isabel, Charles, 
Mary and Helen. 

Charle.3 Baird acquired his elementary edu- 
cation in the common schools, being later 
graduated from the Akron High School. He 
then spent a year in classical study at Buch- 
tel College, after which he entered the law of- 
fice of Upson & Ford, under whose mentorship 
he studied closely until his admission to the 
bar, November 2, 1875. He then entered into 
partnership with Judge Up^on, under the firm 
name of Upson & Baird. Mr. Ford entering 
the firm in 1877, its style became Upson, 
Ford & Baird, and it was so continued until 
March, 1883, when Mr. Upson was called to 
the Supreme Bench of Ohio. The firm was 
then dissolved and Mr. Baird practiced alone 
until 1891, at which time he formed a partner- 
.ship with Edwin F. Voris, under the firm 
name of Baird & Voris, which connection 
la.sted until June, 1895. Mr. Baird now has a 
large and lucrative law practice and gives spe- 
cial attention to corporation law, in which 
branch of his profession he has been very 

j\Ir. Baird has taken an active part in the 
orjganization and development of some of Ak- 
ron's important industries. He was one of 
the incorporators of the Portage Straw Board 
Company, and also one of its directors, until 
it was consolidated with the American Straw 
Board Company. He also assisted, in 1880-81, 
in the organization of the Diamond Match 
Company, and was one of the incoiporators of 
the Goodrich Hard Rubber Company, in 
which he has also been interested as a director 
and .stockholder. He has taken a prominent 
part in the organization and development of 
the town of Barberton, and i.? interested as an 
officer, director, or stockholder, in various 
other important enterprises, both local and 
foreign. He has also been concerned as ad- 
ministrator or executor in the administration 
of several of the largest estates ever admin- 
istered in Summit County, notably the Com- 
mins c-tate, in 1888. and that of Thomas W. 

Coi-nell, of which he was appointed one of 
the executors in 1892. As an attorney Mr. 
Baird practices in the courts of IllinoLs, In- 
diana, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, 
New York and Ohio, and also in the federal 

Mr. Baird was married, Febmary 10, 1882, 
to Miss Lucy Allen Voris, a daughter of Gen- 
eral A. C. Voris, of Akron, of which union 
there have been born children as follows : Al- 
vin Voris, December 3, 1882; Helen Eliza- 
beth, August 30, 1884; Betsev Coe, June 11, 
1886; Charles, October 15, 1888; and Kath- 
arine, November 19, 1890. 

March 27, 1842, near Holmesville, Holmes 
County, Ohio. In his boyhood he attended 
the district schools and was early trained to 
agricultural work. For several years before 
attaining his majority he taught winter 
school, working on a farm during the sum- 
mers. He supplemented his education by at- 
tending a private school in Fredericksburg for 
several terms, and, after studjdng for a year 
in Hayesville Academy, he entered, in 1865, 
Princeton, New Jersey, College, from which 
he was graduated in June, 1868. In the 
same year he 'became a student at the Colum- 
l)ia College Law School at New York, and was 
graduated therefrom in May, 1870. On May 
12, 1869, he was admitted to the bar in New 
York city, on examination. In August, 1870, 
he came to Akron, and was admitted to the 
bar of Summit County on September 9th fol- 
lowing. He soon after entered into partner- 
ship with Mr. John J. Hall, which wa.5 con- 
tinued until January 1, 1877. He was elected 
on the Democratic ticket prosecuting attorney 
for Summit County in October, 1874, and 
efficiently performed the duties of tliat office 
for two years — from January 1, 1875, to Jan- 
nary 1, 1877. He has since been engaged in 
the general practice of his profession and has 
lieen very successful. !Mr. Poulson was mar- 
ried September 28, 1875, to Miss Helen F. 
Smagg, only daughter of William Smagg, of 


August 21, 1823, in Williamsfield, Ashtabula 
County, Ohio. When he was about twelve 
years old his parents removed to Mecca, 
Trumbull County, where he attended the dis- 
trict schools, working a part of the time on a 
farm. Resolved to secure a better education, 
he attended successively the Western Reserve 
Seminary, at Farmington, and the Grand 
River Institute, at Austinburg, and then, in 
1844, entered the Western Reserve College. 
From tliis institution he was graduated in 
1848, afterwards receiving from it the de- 
gree of A. M. He taught school for a while, 
and began the study of law under Chaffee A. 
Woodbury, at Jeffei'son. On the close of his 
law studies he became editor of the Hudson 
Family Visitor, and about the same time he 
taught for a year in the grammar school of 
Western Reserve College. After this he prac- 
ticed law for a while in Hudson. During the 
Civil AVar he was employed as general agent 
of the Western Department of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, and at its close 
became deputy revenue collector. He then 
obtained the congenial position of geologist 
on the Geological Survey of Ohio. For sev- 
eral years he was lecturer on zoology and 
practical geology in the Western Reserve Col- 
lege, and he had charge of the archeological 
exhibits of Ohio at the Centennial Expositions 
at Philadelphia and New Orleans. He has 
also spent some time in the investigation of 
mineral lands for private parties. Mr. Read 
has served in the local offices of township 
clerk, justice of the peace, mayor, etc., in all 
jwoving an efficient public servant. 

HON. "\WLLIAM H. UPSON, now living 
retired at Akron, after a long and distin- 
guisihed public life, wa.s born January 11, 
1823, in Franklin County, Ohio. In 1832 he 
removed with his parents to Tallmadge, Sum- 
mit County. 

At an early age he displayed the native abil- 
ity which in later life contributed to his pro- 
fessional success, for he was but nineteen years 
old when he was graduated from the Western 

Reserve College. He then read law with 
Judge Reuben Hitchcock, at Painesville, aft- 
erwards spending one year in the laAv depart- 
ment of Yale College. In September, 1845, 
he was admitted to the bar, and in January 
of th© following year entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession at Akron. For many 
years he was in partnership with Hon. Sid- 
ney Edgerton and Christopher P. Wolcott, 
and stood at the head of his profession in 
Summit County. He was elected the first 
president of the Summit County Bar Associa- 
tion, and was a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the State Bar Association. In 
March, 1883, Mr. Upson was appointed by 
Governor Foster, judge of the Supreme Court 
of Ohio, and served until December. In 1884 
he was elected judge of the Circuit Court, and 
in 1886 was re-elected for the full term of six 

Judge Upson has always been a stanch sup- 
porter of the Republican party, and for years 
stood very near to the head of the organiza- 
tion in the .«tate. His first public office was that 
of prosecuting attorney, in which he served 
Summit County from 1848 to 1850. He was 
a member of Ohio State Senate, 1854-5. In 
1868 he was elected to Congress from the 
Eighteenth District, serving imtil 1873. His 
party delighted to honor him, and in 1864 
he was sent as a delegate to the Republican 
National Convention, which renominated 
Abraham Lincoln. He was also a delegate- 
at-large to the convention which nominated 
Rutherford B. Hayes, in 1876. 

From Judge Upson's return to privaite life 
until his retirement from the practice of his 
profession he took a conspicuous part in every- 
thing pertaining to the development of Akron 
and Summit County. For many yeare he 
has been a trustee of the Western Reserve 
College, Oberlin College and the Lake Erie 
Female Seminary. 

On May 20, 1856, Judge Upson was married 
to Julia Ford, a daughter of Hon. James P. 
and Julia A. (Tod) Ford, of Akron, whose 
family consisted of seven children. Mrs. Up- 
son's father was born in New York state, Jan- 
uary 28, 1797, and in earlv manhood became 



a resident of Suiuiiiit County, where the re- 
mainder of his Hfe was spent. He was ap- 
pointed by Governor Bartley, associate judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas, for Summit 
County, and filled this position until ill health 
forced him to resign, in 1849 ; his death took 
place less than two years later, January 2, 
1851. His wafe was a daughter of Judge 
George Tod, of Youngstown, Ohio. Judge 
Upson and his wife have four children, name- 
ly: William Ford, a practicing attorney in 
New York city, with residence in Glen Ridge, 
New Jersey; Henry Swift, a resident of Cleve- 
land, engaged in the practice of medicine; 
Anna Perkins, wife of Colonel G. J. Fieberger, 
U. S. Engineer Corps, now professor of en- 
gineering at the U. S. Military Academy, West 
Point, New York : and Julia Ford. Judge Up- 
son resides with his family on East Market 

SENEY A. DECKER, attorney-at-law, at 
Barberton, is a leading member of the Sum- 
mit County bar and has been established in 
this city since May, 1903, having convenient 
offices in the Barberton Savings Bank build- 
ing. He was born in Seneca County, Ohio, 
March 11, 1875, and is a son of Samuel and 
Levi n a (Noel) Decker. 

Mr. Decker was reared on his father's farm 
and attended the country schools. He was 
an ambitious boy and made the most of his 
opportunities and secured a certificate per- 
mitting him to teach, before he had completed 
his own education. For five years he taught 
country schools and then attended Heidel- 
berg College, at Tiffin, Ohio, for two years, 
following this by the study of law in the of- 
fice of Piatt & Black, leading attorneys at Tif- 
fin. After two years of study there he at- 
tended the Ohio Normal University, at Ada, 
for eight months, and on December 6, 1902, 
he was admitted to the bar. His close devo- 
tion to study had somewhat impaired his 
beallh. and he returned to the home farm, 
where he remained until the follo^ang March, 
when he located for practice at Attica. From 
there, six weeks later, he came to Barberton, 
where he found he was not deceived in believ- 

ing that a field of business was awaiting him. 
On February 19, 1905, Mr. Decker was 
married to Minnie Leininger, who is a daugh- 
ter of Isaac and Elizabeth Leininger, of Flat 
Rock, Seneca County, Ohio. Mr. Decker is 
fraternally connected with the Elks and the 
Eagles. His i^rofcs-sional ability has brought 
him many business friends while the agree- 
able personality of himself and wife has led 
to their welcome admission into the most 
select social circles of Barberton. 

CETARLES C. BENNER, attorney, of Ak- 
ron, Ohio, was born in ^Manchester, Franklin 
Township, Summit County, Ohio, March 27, 
1870, son of Simon and Caroline (Slaybaugh) 
Benner. His parents, both of whom are now 
deceased, were natives of Franklin Township, 
this county. 

Simon Benner was a farmer and dealt in 
stock. Born January 17, 1846, he died Au- 
gust 22, 1884. His wife was born July 21, 
1844, and died January 7, 1890. They had 
nine children, as follows: Elda F., wife of 
Frank Warner, of Barberton ; Clinton A., at- 
torney at Cleveland; Melvin L., who owns and 
conducts a ranch at Sidney, Montana; Charles 
C, subject of this sketch; Otto M., who died 
in 1877, aged five years; Irvin R., a dentist 
of Barberton; Gertrude M., single, a resident 
of Akron; Wallace J., a physician of Cleve- 
land, Ohio; and Howard C, auditor for the 
.Etna Insurance Company, who resides in 
Cleveland. The parents were members of the 
M. E. Church. Simon Benner was a Demo- 
crat, and though not in any sense a politician, 
he held the office of justice of the peace in 
Norton Town.ship. 

Charles C. Benner was reared on the farm, 
and acquired his literary education in the dis- 
trict and High Schools of Copley and Norton 
Townships. He attended the law school of 
the Northern Ohio University, at Ada, Ohio, 
and finishing his law course in ihe office of 
Baird and Voris, of Akron. Ohio, was ad- 
mitted to the bar June 8, 1893, at Columbus, 
He immediately opened an office at No. 12 
East ISIarket Street, where he has since re- 
mained, bavins: met witli a mo~l gratifying 



degree of success. He wa.s police pro.^ecutor 
from 1897 to 1901. 

On September 29, 1897, Mr. Beniier was 
married to Gertrude F. Foster, a native of 
Akron, and a daughter of Martin B. and 
Sarah (Clark) Foster. In politics Mr. Ben- 
ner is an Independent Democrat. 

Fraternally he belongs to the Elks, being 
Past Exalted Ruler, a charter member of the 
local lodge, and a life member of the Grand 
Lodge of the United States. He is also a 
charter member of Akron Lodge 603, K. of 
P., a member of Adoniram Lodge 517, F. & 
A. M.; Wa-^hington Chapter, R. A. M., No. 
25; Akron Council, R. & S. M., No. 80; Akron 
Commandery, K. T., No. 25, and Lake Erie 
Consistory, Ancient Accepted & Scottish Rite 
of Free Masonry, of Cleveland. He was captain 
of Company B, Eighth Regiment, Ohio Na- 
tional Guard, for four years, 1894-1897. He 
is a member of the Portage Country Club and 
a trustee of the City Ho.spital of Akron. 

until recently a prominent member of the 
Summit County bar, formerly mayor of Ak- 
ron, and editor of the present volume, was 
born in the city of Akron, in the old Doyle 
homestead, at (old) No. 150 South High 
Street, April 19, 18G8. His parents were Wil- 
liam B. and Mary Maud (Lantz) Doyle, and 
he is a lineal descendant of Felix Doyle, who 
came to America from the North of Ireland 
very early in the eighteenth century, and 
made a home for himself in the wilderness, 
where a son, whom lie named Barnaba«, was 

This Barnabas became the father of ten 
children, among whom were Barnabas Doyle, 
Jr., and Thomas John Sylvester Doyle. 

Thomas J. S. Doyle, grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch, married Anne Taylor, 
who was born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Feb- 
ruarv 12, 1797, and who died in Akron De- 
cember 12, 1882. Their children were: Wil- 
liam Barnabas (1), Thomas John, and Mary 
A., the last mentioned of whom became the 
wife of Hon. James Ferguson, of Chambers- 
burg, Pennsylvania. 

William Barnabas Doyle (1) wi\s born in 
Franklin County, Pennsylvania, in a valley 
of the Blue Mountains called Path Valley, 
March 5, 1825. When thirteen years old, he 
was apprenticed for three years to learn the 
trade of cabinet-maker, which he mastered. 
At the age of seventeen, filled with a spirit of 
adventure, he turned his steps toward the 
West; in 1842 arriving in Akron practically 
penniless, and having walked the entire dis- 
tance on foot. He soon found employment at 
his trade, however, and in time became a 
master cabinet-maker. After several years he 
gave up that business, and became a member 
of the firm of Doyle & Chamberlain, dealers 
in cattle and meat. Later he engaged in agri- 
culture on a large farm which he had pur- 
chased in Coventry Township. In August, 
1865, with John H. Dix and Daniel Farnum, 
he purchased the lumber and manufacturing 
business of S. G. Wilson and originated the 
firm of W. B. Doyle & Co. Of this business, 
he subsequently became the sole owner and 
conducted it alone until his death, which took 
place in Akron, August 6, 1890, when he was 
sixty-five years old. He was a stanch sup- 
porter of the Republican party, but neither 
held nor sought office. In 1863 he was cap- 
tain of the Coventry Company of National 
Militia, organized under the act of April 14, 
that year, but the company was not called 
upon to go to the front. 

Mr. Doyle Avas married October 30, 1855, 
to MLss Harriet Sage, of Monroe County, New 
York, who died November 6, 1862, leaving 
one child, Dayton A. Doyle. On June 9, 
1867, IVIr. Doyle married Mary Maud Lantz 
of Akron, who died February 11, 1874, leav- 
ing three children — William B. Doyle (2), 
Delia May Doyle Wilcox, and Dean Lantz 
Doyle. In 1877 Mr. Doyle married again, 
and of that union there was one daughter, 

William Barnabas Doyle (2), son of Wil- 
liam B. and Mary Maud (Lantz) Doyle, whose 
nativity has been already given, was educated 
in the Akron public schools from 1874 to 
1883 ; in the Wes.tern Raserve Academy from 
1883 to 1886, where he graduated after com- 



pleting the classical course; he received his 
higher educational training at Col- 
lege from 1886 to 1890, and was graduated 
as a member of the class of 1890. In Janu- 
ary, 1891, he was elected a director and treas- 
urer of the Akron Electrical Manufacturing 
Company, but resigned to enter Harvard Law 
School in October, 1892. He .«pent three 
years at Harvard and graduated in June, 
1895, receiving the degree of LL. B. from 
Harvard University. In 1895 he was again 
elected a director and treasurer of the electri- 
cal company, positions which he continued to 
hold until recently. In October, 1895, Mr. 
Doyle w'as admitted to the bar by the Supreme 
Court of the State of Ohio, at Columbus, and 
immediately commenced the active practice 
of his profession in his native city. He sensed 
as mayor of the X'ity of Akron for the years 
1901-1903, having been elected on the Re- 
pul>lican ticket April 1, 1901. He was invited 
by the League of American IMunicipalities to 
read a pai^er on "The .JMunicipal Situation 
in Ohio" at its annual meeting in Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, in August, 1902. This 
paper was afterwards printed by several legal 
journals. In June, 1903, he was granted the 
degree of Master of Arts by Amherst College, 
for researches in Municipal Government. 

Upon quitting the office of mayor he re- 
sumed the successful practice of law in Akron 
until Februarj", 1907, when the tnistees of the 
Carnegie Technical Schools of the Carnegie 
Institute in Pittsburg invited him to take the 
chair of Contract Law in their school of Ap- 
plied Science. As he felt himself especially 
fitted for work of that nature, he accepted the 
invitation and will hereafter reside in Pitts- 

Mr. Doyle was married on September 14, 
1899, to Frances Louise Wilcox, of Akron. 
They have five children : Mary, Enid, Kath- 
leen, Wilhelmine and William B. Doyle, Jr. 
The last named was born November 15, 1907. 

Mr. Doyle is a member of the Beta Theta 
Pi college fraternity, and was for two years 
chief of the New England district. In July, 
1906, he was elected president of the national 
convention of the fraternity, held at Denver, 

Colorado. He is connected by membership 
with the Congregational Churcli, the Sons of 
the American Revolution and various Masonic 

FRANK G. MARSH, a leading member of 
the Akron bar, with offices in the Dobson 
Block, belongs to one of the old pioneer fami- 
lies of this section, and was born March 18, 
1869, in Franklin Township, Sunnnit County, 
Ohio. He is a son of Hiram F. Marsh and 
a grandson of George Marsh, who came to 
Summit County among its earliest settlers. 

Mr. Marsh was educated in the schools of 
Franklin Township and at a superior select 
school at Manchester, <where he spent four 
years. He began to teach when only sixteen 
years of age, and continued in that occupation 
for four school yeare in his native county. In 
1891 he went to Detroit, where he took a 
course in stenography and typewriting at the 
Pernin Institute, and after his return he 
worked during that fall for the Republican 
Central Committee, teaching school dui'ing 
the following winter. On March 10, 1892, 
he accepted a position with the Aultman-Mil- 
ler Company, and remained with that firm for 
eleven years, tenninating the connection in 
1903. In 1896 he registered w'ith the law 
firm of Andress & Whittemore and was sup- 
plied with law text books. These he studied 
during all the hours he could call his own, 
for the next three years, and his diligence 
and perseverance were rewarded iwhen he suc- 
cessfully passed the examination necessary be- 
fore the Supreme Court, at Columbus, in Oc- 
tober, 1899. He was still retained by the 
Aultman-Miller Company as special corre- 
spondent and assistant counsel for the com- 
pany up to May, 1903, when he went to the 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, entering 
the sales department, where he remained one 
year. On May 15, 1904, Mr. Marsh .severed 
his connection with that firm and in the fol- 
lowing month began the practice of law, in 
which he has been engaged since, meeting 
with the success which his years of prepara- 
tion entitle him to. His personal popularity 
was proved in the following September, when 



he was brought forward as a candidate for a 
place on the Board of Education. Although 
he was one of fifteen contestants, he was 
selected as having the third largest number 
of votes and was subsequently elected for a 
term of four years. He has always been in- 
terested in politics and was a candidate for 
mayor before the Republican convention in 
1907, but while ho had a large following, was 
not nominated. At a meeting held Septem- 
ber 16, 1907, by the City Council of Akron 
Mr. Marsh received the apiaointment of justice 
of the peace, to fill the unexpired term of 
George A. Patterson, resigned. On Tuesday, 
November 5, of the same year, he was elected 
one of the four justices of the peacfe 
in and for the township of Akron for a term 
of four yeai's beginning witli Januaiy 1, 1908. 
Fraternally Mr. Marsh belongs to the Odd 
Fellows and to the. Modern AVoodmen of 
America. He is a member of the Reformed 

W. A. SPENCER, attorney, "a member of 
the well-known law firm of Esgate, Spencer 
and Snyder, at Akron, was born in London, 
England in 1870, and was seven years of age 
when his parents came to America and located 
at Akron. 

In 1888 Mr. Spencer was graduated from 
the Akron High School and spent the follow- 
ing year on a fruit farm in Tennessee, earn- 
ing the money with which to give him two 
years training at Buchtel College. He then 
entered upon the study of law in the office 
of Sawders and Rogers, at Akron, where he 
remained until the spring of 1898, when he 
enlisted in Company B, Eighth Regiment, 
Ohio Volunteer Infantrj', for service in the 
Spanish-American War. His regiment was 
sent to Cuba, and with his comrades he partic- 
ipated in the Santiago campaign, and re- 
mained in the service for eight months. He 
■was mustered out at Wooster, Ohio, and re- 
turned to Akron, where he was admitted to 
the bar one year later. He began practice 
alone, but later became a member of the pres- 
ent firm of Esgate, Spencer and Snyder, which 
succeeded Esgate, Spencer and Loomis, on the 

death of Mr. Loomis. Mr. Spencer is a di- 
rector in the Uerman American Building and 
Loan Association. He has ever taken an ac- 
tive jiart in i^olitics and is chairman of the 
Democratic executive comniittecs of city and 
county. Under Mayor Kemple he served two 
years as police prosecutor. 

In 1900 Mr. Spencer was married to Ger- 
trude Huse, of Akron, and they have one 
child, Margaret. Fraternally Mr. Spencer is 
identified with the Masons and the Pathfind- 
ere, and he belongs also to the Spanish- Ameri- 
can War Veteran Association. He is a self- 
•made man to a large extent, and owes little 
to favoring circumstances attending his boy- 
hood or youth. 

JOHN C. FRANK, of the law firm of Tib- 
bals and Frank, Akron, has been a resident 
of this city for the past twenty-seven years, 
and has been one of the enterprising citizens 
whose energies have contributed to its re- 
markable development during that pei'iod. 
He was born at Uniontown, Stark County, 
Ohio, in 1864, and when sixteen yeai's of age 
came to Akron, completing his literary edu- 
cation in the Akron High School. He pre- 
pared for his chosen profession in the law 
department of the University of Michigan, 
where he was graduated in 1885. He imme- 
diately entered the law office of the late Gen- 
eral Voris, where he remained until June, 
1886, at which time he became associated pro- 
fessionally with Judge Tibbals. He subsequent- 
ly practiced alone for two years and then 
formed his present partnership with Judge 
Tibbals. The firm of Tilibals and Frank is 
now the oldest law firm in Akron, and has 
been concerned in a large share of the most 
important litigation that has come before the 
courts of the city and county during the 
period of its existence. Probably no law firm 
in Summit County stands higher in public 
esteem, or more justly deserves the high repu- 
tation which it enjoys. 

Mr. Frank was married in 1888 to Celia 
E. Esselburn, of Akron, and he and his wife 
have two sons, Charles W. and Paiil A., both 
of whom are receiving superior educational 



training, calculated to fit them for the best 
American citizenship. Politically Mr. Frank 
is a liepublican, and takes an active interest 
in public affairs. He is a member of the 
Court House Building Committee, an impor- 
tant office at this time. With his family he 
belongs to Grace Reformed Church. 

only son of Clement Wright and Lucy Ayer 
Whitney, his wife, was born August 8, 1847, 
in Tallmadge Township, Summit County, 
Ohio, on the farm, one mile south from Tall- 
madge Center, on which his great-grandfath- 
er, Captain John Wright, and his grandfather, 
Alpha Wright, settled in 1809, and where his 
father, Clement Wright, was born. Of this 
branch of the Wright family four generations 
have lived on this farm and, including Col- 
onel Wright's children, five generations have 
lived in Tallmadge. The home of Colonel 
Wright, however, was on the farm only dur- 
ing his infancy, his father having moved from 
the farm to Tallmadge Center and there en- 
gaged in the mercantile, business when Col- 
onel '\\'right was less than two years old. 

The father and mother of Colonel Wright 
were both from well-known New England 
families of high standing, which had been 
transplanted from England to America prior 
to 1640. His father was a direct descendant 
of the eleventh generation, in the male line, 
from .John Wright, Escj., of Kelvedon Manor, 
Kelvedon Hatch, County Essex, England, 
who acquired Kelvedon Manor by purchase 
in 1538, the emigrant ancestor to this country 
being Thomas Wright, who settled at Weth- 
ersfield, Connecticut, before 1640, probably in 
1639. The mother of Colonel Wright was 
from one of the most ancient and honorable 
families of Herefordshire, England, the ear- 
liest ancestor in England, in the direct male 
line, having been one of the invaders who 
came with William I. in 1066. Of this branch 
of the Whitney family, the emigrant ancestor 
to America was .John Whitney, who, with his 
wife Elinor and five children, came from Eng- 
land in 1635 and settled at Watertown, Mas- 
sachusetts. Colonel Wright's mother was of 

the seventh generation from this emigrant 
ancestor to America; and before such emi- 
grant ancestor this branch of the family is 
traced in England for eighteen generations in 
the direct male line. Although for manj- gen- 
erations after the Norman Conquest this fam- 
ily was one of the most distinguished in Here- 
fordshire, it began gradually to die out in 
England about the time the American branch 
was transplanted and established in this 

Colonel Wright was educated in the public 
schools, Tallmadge Academy and Western Re- 
ser\'e College, but left college early in the 
course. After studying law at Akron, Ohio,- 
with his uncle Hon. Sidney Edgerton and 
Hon. Jacob A. Kohler (who were then in 
partnership) he was admitted to the bar in 
Ohio, June 16, 1873, and began practice at 
Akron as a partner of Hon Henry McKinney, 
who had then recently moved from ^Vkron 
to Cleveland, Ohio, and desired a partner for 
his Summit County business. The law part- 
nership of "McKinney & Wright" existed for 
several years, and Colonel Wright afterwards 
continued in the active and successful practice 
of the law until 1882. But his interest in 
scientific researches in the domain of geology 
was so great that for several years he devoted 
much time and attention to scientific studies. 
Finally, in 1882, having received an appoint- 
ment as Assistant Geologist in the United 
States Geological Survey (without the aid of 
any political influence whatever, but on the 
recommendations and indorsements of scien- 
tific experts only), he left the practice of the 
law and during the next four yeai's devoted 
him.self wholly to geological field-work and in- 
vestigations for the government. Assigned at 
first to the stafif of the Division of the Great 
Basin, his field-work was in Nevada, Califor- 
nia and Utah. Subsequently transferred to 
the staff of the Division having charge of the 
geological survey of the Yellowstone National 
Park, that interesting region was his special 
field of work for three years, with field-work 
also in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming. While 
his work and investigations were in structur- 
al and dynamical geology in general, his spe- 



lialty was the study of volcanic and crystalline 
ri)c-k.-i and the problems of volcanic action and 
phenomena (which throw so nmch light on 
mineral deposits), and he also did some spe- 
cial work in glacial geology. During the win- 
ters he was stationed in Salt Lake City, Utah, 
New York City, N. Y., and Washington, D, 
C., engaged in scientific study and research, 
working out the problems presented by field 
observations and collections, and writing re- 
port;3. Having had the valuable experience 
and education of these four years of scientific 
study and field investigation under the most 
favorable circumstances and in some of the 
most instructive and interesting regions 
known, he resigned in 1886, although re- 
quested and desired to continue in this scien- 
tific work for the government, and resumed 
the practice of the law at Akron, Ohio, where 
he continued in active practice until the 
breaking out of the war with Spain in April, 

Colonel ^^'right has always taken great in- 
terest in military affairs, and prior to the War 
with Spain he had been an officer of the Ohio 
National Guard, having held a commision for 
more than five years in the First Regiment of 
Light Artillery — then one of the finest mili- 
tary organizations in the United States. At 
the beginning of the war he was commissioned 
in the military service of the United States, 
May 13, 1898 (having been enrolled April 
26, 1898), as second lieutenant and battalion, 
adjutant in the Eighth Regiment of Ohio 
A'^olunteer Infantry; wa.s detailed as acting 
ordnance officer of the regiment, May 14, 
1898, and accompanied the regiment from 
Camp Bushnell, Columbus, Ohio, to Camp 
Alger, Virginia; was appointed aide-de-camp 
and brigade ordnance officer on the staff of 
Brigadier General George A. Garret.son, June 
13, 1898, and served as such until after the 
close of the war; left Camp Alger, Virginia, 
July 5th, with brigade headquarters and two 
regiments, and proceeded by rail to Charleston, 
South Carolina — the third regiment of the 
brigade being transported by rail to New 
York, there to embark for Cuba; sailed Jvtly 
8th from Charleston, S. C, for Cuba, on the 

U. S. S. "Yale," carrying Major General Nel- 
son A. Miles, conmianding the U. S. Army, 
and staff', and arrived off Santiago Harbor, 
July 11th, while the fleet was bombarding the 
city, six days before the surrender; and took 
part in the demonstrations against the Span- 
ish works at the entrance to Santiago Harbor 
before the surrender of Santiago, being on 
duty with the troops under command of Gen- 
erals Henry and Gai'retson, held in readiness 
for three days under orders to be landed at a 
given signal, under protections of the fire of 
the fleet, west of Sacopa Battery — the first plan 
being to try to connect with the right of Gen- 
eral Shaffer's line, which plan was changed to 
one involving an attempt to carry Sacopa by 
a.ssault. After the surrender of Santiago the 
troops held on shipboard, being no longer 
needed at Santiago, were available for the ex- 
pedition to Porto Rico, the final plans for 
which were arranged in a conference between 
General Miles and Admiral Sampson on 
board the flag-ship "New York," lying off 
Aguadores, July 16th. Colonel (then lieuten- 
ant) Wright was so fortunate as to be one of 
the staff officers present at this conference. 
Lieutenant Wright continued on board the 
"Yale," which the next day (July 17th) 
steamed eastward for Guantanamo Bay, still 
carrying General Miles and staff and also 
General Garret.son and staff. The troops for 
the first expedition to Porto Rico having been 
concentrated at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, the 
transport squadron, with its naval convoy, 
sailed for Porto Rico, July 21st, carrying an 
effective force of only about 3,300 troops to 
invade the island of Porto Rico, where the 
enemy then had 8,233 Spanish regulars and 
9,107 armed volunteei-s — more than 17,000 
troops in all. But General ^liles having out- 
witted the Spanish commanders by causing 
the course of the fleet to be changed at the 
last moment, a landing was effected at Guan- 
ica on the southwestern coast of Porto Rico, 
.July 2oth, without loss of life. Lieutenant 
Wright Avas with the first troops landed here, 
and was present when General Miles formal- 
ly planted the flag and took possession of the 
island for the LTnited States ; and he also took 




part in the decisive action the next day (July 
'26th), under General Garretson, in front of 
Yauco, Porto RicOj which gave the American 
troops possession of the important town of 
■Yauco and the railroad leading thence to 
Ponce, and resulted in the surrender of Ponce, 
then the largest town on the island, without 
resistance. In the commanding general's of- 
ficial report of this action the name of Lieu- 
tenant Wright ajjpears in a list of the names 
of eight officers "especially commended for 
gallantry and coolness under fire.'' Lieutenant 
Wright accompanied the troops under Gener- 
als Henry and Garretson on the march from 
Guanica, via Yauco, to Ponce ; and, in Gen- 
eral Mile^' subsequent concerted movement of 
the four columns of troops from the southern 
coast northward. Lieutenant Wright accom- 
panied the left-center column, under Gener- 
als Henry and Garretson, in its march from 
Ponce over the mountain trail, via Adjuntas 
and Utuado, toward Arecibo — ^which column 
penetrated farther north than any other 
American troop.s before the peace protocol put 
an end to hostilities. 

Colonel (then Lieutenant) Wright wa.* rec- 
ommended for brevets as First Lieutenant and 
Captain (recommendation indorsed and ap- 
proved by General Miles) for meritorious serv- 
ices during the Porto Rican campaign, and 
for great personal bravery in action with 
Spanish troops near Yauco, Porto Rico, July 
26, 1898 ; and after the close of the war he 
was honorablv discharged from the service of 
the United States, November 21, 1898. In 
1899 he resumed the practice of the law and is 
still engaged in active practice at Akron, 

In the Ohio National Guard Colonel Wright 
has held tlie following commissions and posi- 
tions: second lieutenant, First Regiment, 
Light Artillery; second lieutenant and bat- 
talion adjutant. Eighth Regiment, Infantry; 
captain and regimental adjutant. Eighth Reg- 
iment, Infantry; acting adjutant general, 
Second Brigade; lieutenant-colonel and assist- 
ant adjutant general, adjutant general of the 
division ; lieutenant-colonel and chief of staff 
of division : and colonel and chief of staff of 

division. He is now (November, 1907) chief 
of staff of division, -with the rank of colonel; 
and he has served as such chief of staff, or 
as adjutant general and chief of staff ever 
since January 29, 1900 — for very nearly eight 

Colonel Wright is a member of the Philo- 
sophical Society of Washington, D. C, and is 
at present the president of the Akron Bar 
Association. He is also a member of the 
-Vlpha Delta Phi college fraternity, and a 
member of numerous military and patriotic 
orders and societies, in several of which he has 
held some of the higher offices. 

Colonel Wright was married October 18, 
1876, at Akron, Ohio, to Lucy Josephine 
Hale, of Akron, a daughter of James Madi- 
son Hale and Sarah Allen, his wife. Their 
children, all born at Tallmadge, Ohio, are: 
(1) Clement Hale Wright, born July 4, 1882, 
who graduated at the United States Military 
Academy, June 15, 1904, and is now a second 
lieutenant in the Second United States In- 
fantry, on duty with his regiment in the 
Philippine Islands; (2) Allen Whitney 
Wright, born July 17, 1889; and (3) George 
Maltby Wright, born June 24, 1892. Lieu- 
tenant Clement Hale Wright was married at 
Hartwell (a suburb of Cincinnati), Ohio, 
January 1, 1906, to Laura Mitchell, a daugh- 
ter of Rev. Frank Gridley Mitchell, D. D., 
and Mary Electa Davis, his wife. 

AVADE G. SHORT, LL. B., principal of 
the Hall BiL~ine,'>s L^niversity at Youngstown, 
Ohio, the Lorain Business College, at Lorain, 
and the Hammel Business College, at Akron, 
is engaged in the practice of law, with offices 
in the Dobson Building, at Akron. Profes- 
sor Short was born in Geauga County, Ohio, 
in 1880, where he secured hi-^ preliminary 
educational training. 

When but fifteen years of age Mr. Short 
went to Cleveland, where he made a thorough 
.«tudy of eomriiercial work, and graduated 
from a commercial college in that city, and 
later from the law denartment of Baldwin 
L'niversitv. He was admitted to the bar in 



1902. For sonic six yeaxs before coming to 
Akron, Mr. Short had been closely connected 
with business college work, having purchased 
the Hammel BiLsiness College from its 
founder, who had established it in 1881. In 
June, 1904, he bought the Hall Business Uni- 
versity, which had been established at Youngs- 
tofWTi, in 1892, and in 1903 he established the 
Lorain Business College, at Lorain. The offi- 
cers of these several commercial schools are 
as 'follows : Of the Hamauel Business College, 
W. G. Short, LL. B., is president, and J. W. 
Short is business manager. Of the Hall Biisi- 
ness University, C. C. Short is manager, J. W. 
Shorti, treasurer, and W. G. Short, LL. B., 
principal. The saime personnel makes up the 
official force of the Lorain Business College, 
W. G. Short, LL. B., being president, J. W. 
Short, vice-presiident, and P. S. Short, man- 
ager. All these gentlemen are thoroughly 
competent in the work of commercial instruc- 
tion and their institutions take high rank in 
the business world. 

Few men of his years have accomplished so 
much along a given line in so short a time as 
has Mr. Short, and he is justly numbered 
with the progressive and enterprising young 
men of this city. In addition to his law prac- 
tice and commercial college interests, Mr. 
Short handles a large amount of real es- 

RAY F. HAMLIN, a young but able mem- 
ber of the Akron bar, now serving his sec- 
ond term as city clerk, in spite of his youth 
has been nominated by the Republican party 
for the important office of city treasurer. Mr. 
Hamlin was born at Akron, April 24, 1881, 
and is a son of Byron S. Hamlin, a native of 
Summit County and for forty years a resi- 
dent of Akron. He was reared in his native 
city, where he attended the public schools, 
and then took a two-years' course in the law 
department of Columbia University at Wash- 
ington, D. C, and was graduated from Bald- 
win Univer.*ity at Cleveland in 1903. Upon 
his return to Akron he took the bar examina- 
tion and in the same year was admitted to 
practice. lie was at once appointed city clerk 

and thus, from the beginning of his career, 
has been recognized as a political factor. 

On May 28, 1907, Mr. Hamlin was mar- 
ried to Mabel J. Gordon, who is a daughter of 
Fred F. Gordon, of Akron. He is a member 
of Woodland Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Fraternally he is connected with the Knights 
of Pythias and the Odd Fellows. He and 
wife are participants in the pleasant social life 
of the city, and both are valued for their 
personal attributes. 

ORLANDO WILCOX, one of the leading 
members of the Summit County bar, and sen- 
ior member of the law firm of Wilcox, Par- 
sons, Burch and Adams, at Akron, was born 
in Medina County, "Ohio, in December, 1851, 
and is a son of Dr. Orlando Wilcox, once a 
man of great prominence in this section. 

Dr. Orlando Wilcox settled at Cuyahoga 
Falls in 1828, and in the following year, in 
association with Henry Wetmore, organized 
the first temperance society in the state of 
Ohio. He remained one of the leading citi- 
zens of Cuyalioga Falls until 1831, when he 
moved to Medina County, where he practiced 
for many years, but prior to his death, in 
1886, he returned to the Falls. It is inter- 
esting to recall historic events and compare 
them with those of modern times. The tem- 
perance organization mentioned above, was 
the cause of the first strike in the industrial 
world of Summit County. At that time Mr. 
Wetmore was the owner of the paper mills 
at Cuyahoga Falls and it had been his cus- 
tom to each Saturday set out a barrel of 
whiskey for his employes to help themselves. 
After the organization of the temperance so- 
ciety, he cut off this luxury, with the result 
that the men went out on a strike, and a num- 
ber of them were never again employed in the 
mills. Mr. Wilcox has in his possession, with 
other interesting papers, a number of the 
original contracts made between Joshua Stow 
and William Wetmore, father of Henry Wet- 
more, for the organization of Stow Town- 
ship, some of these bearing the date of 1804. 

Orlando Wilcox was reared in Medina 
County and attended the country schools prior 



to entering Baldwin University. He subse- 
quently read law in the otRcc of A. J. Mar- 
vin, of Cleveland, being admitted to the bar 
in the spring of 1884. Locating at Cuyahoga 
Falls, he entered upon the practice of his 
profession and continued it there until 1898, 
when he went to Indian Territory, being as- 
signed to duty as special United States dis- 
trict attorney. During the time he remained 
in Indian Territory, which covered a period of 
two years, he tried sixty-four murder cases, 
- and convicted the first man that was ever 
* hung in the Territory by order of the Fed- 
eral courts. For various reasons Mr. Wilcox 
resigned this position and returned to Ohio, 
in 1900 establishing his law office at Akron, 
and becoming dissociated with C. T. Grant in 
the firm of Wilcox and Grant, which con- 
tinued until the spring of 1904. In a new 
association Mr. Wilcox became senior mem- 
ber of the law firm of Wilcox, Parsons and 
Burch, Mr. Adams later being admitted as 
the junior member of the firm. Mr. Wilcox 
has successfully handled ■ a large number of 
important cases before the Ohio courts, and 
has an enviable record in the different 
branches of his profession. 

Mr. Wilcox still retains his home at Cuya- 
hoga Falls and is interested in several finan- 
cial enterprises in that city. He is a director 
in the Cuyahoga Falls Savings Bank and 
in the Falls Savings and Loan Associa- 
tion. He is also president of the Mer- 
cantile Credit Company, of Cincinnati. 
Fonnerly he took an active interest in politics 
and his party chose him as its candidate for 
prosecuting attorney, and in 1896 for pro- 
bate judge. He came within seventy-seven 
votes of the nomination for the latter office. 
For fifteen years he was city solicitor for Cuya- 
hoga Falls, but the demands of his profes- 
sion have given him very little time to push 
his claims for political preferment, had he 
po.?sessed the ambition to do so. 

In 1874 Mr. Wilcox was married to Zelia 
M. Severance, of Medina County, and they 
have two daughters, Lottie and Mabel. Lot- 
tie is the wife of Charles C. McCuskey. resid- 
ing at Cuyahoga Falls. Mabel is a student at 

Buchtel College, where she has made a re- 
markable record, taking the highest honors of 
her class, both in 190o and 1907 ; she antici- 
pates graduating in the class of 1908. The 
family belong to the Disciples Church at 
Cuyahoga Falls, which Mr. Wilcox has sensed 
as a member of the board of tnistees; he is 
now superintendent of the Sunday school. 
Fraternally he is connected with the Elks 
and the Knights of Pythias. The family is 
one of social prominence at Cuyalaoga Falls. 

H. E. ANDRESS, a member of the law 
firm of Allen, Watere, Young & Andress, with 
oflices in the Hamilton Building, Akron, has 
been a resident of this city since 1893. He 
was born in Ashland County, Ohio, and is 
a son of the late Samuel D. Andress, former- 
ly an agriculturist in Ashland County. 

Mr. Andress spent his boyhood and obtained 
his early education in the schools of his na- 
tive county, and later entered Vermillion In- 
stitute, where he was graduated in 1892. He 
then read law for two years with W. E. Sla- 
baugh and in 1894 entered the Cincinnati 
Law School, from which he was graduated in 
1895. During the period in which he was 
securing his own academic and collegiate 
training, he taught school, his time in this 
profession aggregating about five years. For 
six months after locating at Akron, Mr. An- 
dress continued to practice alone, and then 
entered into partnership with F. E. Whitte- 
more, under the firm name of Andress & 
Whittemore. This business association con- 
tinued until 1902, when Mr. Andress became 
a member of the firm of Allen, Cobbs & An- 
dress, T\'hich later became Allen, Cobbs, Wa- 
ters & Andress, changing to Allen, Waters & 
Andress, on the death of Mr. Cobbs in 1905. 
The present style was assumed November 1, 
1906, when W. E. Young became a member 
of the firm. This combination of legal talent 
is regarded by the bench and bar of the 
coimty as one of the strongest in this section ; 
flieir work covers all branches of law and 
jurispnidence and they have .successfully 
handled many cases of grave importance. 

In 1898 Mr. Andress was married to Addie 



L. ]\lontcnyohl, who was formerly a popular 
teacher in the Akron public schools, and is 
a daughter of George Montenyohl. They 
have one child, Virginia. 

Mr. Andress is a prominent Democrat and 
has served as chairman of the Democratic 
County Committee, and as a member of the 
Democratic State Central Committee. For four 
years he .«erved as clerk of the Summit County 
board of elections, and i.s a member of the 
board of Sinking Fund trustees of the city 
of Akron. ' He is interested in a number of 
the city's prosperous business enterprises, but 
the larger part of his time is given to his 
law practice. He is one of the directors of 
the National City Bank and a stockholder in 
other financial institutions. 

Since early life, Mr. Andress has been 
united with the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and he served on the board of trustees of the 
First M. E. Church at Akron for some time. 

PHILIP B. TREASH, attorney, wa.-^ bori^ 
at Uniontown, Stark County, Augu.-^t 10, 1875, 
and a few j'eai's later came with his parents 
to Akron, where he has since resided. His 
preliminary education was received in the 
public schools and he graduated from the 
High School in 1895. During his High 
School course Mr. Treash decided to study law, 
but desiring to first acquire a broad academic 
education he. studied two terms at Buchtel 
College, then entered Oberlin College, from 
Mhich institution he graduated in 1900 with 
the degree of Ph. B. 

Immediately after graduation from Oberlin 
he took up the study of law, only interrupt- 
ing that study long enough to earn funds 
with which to continue. In 1901-1902 he 
wa^ assistant principal of the Cuyahoga Falls 
High School. Subsequently entering the law 
department of Ohio State University, he was 
graduated in June, 1903, and being admitted 
to the bar, he chose Akron as his field of work, 
and became associated with the law firm of 
Young & Wanamaker until Mr. Wanamaker 
was elected to the Common Pleas Bench. Af- 
ter the dissolution of this firm he remained 
with Mr. Youno; until November. 1906, since 

which time he has practiced alone. Mr. 
Treash is actively connected with the business 
development of the city, and is also a lead- 
ing Republican, at present being chairman of 
the City Republican Committee. In 1905 Mr. 
Treash was married to Ida M. Roberts, of 
Akron. He is a member of the West Con- 
gregational Church and is serving as its treas- 
urer. He belongs to Akron Tent, K. O. T. M., 
the Protected Home Circle, the Young Men's 
Christian Association, and several other or- 

F. E. WHITTEMORE, of the well-known 
law firm of Grant and Whittemore, at Akron, 
was born at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, in 
1870. When he was seven j'ears of age his 
parents located in Akron, where he was reared 
graduating from the Akron High School in 
1887. He then entered Denison University, 
where he was graduated in 1892, with the 
degree of Ph. B. He studied law in the office 
of Marvin. Saddler and Atterholt, of Akron, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1894. He 
was with Judge Stuart, in the probate office 
for one year, which gave him excellent spe- 
cial training, and he then began the practice 
of his profes.<ion alone, one year later entering 
into partnership with H. E. Andress, under 
the firm name of Andress and Whittemore. 
This partnership continued until 1903, and 
about nine months later the firm of Grant 
and Whittemore was organized. It is con- 
sidered one of the strong legal combinations 
of the city and handles a large amount of 
important litigation. Besides attending to his 
law practice, Mr. Whittemore has duties as a 
director of the Akron Grocery Company and 
the Colonial Tire and Rubber Company. For 
a number of years he served as clerk of the 
Board of Elections. 

In 1897 Mr. Whittemore was married to 
Anna G. Clark, who is a daughter of the late 
George B. Clark, and they have two children 
— Marian Esther and Robert C. The family 
belong to the First Baptist Church, which Mr. 
Whittemore is serving as a member of the 
official board. 

Fraternallv he is a ThiVtv-second Degree 



Ma^ou, iiiid belongs to the Blue Lodge, Chap- 
ter, Council and Comniandei'v at Akron, and 
to Lake Erie Consistory at Cleveland. 

N. M. GREENBERGER, attorney, and 
Republican candidate for city solicitor of Ak- 
ron, is one of the prominent j^ounger mem- 
bei-s of the bar, and a very popular citizen. 
Mr. Greenberger has practically .^pent hid 
whole life in this city, securing his literary 
education in it.s excellent schools, and select- 
ing it a.s the field of his professional work. 

As soon as he had completed his education, 
Mr. Greenberger entered the law office of Ed- 
win F. Voris, where he finished his law- 
studies. He was admitted to the bar, by the 
Supreme Court of Ohio, in June, 1902. He 
has been notably successful, having climbed 
from the bottom of the ladder to his present 
position entirely through Iils own efforts. His 
fellow citizens who honor him a.s one fitted 
for high responsiljilities, recall when he 
blacked shoes and sold newspapers rather than 
be dependent. Later, while traveling for the 
Brooks Oil Company, of Cleveland, he spent 
his nights in hi.s hotel, poring over his law 
books. Energetic and ambitious, he has al- 
ways taken an active interest in politics and 
has recently been nominated for city .solic- 
itor on the Republican ticket, over four com- 
petitors, all of them strong men. His friends 
are confident that he has a bright future be- 
fore him. both in hi^ profession and in pub- 
lic life. He is a member of Court Pride, of 
the Independent Order of Foresters, and of 
Akron Camp, Modern AVoodmen of Amer- 
ica, also of thi-s city. He is located in the 
Central Office Building, Akron. 

CHARLES H. STAHL, attorney-at-law, at 
Akron, with offices at No. 518 Hamilton 
Building, is a prominent citizen and has large 
financial interests in Summit and other 
counties. He was born near Winesburg, 
Holmes County, Ohio, May 18, 1873, and is 
a son of Charles and Louise (Dodez) Stahl. 
The father of Mr. Stahl was born in Gennany 
and was a pioneer of Holmes County. Ohio, 
v>-herc he became a man of suhstance and lo- 

cal prominence. He held county offices and 
wa* long numbered among the leading men 
cf his community. His wife, Louise, was of 
French extraction, but was born in Wayne 
County, Ohio. 

Charles H. Stahl was reared on his father's 
farm and attended the country schools, later 
entering the Ohio Northern University at 
Ada, where he was graduated with the degree 
of A. B. He then engaged in teaching and 
for two years was principal of the Winesburg 
public schools. In 1902 he wa.s graduated with 
the degree of LL. B. from the law department 
of the Ohio State University, and in the same 
year received the A. M. degree from his alma 
mater. In that year he was also admitted to 
the bar, and in the following .spring he located 
in Akron and entered upon the practice of his 
profession, in which he has since continued. 
Politically he is a Democrat and has taken 
an active part in public affairs. He has many 
financial interests, being a director in the 
South Akron Banking Company, in the Ak- 
ron Realty Company, and in the Beach City 
Banking Company, of Beach City, Stark 
County, Ohio. 

September 26, 1906, Mr. Stahl was married 
to Cora B. Snyder, who is a daughter of C. 
J. Snyder, a prominent business man of this 
city. Mr. and Mrs. Stahl have one daughter, 
Margaret Louise, born August 8, 1907. 

Mr. Stahl is a Knight Templar Mason and 
belongs to Akron Comrnandery, No. 25. and 
to Blue Lodge, Chapter and Council, of this 
place. He is a member of the Lutheran 
Church. He has never given up his member- 
ship in the Delti Chi college fraternity, hav- 
ing been one of the charter members of the 
organization, at the Ohio State Universitv in 

city .solicitor of Akron and a member of the 
law firm of Rogers, Rowley & Rockwell of 
this city, was born December 4, 1868. at Cuya- 
hoga Falls, Ohio, and is a son of William and 
Mary J. (Wills) Rowley. 

Mr. Rowley is of English ancestry and his 
grandfather, Enoch Rowlev. was the first of 



tlio family In .si'llle in Akron, where he did 
in 1H48. To the hitter helongs the dLstinc- 
tion of establishing the tirst pottery here. He 
brought a family of seven children from Eng- 
land, and four more were added after the fam- 
ily settled here. He died in this city, aged 
seventy-three years. William Rowley, fath- 
er of Arthur J., \va.s ten years old when his 
parents came to Ohio. He assisted his father 
in his work as a potter and succeeded him in 
the business. In 1886 he retired from active 
business and died in November, 1891, at the 
age of fifty-four years. HLs children were : 
Florence, who died in infancy; Arthur .J.. 
Maude L., and Zelle I. 

Arthur James Rowley was graduated from 
the Akron High School in January, 1885, 
and from Buchtel College, in June, 1890. He 
then began the study of the law with Charles 
Cobbs, and the firm of Green, Grant & Sieber, 
and wa.s admitted to the bar in March, 1892. 
In the following year Mr. Kowley was elected 
a member of the Akron Board of Education. 
In 1895 he was made city solicitor, two years 
later being re-elected and by a larger majority 
than any other candidate. Since the close of 
his second term of office he has applied him- 
self entirely to his large and growing practice. 
In 1902 he became a member of the firm of 
Rogers, Rowley & Rockwell, whose offices are 
in the Central Savings & Trust Building. 

Fraternally Mr. Rowley is an Elk and re- 
tains membership in his college iraternity, the 
Delta Tan Delta. He belongs also to the Sum- 
mit County Bar Association. He stands very 
high in public esteem, both as a citizen and 

On October 20. 1897, he was married to 
Amelia Grether and they have three children : 
Pauline Barbara, William Arthur and John 
Grether Rowley, all of whom reside at the 
family resident, 838 Eaet Market Street. 

ALEXANDER H. COMMINS. an attorney, 
practicing at Akron, is interested in a num- 
ber of Akron business enterprises. He was 
born at Akron in 1872, and is a son of the 
late Alexander II. Gomtnins. After complet- 
ing the common school course in his native 

city, Mr. Commins entered Kenyon College, 
where he was graduated in 1894, with the de- 
gree of A. B. Shortly afterward, he began 
reading taw with Charles Baird. In 1899 he 
was admitted to the bar, and since has been 
associated with Mr. Baird in the practice of 
his profes.sion. He is a director in the Cen- 
tral Savings and Trust Company, at Akron, 
and is largely interested in real estate through 
Sunnnit County, pai'ticularly in the vicinity 
of Akron and Barberton. In 1900 Mr. Com- 
mins was married to Ethel Sheldon, who is 
a daughter of C. E. Sheldon, president of the 
Whitman-Barnes Company. Mr. and Mrs. 
Connnins have two children, Ethel Louise 
and Henrietta. 

WATSON E. SLABAUGH, .senior mem- 
ber of the law firm of Slabaugh & Seiberling, 
has been a resident of Akron since 1886. He 
was born in Portage County, Ohio, where he 
attended school until he entered Mount Union 
College. Mr. Slabaugh has been mainly the 
maker of his own foi-tunes. At the age of 
eighteen years he began to teach school, which 
profession he followed for four years. In the 
meantime he was preparing himself for a 
collegiate course in law, and in 1885 he was 
graduated from the Cincinnati Law School. 
In the following j'ear, he located at Akron, 
and here he entered into practice with Ed- 
ward P. Otis, under the firm name of Otis 
& Slabaugh. Later he became a member of 
the firm of Marvin, Atterholt & Slabaugh, 
which continued until 1892. From that date 
until 1898 Mr. Slabaugh practiced alone, and 
then entered into partnership with Mr. Seiber- 
ling, under the present firm style. This firm 
is regarded as one of Akron's most reliable 
combinations of legal talent, and many im- 
portant interests are placed in their hands. 

Mr. Slabaugh is a director in the Second 
National Bank and a stockholder in numer- 
ous other prosperous concerns. While not 
veiy active in politics, he has the welfare of 
the city at heart and has served on many 
boards which have civic progress a* their ob- 
ject. Lie is a leading member of the High 
Street Christian Church. 



Mi: Slabaugh was married (lir^t) in 1884, 
to Mary Bettes, who died iu 1892, leaving one 
son, Edwin, who is a student in the public 
schools. She was a daughter of Dr. George 
W. Bettes, of Randolph, Portage County. Mr. 
Slabaugh was married (second) iu 1895, to 
Jessie M. Gongwer, who is a daughter of Sam- 
uel Gongwer. Of this union there are iwo 
children, Harold and \V. E., Jr. 

ELLSWORTH E. OTIS, attorney, junior 
member of the law firm of Otis and Otis, at 
Akron, with well ajjpointed offices at Nos. 15- 
16 Arcade Building, has been in active prac- 
tice since 1887. He was born in Tuscarawas 
County, Ohio, and is a son of Resin P. and 
Cathei'ine (Bair) Otis. Mr. Otis comes of 
Revolutionary stock, three membei's of the 
family, Robert, Stephen and Edward Otis 
having served in the Continental army, one 
of them losing his life in the cause. These 
patriots were great- and great-great-uncles of 
Edward P. and Ellsworth E. Otis, of Akron. 
The parents of Mr. Otis were both born in 
Ohio. The Otis family came to this state frou;i 
New England, where it has been prominent 
from the days of the Revolution. The Bair 
family came from Pennsylvania and is of 
German extraction. 

Ellsworth E. Otis was liberally educated, at- 
tending both Wittenberg College and AVooster 
LTniversity prior to entering the law depart- 
ment of the University of Michigan, where 
he was graduated in 1887. His elder brother, 
Edward P. Otis, was already established in the 
practice of law at Akron and Mr. Otis imme- 
diately entered into partnershij) with him, 
under the firm name of Otis and Otis. This 
firm has continued up to the present time and 
has become well known all over Summit 
County. In a city where legal talent is espe- 
cially con.spicious, the firm has won many 
hard-fought battles, and both members are 
numbered with the able men of the profession. 

On June 27, 1894, Ellsworth E. Otis was 
married to Mary Louise Guth, who is a daugh- 
ter of Jacob R. Guth, an old resident of Akron. 
They enjoy a beautiful home at No. 642 East 
Market Street. Politically Mr. Otis is identi- 

fied with the Republican party, but only as a 
good citizen, anxious to promote the pros- 
perity of his community and the country gen- 
erally. He is connected fi-aternaliy with the 
Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias, and 
is secretary of the local chapter of the Beta 
Theta Pi, his college fraternity. For many 
years he has been a member of the Lutheran 

EDWARD P. OTIS, senior member of the 
prominent law firm of Otis and Otis, at Ak- 
ron, with offices in the Arcade building, wa^ 
born in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, and is a 
son of Resin P. and Catherine (Bair) Otis. 
He comes of Revolutionary stock, three mem- 
bers of the family, Robert, Stephen and Ed- 
ward Otis, having sei-ved nobly with the Con- 
tinental army, one of them losing his life in 
the cause of freedom. These militant patriots 
were great- and great-great-uncles of Edward 
P. and Ellsworth E. Otis, of Akron. The 
name of Otis has always been identified with 
military valor, .statesmanship and professional 
prominence. The family settled early in Ohio 
and in this state both the parents of the sub- 
ject of this sketch were born. 

Edward P. Otis prepared for Oberlin Col- 
lege in the local schools, and after attending 
the college for a while, taught .school prior to 
entering Wittenberg College, in 1877, where 
he remained until graduation in 1882. He 
immediately began the study of law m the 
office of Nealy and Patrick, at New Philadel- 
phia, and during 1884-5 he attended the Cin- 
cinnati Law School, in June of the latter year 
being admitted to the bar. Mr. Otis located 
at Akron in August, 1885, and was associated 
in a law practice for two years with W. E. 
Slabaugh. He then formed a partnership 
with his younger brother, Ellsworth E. Otis, 
the firm of Otis and Otis coming into existence 
in 1887. During its continuance of two dec- 
ades it has made its ability felt at the bar of 
Summit County, and has been engaged in 
much of the most important litigation of this 

On September 21, 1887, Mr. Otis was mar- 
ried to Jessie L. Wolfe, who is a daughter of 



Henry H. Wolfe, of Springfield, Ohio. He has 
one daughter, Catherine Louise. The beauti- 
ful family home at No. 65 Adolph Avenue 
is often the scene of many pleasant social 
functions, Mrs. Otis being a gifted musician 
and a patroness of the leading musical events 
of the city. Both Mr. and Mrs. Otis are mem- 
bers of the Luthertm Church. Politically the 
former is a Republican, but is too much en- 
gaged in his profession to be willing to accept 
political honors. Fraternally he is a Free 
Mason, and is also president of the local chap- 
ter of his college fraternity, the Beta Thefa Pi. 
He has shown his interest in the growth and 
development of Akron, as becomes a public- 
spirited citizen, and has helped to promote her 
educational and religious interests, for a num- 
ber of years having been a member of the 
board of directors of Wittenberg College. 

GEORGE W. ROGERS, attorney, and 
credit man with the Goodyear Tire and Rub- 
ber Company, at Akron, was born at Akron, 
Ohio, in. 1875. He is a son of John Rogers, 
and a grandson of James Rogers, both of 
whom survive, honored residents of this city. 
He was reared in his native city and after 
graduating from the Akron High School, en- 
tered Buchtel College, which he left in order 
to enter upon the study of law with the well- 
known law firm of Baird & Voris. One year 
later this firm was dissolved, after which Mr. 
Rogers remained for a time under Mr. Baird's 
instruction, later becoming a student with 
Oviatt, Allen & Cobbs. In March, 1899, he 
was admitted to the bar and engaged in the 
practice of his profession at Akron, thus con- 
tinuing until April, 1902. when ho accepted 
his present position. 

In. 1895, Mr. Rogers joined Company B, 
Eighth Regiment, Ohio National Guards, and 
in 1898 when war was declared againsit Spain, 
went out a.s a member of that Company. He 
was mustered into the United States service at 
Columbus. May 13, 1898, and a few days later 
went to Washington, D. C. where the regi- 
ment remained in camp at Camp Alger imtil 
the fifth day of the following Julv. It was 
then transported to Cuba, where it was on 

duty for six weeks, and then returned to 
America, landing at Montauk Point. Mr. 
Rogers wtis given a furlough of sixty days 
which he spent at home, and was then mus- 
tered out, in November, 1898. During this 
brief military experience he was corporal of 
liis company. 

On October 15, 1902, Mr. Rogers was mar- 
ried to Anna G. Bauer, a daughter of Jacob 
Bauer, of Akron, and they have one son. Har- 
old G. Mr. Rogers is a member of the Royal 
Ai-canum, and of the organization of United 
Spanish War Veterans. 

LOUIS D. SEWARD, attorney, and a lead- 
ing member of the Akron bar, was born at 
Akron, Ohio, in 1852, and Is a son of the late 
Colonel Dudley Seward, who Avas a distin- 
guished officer in the Civil War. 

Colonel D'udley Seward came to Akron in 
1840, where he entered into business aind be- 
came a factor in politics. Prior to the Civil 
War he served as sheriff of Summit County. 
He was one of the first men to offer his life 
and services at the beginning of the war and 
was promoted for gallantry to be colonel of 
the Second Ohio Cavalry, serving all through 
as such. After the war he was a captain in 
the Eighth Regiment, United States Cavalry, 
and brevet major in the United States army, 
receiving his appointment in the United 
States army for gallant and meritorious serv- 
ice at MonticeUo, Kentucky. He did good 
service in the West during the Indian trou- 
bles. At the time of his death, in 1881 , he 
was on the retired list of the army. 

Lonis D. Seward was reared and educated in 
Akron, and read law in the offices of Edger- 
ton & Kohler and of H. C. Sanford. In 1876 
he was admitted to the bar, and has been in 
active practice ever since in his native city. 
He has been active in politics since early man- 
hood, LS at present serving in the City Coun- 
cil, and was mayor of Akron from 1886 to 
1888, a period of great prosperity and advnnce- 
mont for this municipality. 

In 1890 Mr. Seward was married to Kath- 
erine Johnston, who ds a daugliter of AV. G. 
Johnston, of Akron, a prominent citizen, who 




has just completed a six-yeai' term as a mem- 
ber of the State Botu'd of Public Works. Mr. 
and Mrs. Seward have one daughter, Martha, 
who is attending school. Mr. Seward is a 
Knight Templar Mason, and is well known 
in the fraternity. He is one of the trustees 
of the East Akron cemetery, and he is a 
sitockholder in various successful business en- 
terprises of Akron. 

CHARLES S. COBBS, formerly a leadmg 
member of the Akron bar, and for twelve 
years a partner in the prominent law firm of 
Oviatt, Allen and Cobbs, of this city, was born 
July 7, 1853, near Alliance, Columbiana 
County, Ohio, and died at his home in Akron, 
January 27, 1903. He was a son of Walker 
and Hannah (Morris) Cobbs. 

On the maternal side, Mr. Cobbs came of 
distinguished ancestry. His forefathers in- 
cluded Robert Morris, one of the signers of 
the Declaration of Independence; Jonathan 
Morris, who married Mary West, sister of the 
great painter, Benjamin West; and Jonathan, 
Benjamin, William, Joseph and Samuel Mor- 
ris, all of whom served in the Revolutionary 
War. The Morris family professed the peace- 
ful principles of the Quaker faith, but in time 
of public stress, they proved their loyalty even 
to the extent of taking up arms. Jonathan 
Morris was wounded and taken prisoner at 
the battle of Camden, August 16, 1780, and 
was kept a prisoner on Ediso Island, off the 
coast of South Carolina, during the remainder 
of the war. William Morris was taken prison- 
er on board an American privateer, and later 
was incarcerated in Dartmouth Prison, Eng- 
land. He made his situation known to his 
uncle, Benjamin West, who was then in Lon- 
don, who first interceded with the king, and 
later succeeded in bribing the guards, .secur- 
ing William's release in this way. The latter 
escaped and returned to the United States. In 
the War of the Rebellion there were five mem- 
bers of this family in the Union army; one 
of them, J. Morris Johnston, fell at Murfrees- 
lioro. Tennessee. Another, Benjamin F. Mor- 
ri.-i, was wounded and subsequently captured 
at Macon, Georgia. The Morris family has 

also been prominent in the paths of peace in 
various parts of the reunited couutrj-, ' and 
many of their blood have won laurels in pro- 
fessional careers. 

Charles S. Cobbs completed his education at 
Mt. Union College, where he was graduated in 
1877. During the two succeeding years, while 
studying law, he engaged in teaching school, 
and for the larger part of this period, was 
superintendent of the Malvern Union schools. 
Innnediately after his admission to the bar, 
in 1879, he located in Akron, where his legal 
ability quickly became recognized, and in the 
.spring of 1881 he was elected city solicitor. 
In this office he served two full terms, declin- 
ing a re-election, and henceforth devoting 
himself entirely to practice of his profession. 
On March 9, 1891, he entered into partnership 
with the late Edward Oviatt and George G. 
Allen, under the firm style of Oviatt, Allen 
and Cobbs — a strong combination, which for 
years handled a large part of the important 
litigation in Summit County. In addition to 
his work as a member of this firm, Mr. Cobbs 
was retained by various corporations and was 
local attorney for the Valley Railway Com- 

On November 2, 1881, Mr. Cobbs was mar- 
ried to Margaret S. McCall, who was born at 
^Lilvern, Ohio, and who is a daughter of Rev. 
Hosea McCall, a native of the state of Connec- 
ticut. Mr. and Mrs. Cobbs had four chil- 
dren, two of whom survive — Reginald Mc- 
Call and Margaret. Mrs. Cobbs resides at No. 
(382 Buchtel Avenue, Akron. 

FRANCIS SEIBERLING, attorney-at-law, 
and a member of the law firm of Slabaugh & 
Seiberling. at Akron, with offices in the Ever- 
ett Building, was born September 20, 1870, 
at Des Moines, Iowa, and is a son of Nathan 
Septimus and Joseva (Myers) Seiberling. 

Nathan Septimus Seiberling, father of Fran- 
cis, was a son of Nathan Seiberling, who was 
one of the early pioneers of Summit County. 
Nathan S. Seiberling, at the age of eighteen 
years, enlisted for service in the Civil War, 
in March, 1865. for one year, and was a mem- 
ber of Company D, 198th Ohio Volunteer In- 



fantry. He was honorably discharged, May 
8, 1865, at the close of hostilities. He mar- 
ried Joseva Myers, who was a daughter of Al- 
pheus Myers, one of the earliest settlers in 
Norton Township. Both the Seiberling and 
Myers families came to Summit County in the 
days when it was a wilderness and both as- 
sisted materially in the development of its 
resources and in bringing about civilizing in- 

When but three years of age, Francis Sei- 
berling suffered the loss of his father, who 
died in early manhood. His mother thea» re- 
turned to her old home in Norton Township, 
this county, where he was reared to the age of 
twelve year.~. He then went to Medina 
County and completed his course of study at 
the Wads worth High School. He entered 
Wittenberg College, Si^ringfield, Ohio, in the 
fall of 1888, where he remained two years, 
and then entered Wooster University, where 
he was graduated in 1892, with his degree of 
A. M. He immediately began the study of 
law in the office of Marvin, Saddler & Atter- 
holt, and was adinitted to the bar in October, 
1894. He practiced his profession for about 
one year alone, and then entered into his 
present partnership, under the firm name of 
Slabaugh & Seiberling. Mr. Seiberling's in- 
terest, in politics is merely that which he has 
in common with every good citizen. 

On June 16, 1897, Mr. Seiberling was mar- 
ried to Josephine Laffer, who is a daughter 
of James M. Laffer, one of the pioneer drug- 
gists of Akron. He and his wife have two 
children, Eleanor and Josephine. Mr. Sei- 
berling is a member of the Lutheran Church 
and belongs to its board of trustees. Frater- 
nally he is a Mason. 

he was graduated at Mt. Union College, after 
which he was engaged in school teaching for 
about four years. In 1877 he came to Akron 
with the intention of studying law, and be- 
ing received into the office of J. M. Poulson, 
was admitted to the bar in 1878, and later to 
the Supreme Court of Ohio. For a number 
of years he was the attorney for Aultman, 
Miller & Company, and in their interests 
traveled all over the country. He has tried 
cases in all parts of the United States and 
necessarily has been long familiar with the 
laws of all sections. Probably in his partic- 
ular line of practice, he has no equal in Sum- 
mit County. Mr. Sadler has been active in 
county politics for a number of years and 
for one year was secretary of the Republican 
County Committee. He was appointed a 
member of the first Board of City Commis- 
sioners and of the first Board of Review, on 
which latter board he served for five years. 
He is a man of public spirit and on many 
occasions has proven his interest and useful- 
ness in civic affairs. 

In 1881 Mr. Sadler was married to Mar- 
garet Fox, who is a daughter of David Fox. 
They have three living children, namely : 
Frank Herbert, who has charge of the testing 
department of the Edison Storage Battery at 
West Orange, New Jersey; Edith, who is chief 
clerk in the Summit County treasurer's office ; 
and Jean Cairns, residing at home. In addi- 
tion to hLs other business interests, Mr. Sadler 
is vice-president and a member of the board 
of directors of the Akron Building and Loan 
Association, and has been a charter member 
on its board of directors since its inception in 
1888. He belongs to the Masonic Lodge and 
to the U. C. T. 

0. L. SADLER, an attorney at Akron, 
whose professional labors have called him to 
many sections of the countrj^ while still re- 
taining his home in this city, was born Sep- 
tember 11, 1854, at Rootstown, Portage 
County, Ohio. 

When Mr. Sadler was one year old his par- 
ents moved to Southern Michigan, where he 
was reared and primarily educated. In 1872 

EMORY A. PRIOR, M. S., LL. B., a lead- 
ing member of the bar at Cuyahoga Falls, was 
born in Northampton Town.«hip, Summit 
County, Ohio, Jime 27, 1855, and is a son 
of Henry W. and Emily (Bonesteel) Prior. 

The study of Mr. Prior's ancestral line leads 
us back to the early settlement of New Eng- 
land. The first of the name of whom he have 
record, was Benjamin Prior, whose birth is 



recorded at Duxbury, Massafluisetts. In 1697 
he married Bertha, daughter of John and Abi- 
gail (Wood) Pratt, of Plymouth, Massaehu- 

Jo:~hua J'rior, son of Benjamin and Bertha 
Prior, was born in 1709 and died in 1784. He 
married Mary, daughter of Eleazer and Lydia 
(Waterman) Barnham, January 31, 1735. 

Simeon Prior, younge.-^t of the nine chil- 
dren of Jo.<hua and Mary Prior, and great- 
grandfather of Emory A., was born May 16, 
1754, at Norwich, Connecticut, and died June 
29, 1837. He was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War, enlisting in Connecticut, as 
armorer, under Colonel John Durgey, about 
1776, joining the army at King's Yard. New 
York City. His record shows that aliout 15 
weeks later he joined a regiment on Painter's 
Hook, and after the city was taken by the 
British, his regiment went to Fort Lee and 
later participated in the battle of Trenton. 
The family history asserts that on this occa- 
sion, Simeon Prior was a member of General 
Washington's body-guard. He married Kath- 
erine Wright, and in 1802 brought his fam- 
ily to Northampton Township. He was the 
first regular farming" settler here, the only 
other family being that of a Mr. King, who 
kept a tavern at Old Portage, the coramenoe- 
ment of Portage Path. Simeon Prior was a 
fanner, blacksmith and machinist, a combi- 
nation of occupations well qualifying him to 
make an admirable pioneer settler. 

William Prior, son of Simeon, and grand- 
father of Emory A. Prior, was born at Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, April 6, 1783, and died 
June 7, 1872. He accompanied his father to 
Northampton in 1802, where he secured farm- 
ing land. He participated in the War of 
1812, being a member of Colonel Rial Mc- 
Arthur's regiment. In politics he was a Jef- 
fersonian Democrat. He was twice married: 
first, to Sarah Wharton, who was a daughter 
of James Wharton, and who died in early 
married life; and, second, to Polly Culver. 

Henry AV. Prior, son of William and fath- 
er of the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Northampton To-wnship, Summit County, 
Ohio, January 25, 1813, and died in 1875. 

He was a man of exceptional mentality and 
made the best of the educational advanttxges 
afforded him and of his business opportuni- 
ties. He acceptably filled all the local offices 
of any responsibility in Northampton Town- 
ship, and, although not united with any re- 
ligious body, was a liberal supporter of 
churches and all moral movements. In 1849 
he went to California, by way of New York 
and the Isthmus of Panama, and remained 
there one year engaged in prospecting and 
mining. Having much natural mechanical 
skill, he combined farming with carpenter 
work, and with his father and a brother, he 
built a mill on the present site of the Puritan 
mill, in Northampton Township, which they 
operated together for many years. He re- 
mained actively interested in agricultural pur- 
suits up to the clo.-e of his long and useful 
life. • 

His wife, Emily, was a daughter of Jacob 
Bonasteel, also an old settler in this vicinity. 
She died in April, 1860, on the home farm 
in Northampton Township. There were two 
children born to Henry W. Prior and wife, 
of whom Emory A. is the only survivor, the 
elder in order of birth having died in infancy. 

Emory A. Prior was aft'orded the best edu- 
cational advantages to be obtained in his na- 
tive locality, and he is inclined to think that 
in some ways the youth of his day, when they 
had the personal attention of their teachers, 
enjoyed better opportunities for individual 
advancement than is sometimes the lot of stu- 
dents under the present graded system. He 
attended the Cuyahoga High School, "and 
came under the personal attention of Almeda 
Booth, who was a noted teacher and philan- 
thropist at that time. In 1874 he was gradu- 
ated at Buchtel College, completing the scien- 
tific course and securing his B. S. degree, and 
later, after completing a post graduate course, 
received the degree of M. S. In 1877, after 
a course in the Harvard Law School, Mr. Prior 
was graduated there and secured his LL. B. 
degree, shortly afterward coming to Cuyahoga 
Falls. He took the necessary examination,^ 
in the Old District Court at Cleveland, Ohio. 



and was admitted to the bar in the following 

After this prolonged season of close study, 
Mr. Prior decided to settle on a farm in North- 
ampton Township, and was engaged in farm- 
ing and dairying thereon up to 1890. He then 
opened an office in Akron, where he practiced 
law until 1895, when he located permanently 
at Cuyahoga Falls, entering,into a partnership 
with Charles H. Howland. This association 
lasted five years, during which time the firm 
had its share in the business of importance 
that came before the Sunnnit County courts. 

In the fall of 1902 Mr. Prior became secre- 
tary of the Falls Savings and Loan Associa- 
tion. In August, 1904, the Cuyahoga Falls 
Savings Bank was organized by the following 
capitalists who comprised its board of direct- 
ors: Emory A. Prior, C. M. Walsh, L. W. 
Loomis, Henry Thomas, W. R. Lodge, Ed- 
win Seedhouse and William A. Searle. This 
bank was organizexi to take up the business 
in this vicinity of the Akron Savings Bank, 
which had failed. Mr. Prior has been identi- 
fied with this institution as secretary and as a 
director eiver since, and since June, 1906, he 
has been a member of its financial committee. 
He is concerned in other business enterprises 
and was one of the organizers of the Walsh 
Paper Company, of which he is a stockholder, 
and in which he has been secretary since its 

On March 25, 1882, Mr. Prior was married 
to Abbie F. Allen, who is a daughter of Al- 
bert Allen, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and 
they have three children, namely : Henry 
William, Margaret H. and Ruth Wharton. 
The family belong to the Episcopal Church. 
In political sentiment, Mr. Prior is actively 
identified with the Republican party. He was 
elected village solicitor during his years of 
active practice and was re-elected, serving 
two terms. Otherwise, he has accepted no 
political office. He is a member of Star 
Lodge. No. 187. F. & A. M., Cuyahoga Falls, 

representative citizen of Springfield Town- 

ship, is a member of the Summit County bar, 
and is successfully engaged in the practice of 
his profession. He was born in Summit 
County, Ohio, September 23, 1862, and is a 
son of Johnston B. and Martha (Martin) 

The maternal ancestors of Mr. Kreighbaam 
were people of importance, several generations 
back, in Pennsylvania. Thomas Martin, the 
great-grandfather, was born in Ireland and 
married Kate Kennedy, a native of England. 
The maiden name of the grandmother of Mr. 
Kreighbaum was Way, and she was the first 
white child born in Suffield Township, Port- 
age County. Andrew Martin, the grandfath- 
er, was born in Pennsylvania, and wa.s nine 
years old when he accompanied his parents 
to Portage County. Andrew and Rebecca 
Mnrtin had the following children : Rebecca, 
residing in Summit County, who is the widow 
of Johnston Roser; Martha, the mother of Mr. 
Kreighbaum ; Elmira, residing in Stark 
County, who married John Grotz; Matilda, 
who married Benjamin W. Bi.xler, residing at 
Springfield Center; and David W., deceased, 
who is survived by his widow who formerly 
•was Rebecca Henderson. The grandparents 
died on the farm on which they settled after 

Johnston B. Kreighbaum was born in 
Green Township, Summit County, Ohio, No- 
vember IS. 1826. and was married January 
29, 1851, to Martha Martin, who was born 
July 16, 1831. Of their eight children, there 
are three survivors" — Andrew J., McClelland 
and Ida Ella. McClelland Kreighbaum was 
born September 23, 1864 and is engaged in 
agricultural pursuits in Summit County, own- 
ing a good farm. He married Minerva Press- 
ler, who is a daughter of William and Lu- 
cinda Pressler, and they have three children. 
Ida Ella Kreighbaum married Charles Mc- 
Calgan. of Stow Township, who died at Mun- 
roe Falls, leaving three children : Ru.ssell, 
Claude and Maud, the two latter being twins. 
Prior to entering the army for service in 
the Civil War, .Johnston B. Kreighbaum was 
engaged in farming and in operating a hotel 
at Green'iburs. Ohio. On Mav 2, 1864. he 



was enrolled at Cleveland as a member of 
Company H, lO^ith Regiment, Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry. He wa^ honorably discharged 
August 27, 1864. Although his sendee cov- 
ered but ninety days, the hardships encoun- 
tered during this period were the cause of his 
death, he having ruptured a blood vessel. For 
the fidelity and efficiency of his service he 
received the thanks of the President of the 
United States and the Governor of Ohio. He 
belonged to that portion of the army that 
operated effectively against Richmond and 

Andrew Jackson Kreighbaum attended the 
local schools through boyhood and prepared 
for the profession he had chosen by taking 
a couree in the Cincinnati Law School, where 
be spent the years of 1890 and 1891. After 
his admission to the bar he engaged in prac- 
tice at Akron, retaining his residence in 
Springfield Township. He married Ella 
Phillips, a daughter of Benjamin Franklin 
and Christiana Phillips, the latter of whom 
is deceased. Mr. Phillips resides at Akron. 
Mr. and Mrs. Kreighbaum have four children, 
namely: McKee, aged fourteen years; 
Martha, aged ten years ; Maud, aged seven 
years; and Claud, aged three years. Mr. 
Kreighbamu is in a position to give his chil- 
dren many advantages, both educational and 

While Mr. Kreighbaum has been actively 
identified with the Democratic party .since his 
maturity, he has never been a seeker for po- 
litical offiqes or honors, but has been a willing 
wf)rker for his friends. He is a member of 
the order of Maccabees, belonging to Union 
Tent at Uniontown. Stark County. With his 
family he belongs to the Reformed Church of 
Springfield Town.ship. 

CHARLES AMMERMAN. attorney-at-law. 
Barberton, where he has been established since 
1893. is one of the leading citizens of this 
village. Mr. Ammerman was born near Mil- 
ler.sburg. Holme.s County, Ohio, May 4, 1863, 
and is a son of Abraham and Sarah (Korns) 
Ammerman. He was reared on his father's 
farm in Holmes County, and obtained his pri- 

mary education in the district schools. Later 
he attended the Millersburg High School and 
then began to teach. He remained six years 
in the local educational field, and then he 
taught three years at Benton, Ohio, during 
the interims completing his education at the 
Ohio Normal L'niversity, at Ada. He read law 
with Judge Maxwell and Hon. George W. 
Sharp, at Millersburg, and subsequently at- 
tended the law school at the Ohio State Uni- 
versity at Columbus, being admitted to the 
Ohio bar, December 7, 1893. He immediate- 
ly located at Barberton, where he has since en- 
gaged in practice. He was elected village 
solicitor for two terms and was then appointed 
to the same office by the village council, and 
served on this occasion for a year and a half. 
He is recognized as an able lawyer and ha-? 
been chosen on numerous occasions to man- 
age important cases of litigation. 

On June 10, 1891, Mr. Ammerman was 
married 'to Kate Thompson, and they have 
three children — Harold, Helen, and Charles, 
Jr. Mr. Ammerman's fraternal connections 
' include the Knights of Pythias, the Odd Fel- 
lows, the Elks, and the Independent Order of 
American Mechanics. 

STEPHEN C. MILLER, attorney-at-law, 
at Barberton. with offices in the American Na- 
tional Bank Building, on the corner of Fourth 
Street and Tu.scarawas Avenue, enjoys a large 
and lucrative general practice, which extends 
all over Summit County. Mr. Miller was born 
at Hudson. New York, March 1, 1863, and is 
a son of Abraham and Ann H. (Miller) Mil- 

Abraham Miller, also a lawyer, practiced 
has profession for some years in New York, 
and died at Palmyra, in that state, in 1871, 
at the age of thirty-three. His wife Ann still 

In 1876 the subject of this sketch came to 
Akron, Ohio, to make his home with his un- 
cle. Dr. S. H. Ooburn, with whom he remained 
until 1881, in the meantime attending the 
common and High Schools of this city. He 
commenced his law reading in the office of 
Edgerton & Kohlcr, at Akron, and completed 



his legal studies in Florida, to which state he 
went in 1881. He was admitted to the Flor- 
ida bar in 1890, and practiced at Tallahassee 
until 1895. He then returned to Akron, 
where he practiced law until 1901, and then 
located permanently at Barberton. Here he 
has taken part in a large portion of the im- 
portant business before the various courts, and 
has demonstrated his ability on many occa- 
sions. Mr. Miller was married dn Florida to 
Minnie Beazley, who was reared at Monticello, 
Jefferson County, Florida, and who is a daugh- 
ter of Judge William Beazley, of that place. 
They have two children, Susie and Isbell, the 
latter being named for Charles Isbell, of 

HON. GEORGE W. SIEBER, formerly 
state senator, serving in the Se